HISTORY OF PAMPANGA PARISHES AND TOWNS (1571-1956) by Dr. Rodrigo M. Sicat


Author’s Note to the Readers: This article is only limited to the towns’ and parishes’ erection periods from 1572 until 1956. Text reference was Qing Tula da ding Capampangan (ADMCMLV). Originally written in Kapampangan, the author translated them in English for universal appreciation. As much as possible, the author preserved the sacredness of the source material except when circumstances required. Acknowledgement is greatly extended to numerous Kapampangan Facebook groups, blogs and web sites whose documents and pictures were used herein.


Pampanga Parish Churches (1956)




Pampanga has historically been one of the most powerful mitochondria of the Philippines in nation building. As an influential powerhouse in commerce, trade, entrepreneurship, politics, culture and religion, it has produced countless Filipinos whose names made echoes and imprimatur in Philippine society.

The novelty of the Kapampangans lies in their Kapampangan-ness: intelligent, iconic, forthright, gallant, genteel, cheerful, creative, ethnocentric, spiritual, sagacious, pious, candid, intrepid, fearless, bold, dominant…

Towering and soaring, they bouyantly pride themselves as majestic as their emblem – Mount Arayat. Flexible and resilient, they sturdily raise their ardour even in the foray of catastrophe. Merrily, they talk with sensibility and sensitivity. Intrepidly, they are found and stationed everywhere in the country and the globe. Boisterously, they are socially accurate and prudently precise and trustworthy. Culturally, they piously treasure and nurture the affluent heritage bestowed upon them by God Almighty.

In the deepest recesses of their soul, they pledge with fidelity their anthem of love of holiness to their motherland:


Himno ning Kapampangan

Kapampangan misapwak

King legwan na ning alaya

Gabun ding pantas at marangal

Sibul ning lugud, karinan ning tepangan

Batis ning katalaruan at panamdam makabalen

Ligaya mi ing mie payapa

King malugud mung kandungan

Kapampangan, sale ning legwan

Kapampangan, sandalan ning katimawan

Kilub ning pusu mi atin kang dambana

Luid ka! Luid ka!

Palsintan ming Kapampangan





Little History of Pampanga

The name Pampanga was derived from pangpang (riverbank). Geographically, its expansive bay area was thickly forested with vibrant and lush mangroves and estuaries. It teemed with rainforest flora and fauna which enormously thrived along the coastal towns and villages of the province.



It was aboriginally inhabited by Aytas, hence, the first known pangpangans.


Strategically, its waterways were highly navigable for ancient commerce and trade that attracted enterprises and inter-marriages among their neighboring Austronesians.


Quoting Ferdinand Blumentritt and Dr. Otley Beyer, Felix B. Punzalan (1956) noted that the early descendants of the Kapampangans came from the Sumatran region of Atjeh (also Aceh, Acheh) in Indonesia via the Borneo (Malayan) Peninsula. Thus, some linguistic similarities are lexically evident between the Sumatran and Kapampangan languages.

Rice and gold was chiefly the stuffs engaged by the neighboring countries. Thus, ancient Austronesian trading, amalgamation and cultural intermarriages were apparent among the native settlers and traders.

When Prince Balagtas (Tagalog-Kapampangan mestizo), sovereign ruler of the Madjapahit Empire (1350-1400), came to establish his territory in Luzon, Balagtas had learned that the Kapampangan Dominion was huge and expansive. It stretched from Cagayan until the surrounding places of Manila. In the Last Will and Testament of Malang Balagtas (descendant of Prince Balagtas), it was pointed that the Kapampangan Dominion is vast and extensive. It commences in Manila and reaches the region of Ilocos. It also included half portions of Bataan, Tarlac, portions of Bulacan, Pangasinan and Zambales.


Outside Manila, Pampanga was the first province to be established by the Spaniards led by Captain Martin de Goiti when he subdued its inhabitants on September 14, 1571.

Its territory extended from Cagayan until Bulacan (Calumpit and Hagonoy) including the towns of Puncan, Pantabangan, and Caranglan in Nueva Ecija.


Because of its prosperity, Chinese merchants bartered their silk, earthen wares, porcelains and other provisions that dated back during the Sung (960 – 1279 AD) and Ming (1368–1644) dynasties.


When the Spaniards arrived along the criss-crossing riverbanks of Baba (Lubao) on September 14, 1571, Christianity was immediately introduced by Captain Martin de Goiti and Fr. Juan Gallegos. As a sign of amity, the Spanish missionaries provided the pangpangans three religious items that included the Cross, Rosary and Image of the Blessed Virgin Mary. It is traditionally believed that the Crucifix of the holy image of Apo Sto Cristo Lubao, now enshrined at the Holy Cross Parish Church, was the same Cross given by the Agustinian missionaries to the pangpangans received by Datu Macabulos and Council of Elders. The Image’s carbon dating results evidently proved the authenticity of the Cross which is now on the process of being considered by the National Museum as one of the country’s national treasures.


The Kapampangans of the Kingdom were immensely affluent 8 and had already advanced civilization. The early natives were led by a powerful chieftain named Datu Macabulos (meaning, freedom/freeman). The chieftain and his family were the earliest baptized Christians, who later, left the place and fled towards the edge of Porac in Talak (now Tarlac). He was replaced by Agustin Cubacub, a native of Porac, who was largely instrumental in assisting the Augustinians in propagating the Catholic faith in Pampanga’s towns, its nearby territories, and in other islands of the country.

The new era of Christianity started the creation of towns and churches in the province. From a hybrid Mohammedan-pagano religion, Catholicism flowered and blossomed into the soul of the Kapampangans. As the first missionary center in Central and Northern Luzon, the huge Kapampangan Empire (Labuad Kapampangan) was later subdivided into autonomous provinces.

Today, Pampanga’s present size is even smaller than those that were incepted from her. Powerful as its history, it still remains as the regional powerhouse of Central Luzon and its prominence surges mightily in national and cultural pride. Like their ancestors, its people politically stride towards the best of their idealism and utopianism.




History of San Fernando

It was the chief of the Spanish army, Captain Fernando who subdued this settlement against the resisting Filipino warriors. Known for his amiable character, the Spanish leader was well-loved by the residents who readily received baptism from the Agustinian missionaries. Hence, they willingly submitted and recognized the sovereignty of the ruler of Spain – King Ferdinand III.


In homage to the king, they named the town in his honor, King Fernando III, who later became a saint.

Initially, the municipal government was held in 1754 by the first Spanish missionaries in a chapel (visitas) in barrio Dolores. When the “Capitana de San Fernando” was established on August 31, 1775, the civil administration was moved to its present site.

Upon the request of Governor Macario Arnedo, San Fernando became the capital of the Province on August 15, 1904. Since its transfer, San Fernando became a developed and progressive town. Soon, it was a trading hub of business and commerce. The Pampanga Sugar Development Corporation (PASUDECO) was built and began its operation on March 10, 1921.


Prior to its transfer, the seat of the provincial government was located in Bacolor. Since then, San Fernando’s economy tremendously grew and prospered.




Although the town’s public market was frequently razed by fire, it was one of the largest community markets in the country. Similarly, it became the seat of Manila-based commercial and industrial establishments. Concrete roads were made and huge houses made of strong materials dotted throughout the town.

In 1956, its population was 44,077; public schools were 21; number of school children was 9, 600; annual income was approximately P400, 000.00. The municipal mayor was Miguel Baluyut.


Parish of Virgen de los Remedios (Baliti, San Fernando)

During the earlier times, Baliti, Saguin, and Pulong Bulo were unified barrios headed by Basilio Henson. In 1908, Baliti became an autonomous barrio. Barrio captain Francisco Panlilio chose Virgen de los Remedios as the barrio’s patroness. The Lady was initially enthroned in a dilapidated structure called bantayan. In 1918, its first chapel was erected that finally became the church’s permanent site.

On December 3, 1943, the church became a parish. Its first parish priest was Mons. Francisco Cancio. Through the generosity of the Yusuico family and the unceasing efforts of the devoted parishioners of the parish, the lovely and concrete church was completed. Father Generoso Pallasigui took charge in the construction of the church and its convent. Father Manuel Baula also exerted efforts to beautify the interior of the church by installing ornaments in it.


Cathedral of the Assumption

The first church was made of light materials mostly thatched nipa, bamboos and other indigenous wood. The first parish priest was Father Vidal Arrozal. On April 6, 1918, Monsignor Prudencio David was assigned to administer the church. The church was burned twice; the second was on February 9, 1939. Mons. Prudencio David began the construction of the present church.




The church of San Fernando became a Cathedral when it was converted as diocese on December 11, 1948. The first bishop was Mons. Cesar Ma. Guerrero, D.D. who was installed as the Cathedral’s head on September 8, 1949.

Mons. Bartolome Zabala was assigned parish priest of the church in September 1952. He continued the unfinished works of his late predecessor and worked for the painting of the exterior parts of the church.


Parish of San Vicente Ferrer (Calulut, San Fernando)

The parish was built in 1914 with 8 barrios and 2 hamlets under its jurisdiction. Its first parish priest was Mons. Pedro Santos, the Archbishop of Naga, which at the same was his first parish assignment. He designed and constructed the parish church.



Because of the distances of the barrios under its jurisdiction, the parish priest found it difficult to thoroughly administer the evangelization needs of the parishioners; hence, Mons. Miguel O’Doherty divided the parish into two: Baliti Parish in San Fernando and Anao Parish in Mexico.

The parish priest improved the church, fenced it, organized the church yard, and constructed the Grotto of Lourdes at the church’s garden.




History of Mabalacat

It is from a balacat (Ziziphuz talanai) tree where Mabalacat derived its name. This plant species commonly thrived in the area during those times and even today. Mabalacat was part of Bamban during the earlier days.


Together with Malayo-Polynesian Kapampangans, the place was founded by its earliest settlers – the balugas or Aytas. The first founder of the community was named Carangan. He was known as the pioneering chieftain of the place and was pure Ayta.

The town was originally under the jurisdiction of Bamban. When the province of Tarlac was created as a province in 1873, Bamban was incorporated as town of the newly established province. On the other hand, Mabalacat was reverted as a town of Pampanga. When the Commandancia Militar was established, Mabalacat became part of the military command that was established by the Spanish authorities. Other towns that were included in the commandancia were Porac, Floridablanca, Magalang, Tarlac, and others. After the military period, Mabalacat was finally rejoined to the province of Pampanga. Mabalacat has expansive land area that included some parcels inside the Clark Air Field.


Parish of Virgen de Gracia (Mabalacat)

The town and parish were erected in 1768. The earliest settlers of the town were baluga (Aytas). It derived its name from an indigenous tree balakat due to their abundant growth in the area during those times.



According to traditions, the Aytas’ chieftain Garagan originally owned the image of the Virgen de Gracia and the church’s bells, which were given to him by moros (pagans). Later, he gave them to a friend named P.C. Mallari, who then bequeathed the Virgin’s image and bells to the church because of his strong friendship with the church’s priest. Thus, the Image became the central devotion of the residents. Its feast day is celebrated every February 2. Its first priest was Rev. Fr. Jose Valera.

In 1956, its population was 27,128; public schools were 5; number of school children was 4, 214. Its mayor was Armando P. Quioc.


Parish of Our Lady of Victory (Dau, Mabalacat)

In March 1953, upon the request of the parish priest of Mabalacat, Fr. Fernando Franco was designated to lead in the construction of a chapel in San Isidro in barrio Dau. The chapel became the parish church of Our Lady of Victory that was erected in 1955.


Through the assistance of the Dau Catholic Circle, the church and its convent were completed. Rev. Fr. Franco, the first parish priest of the church, took the initiative in constructing the church. To be able to realize its construction, he spearheaded the organization of various religious associations and confraternities to solicit funds for the church’s completion. These organizations included Adoracion Nocturna, Legion of Mary, Campun ning Virgen ning Lourdes, and Confradia nang San Antonio. He also worked for the establishment of the parish’s Catholic cemetery.




History of Angeles

Culiat was the first name of the town. Its etymology was derived from hard vines (wake) that enormously thrived and dangled throughout jungle trees in this thickly forested area during those times. Don Angel Pantaleon y Miranda, a military captain, started the establishment of the town.


From 1796 to December 7, 1829, Culiat was a barrio of San Fernando. Before it became a town in 1829, religious celebrations were already held since May 12, 1812. On December 17, 1928, the geographical boundaries between San Fernando and Angeles were established.



In honor of the founder (Don Angel) of the town, it was named in his homage “Angeles.” Similarly, it was so named in reverence to their patron saint “Los Santos Angeles Custudios” (Ding Angeles a Talaingat da). Since then, the titles became synonymous to the town of Angeles.

In 1956, its population was 40, 772; public schools were 10; number of school children was 7, 911; and annual income was estimated at P300, 000.00. Its municipal mayor was Manuel Abad Santos.


Parish of Sto. Rosario (Angeles)

Angeles is an estate (hacienda) in 1814 which was established as a parish in 1829. The first chaplain of the estate was Rev. Fr. Pedro David. Don Angel Pantaleon de Miranda and Dona Rosalia de Jesus took charge for the erection and construction of the church.




In 1877, the construction of the present church began and was completed in 1891. The installation of the bell towers were completed in 1896. In 1898, the administration of the church was transferred the Filipino priests, and the first administrator was Fr. Baltazar Gomorra. Msgr. Cosme Bituin led in the construction of the present convent.


Parish of Virgen ning Lourdes (Lourdes, Angeles)




The parish was established under the administration and supervision of the parish priest of Angeles and vicar general, Mons. Cosme Bituin. The construction was ably done through the enthusiastic assistance of its parishioners led by the Catholic Women’s League.

In July 1953, the construction of the church started but eventually stopped due to lack of funds. In December 1953, the convent was completed.

On January 6, 1954, its first parish priest, Msgr. Serafin Ocampo was installed. During the same period, the Knights of Columbus and Daughters of Isabela – Angeles Chapters were established. The religious organization immensely contributed for the continuation of the church’s construction until its completion.


Parish of Sto. Cristo (Sapang Bato, Angeles)

Due to the immense desire of the Holy Church to propagate the Christian faith in far flung places, the Archbishop decided to build the Parish of Sto. Cristo in Sapang Bato in 1936. The first parish priest was Father Jose Dayrit who initiated the building of the church. The church was razed in 1941 as a result of World War II.



After the war, Father Eustacio Cortez was assigned as the 2nd parish priest. He rebuilt the church through the cooperation of its parishioners. Father Monico Pineda made improvements to beautify the church and supervised the construction of the convent.




History of Magalang

Magalang connotes courtesy, respectfulness, politeness to the elderly. It is believed that the early people of the place were prominently ma-galang or respectful; hence, they called the place Magalang. If someone happened to meet and talk with a discourteous person, elders would speak of the old adage “Balamu ata eca pa mecapangan pale Magalang” (Seemingly, you have yet to eat rice raised in Magalang). The wisdom is aimed to remind the person of his disrespectful or brusque manners towards the elders.


The original site of the town was located in barrio San Bartolome, which at present time is a barrio of Concepcion, Tarlac.

During the Malong Uprising in Pangasinan, Malong sent Melchor de Vera with 6,000 warriors to encourage the Capampangans to join them in their revolt against the Spaniards. It was in Magalang where he and his men encamped and furiously fought with the warriors of Magalang against the Spaniards. However, the Malong uprising did not last long; thus, de Vera and his men left Magalang and returned to Pangasinan.

In 1956, its population was 39,034; public schools were 28; number of school children was 6, 888; annual income was approximately P43, 000.00. Its municipal mayor was Orencio Gueco.


Parish of San Bartolome (Magalang)

According to the historical documents of Cadaba and Marin, Jesuits, Magalang already existed in 1605 as a community. It was originally a part of the village of Macapsa (Concepcion, Tarlac) and already bore the name Magalang. It was named magalang because of the reputable politeness of its people. It was traditionally believed that the Agustinian missionaries founded the town and parish.

The town was divided into two sites due to a powerful flood that occurred in the place (Macapsa) in 1660 which displaced the people. Residents who evacuated towards the northeast established their abode in Concepcion, Tarlac. Those who proceeded towards the southeast resided in Magalang. There was no existing record or date that testified for the second building of the church. However, according to Fray Pedro Murillo Velarde, Magalang already existed in 1734 as part of barrio San Bartolome.


The first celebration of the holy mass and baptism in San Bartolome were held on May 15, 1765. Since then, the church administration was done by Filipino priests who relieved the Agustian missionaries from their ecclesiastical functions in the province. Fr. Horacio Kabiling started the huge work for the construction of the church. Upon its completion, the parish priest decorated the interior of the church with elaborate embellishments. Known for its elaborate decorations, the church became popular in the province, courtesy of the support of its parish priest and parishioners.




History of Porac

The etymology of Porac was derived from the plant purak (alias pandan lalaki) that commonly thrived in the area. They were tremendously found everywhere especially along mountains, hills, seashores, and riverbanks. The founders of the place belonged to the Dumandan clans who descended from King Soliman. According to Don Severino de los Reyes, there were four early settlers who first came in the place and established it as a village. These clans were the Quiamdan, Lundan and Manacuil, and a colleague of Dumandan.



Parish of San Ignacio (Manibaug, Porac)


Manibaug was established as a parish on February 11, 1943. Its establishment was made possible upon the request of the De Jesus family. Its first parish priest was Mns. Pedro Punu. He initiated the construction of the church and immensely propagated the Christian Catholic faith to the parishioners. He was succeeded by Father Felipe Manalang who introduced the nightly recitation of holy rosary. It was Fr. Pedro Jaime who initiated the building of the church’s convent through the assistance of Galicano Enriquez.


Originally settled in a barren area, it was moved to a more suitable location where people sustainably found abundant food and stuff; hence, the present site of the church. Until 1816, priests from Culiat supervised the administration of the church’s services.

According to archeological findings, the place was a prosperous abode where Chinese came to trade with the natives during those times. Dr. Otley Beyer excavated Chinese wares, porcelains and other stuffs at Hacienda Romana that were believed to have existed during the 3rd century (siglo tres). The findings implied that the Chinese came much earlier than the arrival of the Spaniards in the area.

In 1956, its population was 10, 340; public schools were 15; number of school children was 3, 434; annual income was approximately P52, 000.00. The municipal mayor was Higinio Gopez.


Parish of Sta. Catalina (Porac)

The Agustinian missionaries arrived in this rustic place called Purac, which is few away from its major river. The missionaries requested from the settlers (Aytas) that they will be allowed to construct a chapel for the celebration of the Eucharist. Thereafter, the Agustinian missionaries alternately came to the village to celebrate the Holy Mass. The first priest of the mission was Father Pedro David.


The family Dumandan, now Lumanlan, and other village chiefs helped in the spread of the Christian faith. The town heads originally thought of transferring the church to a new site but never happened due to a mysterious event that took place in the area.


In 1887, the church rose into its loftiness through the initiative of Father Fernando Martinez. Father Daniel Castrillo also took initiatives to construct the church into a much more beautiful house of worship, and had the convent completed in 1938. Father Santiago Blanco worked for the completion of the church and established the St. Catherine Academy.




History of Apalit

The name of the town was derived from a huge, boisterous and hard wood called apalit. Apalit or narra (Pterocarpus indicus) trees enormously grow throughout the area especially along the banks of Pampanga River. A solitary and gigantic apalit tree that awesomely stood along the riverbank whimsically attracted residents, passers-by, and banca and wharf riders as they travelled along the river. Due to its prominence, the place adopted the name of the tree.


According to the Last Will and Testament of Malang Balagtas, the settlements of Sulipan and Capalangan were established by Malansic, descendant of King Soliman together with his cousins, Pampalong and Tawi.

The town’s original founder was Juan Capitangan, wife of Princess Bayinda. Its 2nd founder was Agustin Mangaya during the 16th century. The third generation founders included the families of the Samonte, Canda, Catu, Cortes, Vergara, and Yangga.

Panday Pira who was the pioneering Filipino cannon maker was from Apalit. The town is noted for its blacksmith industry, bolo making, pottery and earthen cooking material making, and puto seco making. It is also known for its expertise in the art of cooking.

In 1956, its population was 15, 467; number of public school was 14; number of school children was 3, 711. Its municipal mayor was Alfonso Lugue.


Parish of San Pedro (Apalit)

Apalit was established by the Spaniards in 1582. It was named Apalit because of the presence of a huge apalit tree (narra) that exuberantly stood in the place.


After the creation of the Spanish civil government, the Agustinian missionaries started the construction of the church. In 1590, a church was already utilized to celebrate the holy mass. It was destroyed by a powerful earthquake in 1833. It was rebuilt by Mariano Santos of Guagua in 1876 with its parish priest, Rev. Fr. Antonio Redondo. After 5 years, the church was completed.

It was here where the diocesan seminary, Mater Boni Consilii, was established by the bishop. The convent was also built during this time. Mons. Bartolome Zabala, parish priest, also built the new convent near the church.


Parish of Divina Pastora (Balucuc, Apalit)

Because of the desire of Archbishop Miguel O’Doherty to evangelize the far flung areas in Apalit, he established this parish before the eruption of World War II. Father Teofilo Limlingan was appointed as the first parish priest of the church. The church was destroyed due to the havoc of war.


When the parish was reopened, a priest was assigned in the person of Fr. Florencio Lumanlan on April 12, 1956. He started reconstructing the church and the convent. He organized confraternities and other religious organizations to help him in the construction of the church. Fr. Florencio Tumang also became the parish priest of the parish.




History of Macabebe

The town was named Macabebe because it is geographically situated along the shores or banks of Rio Grande de Pampanga. Some called it Macabibi because the river was abundantly grown with corals and shells during the early times.

Traditionally, the early inhabitants of the place were known to be the early Kapampangans because they were the first to revolt against the Spaniards headed by the descendants of King Soliman. The King of Macabebe and Hagonoy met and fought against Martin de Goiti when he entered to conquer Luzon in 1571. It was not only in Pampanga and Manila that they fought against the Spaniards but also in Visayas, Ilocos and Mindanao.


Because of their innate nature as military warriors, they joined the Philippine Scouts during the American regime. Today, they received pensions from the American government. As enterprising people, they trade clothes, mats, holy images and the likes in almost all corners of the country.

In 1956, its population was 18, 673; number of public schools was 17; number of school children was 5, 633; annual income was approximately P50, 000.00. Its municipal mayor was Domingo B. Flores.


Parish of San Nicolas de Tolentino (Macabebe)

The town was so named because it is geographically located along the shores (baybay/bebe) of the Rio Grande de Pampanga during those times. The town and church were built in 1609. The first parish priest was Father Sebastian Molina and was assisted by Father Montoya. It was one of the biggest churches in the province because its length measured 70 meters and 17 meters wide. However, the church was razed by the revolutionaries in 1899.


No records showed the date of its transfer when the Filipino priests took over its administration and supervision. After several years, the town’s people persevered in reconstructing the church. Fathers Generoso Pallasigui and Eulalio Yabut made improvements for the old convent of the church.


Parish of San Rafael Archangel (Baliti, Macabebe)


The parish was established and separated from Macabebe in 1941. The first parish priest of the church was Father Hermogenes Coronel. In 1947, Father Jose Narciso and Mons. Serafin Ocampo became interns of the church. In 1948, Father Conrado Gosioco was appointed parish priest and stayed for 7 years.

On April 29, 1955, Father Felipe Roque was assigned priest of the parish. Later, Rev. Fr. Pedro Capati was also assigned to take charge of the church.




History of Masantol

Masantol means plentiful santol (Sandoricum koetjape). This was how it derived its name although there’s scarcity of the trees in the area.


Until 1876, Masantol was a barrio of Macabebe. At that time, it included the following sitios: Bebe, Nigui Caingin and Bulacus. As people increased, more sitios or village sites rose; hence, its income increased. Because of this, it became independent from Macabebe on March 20, 1889.

Passionately, the people of the place loved sinigang that was popularly cooked with santol. The fruits were sold by enterprising vendors from Guagua, Macabebe, Lubao, etc. As soon as the vendors arrived in the town, female residents briskly and excitedly inquire from the vendors: marakal santol? The vendors quickly reply: wa, masantol! Thus, the town derived its name – Masantol.


The town had also been popularly known for its American pensioners who served the United States of America Military Army during WW II. Noted for their entrepreneurship, they sell clothes, holy images, plates and the like. As intrepid and enterprising vendors, they’re found everywhere in the country.

In 1956, its population was 19,470; number of public schools was 15; number of school children was 4,479; approximate annual income was P45,000.00. Its municipal mayor was Carpio Calara.


Parish of San Miguel de Arcangel (Masantol)

The parish of Masantol was erected in 1901 through the desire and initiative of Manila Archbishop Mons. Bernardino Nozaleda. The first parish priest was Father Jose C. Mariano.



In 1932, the church’s parish priest Mons. Bartolome Zabala completed the construction of the church. He embellished it with decorations and ornaments.

The Cruzada de Caridad under the care of Virgen de los Remedios began in the parish on April 15, 1952. In remembrance of this, the statue of the Virgen de los Remedios was built at the churchyard by its priests and parishioners.


Parish of Santo Rosario (Bulakos, Masantol)

According to the traditions of the early people of the place, Bulakos was an expansive river. It was called bulakos because of Cirilo, a valiant and war-like warrior who punished his enemies by breaking or cutting off their tibia (bulakos).



In 1949, the church was converted into a parish through the initiative of Dona Teresa B. de Lacsamana. It had 8 barrios under its jurisdiction.

The first parish priest was Rev. Fr. Pedro Jaime who started building the church and convent. He was followed by Re. Fr. Vicente Navarro who continued the work that were done by his predecessor. The land was donated by Don Carpio Calma. Fr. Marcelino De Leon also became parish priest of the church.




History of Minalin

Minalin came from the word minalis (transferred). During the construction of the church, the wood materials that were supposed to be used in building the church were kept in barrio Santa Maria, Macabebe. However, the construction materials were swept away by strong torrents when a powerful flood struck the place. As a result, the materials were plowed by the flood and were later found in a place named Burol. Burol (hill) was more elevated and less prone to flooding. Because the wood materials were swept here, the residents thought of transferring the church here instead of building it in Santa Maria. The residents of Santa Maria protested, yet, the clamor of the people of Burol was sustained by the church authorities. The authorities of the church ruled in favor of the request of the people of Burol because they found it not only difficult for these people to come to Santa Maria to attend holy masses and other church activities due to its distance, but also of their large population. Their population was large enough to build the church in the area. The church was permanently transferred to its present site, hence, minalis or minalin.


In 1951, Minalin was annexed to the municipal government of San Fernando. However, it became an autonomous town after several years.

Like its mother town – Macabebe – many of its people were also engaged in selling and vending various stuffs such as clothes, holy images and the like. Because of their enterprising character, they are also found everywhere in the country. It is also noted for its egg production.

In 1956, its population was 10,430; number of public schools was 10; number of school children was 2, 447; estimated annual income was P38, 000.00. Its municipal mayor was Subas Pingol.


Parish of Sta. Monica (Minalin)


Minalin was formerly a barrio of Macabebe. It was created as an independent town in 1699 through the initiative of its barrio leaders. It was erected as a parish in 1764. Its first parish priest was Father Dr. Manuel Franco Tubil who took charge in the construction of the church and its convent. During the time of Father Eulalio Yabut, he supervised the construction of the church’s ceiling through the assistance of Mayor J.T. Macapinlac.


The last Agustinian priest who was assigned in the parish was Father Faustino Diez. The first Filipino priest was Father Macario Panlilio. Rev. Fr. Macario Bustos also became a priest of the parish.


Parish of Virgen de los Remedios (Sto. Domingo, Minalin)


The parish was created on April 12, 1956. Its areas of jurisdiction were taken from the parishes of Minalin, Sto. Tomas, Apalit, and San Simon. Its first parish priest was Rev. Fr. Elias Reyes.


Upon his assumption as parish priest of the church, he immediately persevered in transforming the small chapel into a bigger church. He organized various religious organizations such as the Accion Catolica, Apostolado ning Panalangin and other associations to assist him in his plans to build the church. Rev. Fr. Elias Reyes worked for the building of the Catholic Cemetery and construction of the convent.




History of San Simon

It was during the governorship of Governor General Simon de Anda y Salazar that the town was created as a town. The town was named in his honor and San Simon Apostol was chosen as the town’s patron saint.


The town’s first name was Del Pilar and its first patroness was Virgen del Pilar. It was also named after one of the town’s brilliant sons, Mariano de Pilar de los Reyes, who initiated for the adoption of the town’s new name – San Simon.

Because of the small income of San Simon, it was annexed to the town of San Luis. However, this did not take long and was immediately created as an independent town.

In order to expand the territorial jurisdiction of the town, the adjacent barrios of Santo Domingo and Lourdes were annexed into it. However, the town of Minalin protested against the annexation until the two barrios were finally reverted to it as they were politically and geographically under Minalin’s territory. On the part of Apalit’s land assertion in San Miguel de Mayumo, the entitlements were awarded to the town of San Simon as were deemed part of its jurisdiction.

Because of its small income, affluent citizens of the town took initiatives to donate amounts for the construction of school buildings, the church, and the municipal hall. These families included the following: Ibanez, Punsalan, Guevarra, Santos, Reyes, Angeles, Pangan, and others. The town had produced great number of professionals in the province. Most of the people engaged themselves in farming and weaving of palm hats and mats.


Parish of Nuestra Senora del Pilar (San Simon)

The town and the parish church were founded in 1770. The town was named after Spanish Governor General Simon de Anda y Salazar. The town’s name was recommended by Don Mariano de Pilar y de los Reyes.

In 1820, the church was constructed using strong and concrete materials. The church was razed by fire during WWII. After the war, a temporary church was built using thatched nipa and light materials.


When Father Macario Bustos was assigned parish priest of the church, he started the construction of a bigger and stronger church through the initiative of Mr. Catalino Ibanez and the town’s people. Father Esteban David led in putting up the statue of the Image of the Sacred Heart and the grotto of the Lady of Lourdes located at the church’s yard. Fr. Pablo Songco was also assigned parish priest of the church.




History of Sto. Tomas

The name Sto. Tomas was derived from the patron saint of the town, Santo Tomas Apostol. The town had already an organized government when the Spaniards arrived in the place. It was one of the earliest towns established by the Spaniards in the province.


Because of the town’s small income, 5 of its barrios were annexed to the town of San Fernando in 1903. Due to the insistent request of the town’s people, it was reverted again as a town through Presidential Executive Order on October 12, 1951.

Its barrios included Santo Tomas, San Bartolome, San Vicente, San Matias and Santo Rosario (Pau). The municipal building was originally located in barrio San Vicente. However, due to the request of the residents of barrio San Matias, the administration of the municipal government was transferred there; whereby, the municipal officials and officers were sworn into office on January 11, 1952.

Again, the residents of barrio Santo Tomas persistently petitioned for the transfer of the municipal government. According to them, their place was historically the original site of the municipality. It is for the reason that the town’s central government stood in this barrio today.


Parish of Sto. Tomas – Apostol (Sto. Tomas)



The parish was one of the earliest churches erected by the Agustinian missionaries. In 1777, the church and its convent were reconstructed into much bigger structures. However, these were razed by fire in 1898. After the revolution, the Augustinians started reconstructing the church and its convent by asking donations from generous citizens and neighboring towns. After 20 years, the construction of the projects was completed. Rev. Fr. Diosdado Guese became a parish priest of the church.




History of Sta. Ana

It was named in honor of Santa Ana, the blessed mother of Virgin Mary. It was originally called Pinpin who first founded the place. Pinpin descended from Malansic. He claimed sovereignty and jurisdiction over lands in San Luis but was never realized because his territorial claims were completely rejected by authorities. In Kapampangan, pinpin means neatly piled or well-arranged. The place must have been a thickly forested land where wood was plentifully harvested during those times.



In 1956, its population was 11, 282; number of public schools was 7; number of school children was 2.223; annual income was approximately P37, 000.00. Its municipal mayor was Agapito Gaddi.


Parish of Sta. Ana (Sta. Ana)

The town was erected in 1760. The first parish priest was an Agustinian missionary named Father Alonzo Forrero. The church was constructed through the efforts of Primer Prior Padre Lorenzo Guevarra, OSA.


All Filipino priests who were assigned in the church greatly contributed for its development starting with Mons. Prudencio David. The church’s fences and convent were done by Father Felixberto Lozano. Father Osmundo Calilung worked for the construction of the church’s altar. Msgr. Francisco Cancio also served as parish priest of the church.




History of Arayat


Arayat came from the word alaya. “Bunduc Alaya” means Bunduc ning Aslagan. Its first name was dayat (farm) that came from dayatan (enormous farmland). Prior to the arrival of the Spaniards, it was called Balayan ning Pambuit. The town was originally located inside the forested area of Mt. Arayat populated by Aytas who were generally pagans.

The pioneering settlers of the town included Jose Carlos Garcia, Macapagal, Simbulan, Suba, Lapira and Maria Vina.


Mount Arayat is also called Mt. Sinukuan who was believed as the care taker of the mountain and its lush forest. Suku was mythologically known to reside at the midst of the two-pronged sides of the mountain with her three daughter princesses who were said to be embellished with fine gold and jewels. Any stranger who desecrated the area and displeased the princesses and Suku will be cursed; thus, unable to return home again, turn into a stone, etc.

Juan Macapagal, king of the place, who never joined the Pampanga Revolt in 1660 led by Francisco Maniago persuaded the revolutionaries to halt the uprising. Because of his persuasion, the revolt failed.


Parish of Santa Catalina, V y M (Arayat)




The parish church was established in 1590. The pioneering Agustinian missionaries were Fathers Contreras, Bedoya, Ortiz and Osorio. One of the most famous Capampangan writers, P. Jose Torres, visited the place, and was believed to build the “bano” located beneath Mt. Arayat. He wrote “Pamigunam-gunam” (Reflections) and homily books (6 Volumes) that were used by the Agustinians in their evangelization.

The church was also renovated and improved by Fathers Jose Torres and Juan Terrero. Father Felipe Manalang also served as parish priest of the church.




History of Candaba

Candaba was derived from candawe or candave. These names points to the appellation of barrio Mandawe, which today is Mandasig. The Spaniards called it Candawe or Candave, and ultimately, Candaba.


The town is extremely depressed as it is frequently flooded by the Pampanga River. The well-known Candaba Swamp is located in this town. It is the sanctuary of migratory birds. It is the hometown of the finest watermelons and melons that are sold in Manila and elsewhere in the country. The Candaba Swamp hosts the best tasting catfish, mudfish, shrimps, tilapia and the like. It is also known for its tagilo (rice and fish ferement) Candaba.


Along the banks of the Candaba Swamp dwelt numerous Chinese merchants during those times. Eventually, they intermarried with the natives and began trading here and the nearby towns of San Miguel de Mayumo and Baliwag.

Myth tells that a giant and powerful tikbalang ploughed the lands of the Candaba and mounted it in Arayat.

In 1956, its population was 18, 669; number of public schools was 17; number of school children was 3, 817; estimated annual income was P40, 000.00. Its municipal mayor was Godofredo Gatus.


Parish of San Andres (Candaba)



The parish was built in 1575. It was originally called Canduay; others called it Candawe. No one can attest why the town was called Candaba. The church was temporarily built in 1593 and the first parish priest was Father Manrique, who was four times prior of the convent of the San Agustin Church in Manila. Fr. Felipe Guevarra started the construction of the stone church. In 1875, the pennant of the church’s belfry was stroke by lightning that brought it to collapse. In 1890, the tower was repaired through the efforts of Father Bravo. Father Ibeas led in the construction of the church’s dome.


According to accounts, God’s righteousness to his priests against those who persecute them was evidently reported in the town’s history. A certain person who slapped the face of a priest was believed to have been cursed because of his cruelty. His unkindness withered his hand that never healed until his death.

In 1897, the administration of the church was transferred to the Filipino clergies, and Father Eulogio Ocampo was its first local parish priest. Rev. Father Jose Bondoc was also parish priest of the church.




History of Mexico

Masicu was the original name of the town. It was derived from maca-sicu. Its elbow-shape boundary is surrounded by the towns of San Fernando, San Luis and Santa Ana. It is also situated along the towns of Angeles, Arayat, Mabalacat, and Magalang. For facility in pronunciation, the Spaniards called it Mexico later.

As most of the large tracts of lands were owned by rich landowners here, organized groups supported the plight of the tenants’ rights vis-à-vis land emancipation. Soon, farmers’ organizations such as the “Anac Pawas” were born among the town’s barrios and neighboring towns. The socialist movement and other peasant organizations were also organized here that survived for a long period of time. General Hizon, one of the prominent Filipino heroes was born here.



In 1956, its population was 4,517; number of public schools was 27; number of school children was 19, 470; annual income was approximately P50, 000.00. Its municipal mayor was Marcos Padilla.


Parish of Santa Monica (Mexico)




The parish was was built in 1581. The first Agustinian missionaries were Fathers Quevado, Heredero, Montoya, Peralta, Montes de Oca, Zabala, Gutierrez, and Bendoya. The first concrete church was built in 1665, and was improved by Father Jose dela Cruz. The church was destroyed by a powerful earthquake in 1880. It was the intense desire of Fr. Esteban Ibeas to build a much bigger church but was never realized because he was afflicted with illness. Fr. Ibeas built the temporary church that is presently used by the parishioners. He was succeeded by Fr. Juan Torero who intended to continue the unfinished works of Fr. Ibeas if not for the uprising that occurred against the Spaniards.

In 1922, Rev. Fr. Felipe Roque built the facade of the church. During the period of Father Quirino Canilao, the construction of the big church started. Father Melencio Garcia continued the construction began by his predecessor.


Parish of Virgen Mediatrix (Anao, Mexico)



The decree to transfer the parish of San Jose in Anao, Mexico was realized on June 29, 1955. Not only because of its remoteness from the town but was also the center of various activities among adjacent barrios, Bishop Cesar Ma. Guerrero, together with his consultants deemed to establish the parish in Anao.

Anao derived its name from the anao (Livistona rotundifolia) plant that prominently grew in the place during that time. Because of its lofty height, it was seen everywhere by the residents and passers-by. Its patron saint is San Miguel Archangel. The parish’s first parish priest was Father Bienvenido Macalindol. Rev, Fr. Alfonso Ducut worked hard for the construction of the new church through the help of the parishioners.




History of San Luis


When Pinpin (Santa Ana) intended to annex some of hamlets and barrios of the town, the towns’ people requested the assistance of a lawyer in the settlement of the dispute. The lawyer’s wife was named Dona Luisa. Because the town won over the territorial dispute, the people named the place in honor of the lawyer’s wife, and made San Luis as the patron saint of the town.

The underground insurgent named Felipe Salvador made the thickly forested areas of San Luis as his asylum. Here, he lengthily stayed and won his victories against his enemies. It was in the wild forest of Anias of this town where he was captured.


It is also the birthplace of Taruc and Calma who prominently figured in the leadership of the Huk Movement.

In 1956, its population was 9, 882; number of public schools was 11; number of school children was 2, 408; estimated annual income was P38, 000.00. The town mayor was Samson Panlilio.


Parish of San Luis (San Luis)


The town’s original name was Cabagsac that means abode of fruit bats. The name San Luis was given in honor of Dona Luisa, the wife of the gallant lawyer who fought for the retention of the town’s sovereign land rights over the claims of the town of Pinpin (Santa Ana).


The parish was erected in 1775. The first Agustinian missionary was Father Nicolas de Orduno. The seed of the Christian faith planted by the missionaries was profusely cultivated by the succeeding priests that were assigned in the parish. The parish church was built through the painstaking efforts of the parishioners led by Don Tomas Manankil.


In this town was born the famous “President Rural Movement.” The project Katubusan that was organized in barrio Santa Monica became the model and training center with regard President Magsaysay’s dream to uplift the plight of the marginalized Filipinos in the countryside throughout the archipelago.




History of Bacolor

Baculud derived its name from macabaculud, macapadurut, matas a gabun, macapadurut mababang gabun. Its opposite is mababa or Baba, Lubao.

The founder of Baculud was a brave woman named Monmon, the wife of Magmanoc, brother of Malansic, descendant of King Soliman.


There was also a belief that Bacolor was founded by Don Guillermo Manabat in 1576. Hence, the church was built right at the spot of his tomb, and in his homage was chosen San Guillermo Ermitano as the town’s patron saint.

Bacolor is the hometown of wise men and countless government officials. Many government leaders of the country and province hailed from Bacolor.

When the American civil government was established, the Taft Commission met here. It was also in this town where Emilio Aguinaldo stayed before proceeding in Northern Luzon, and made it as the country’s capital.

When the civilian government was organized in the province, Bacolor became its capital on August 15, 1904.

In 1956, its population was 25, 588; number of public schools was 12; number of school children was 4, 355; its estimated annual income was P50,000. 00. The municipal mayor was Adriano Puno.


Parish of San Guillermo (Bacolor)


Villa de Bacolor was the named given to the town during those times. It was so named because it was here where General Anda y Salazar established his military command. Bacolor derived its named from gabun matas at patag (elevated and even land). The founder of the town was Guillermo Manabat in 1576, and its patron saint is San Guillermo Ermitano.

Its first parish priest was Father Ochoa. Its church was one of the finest churches in Pampanga. The church’s ornaments and decorations were provided by Fathers Manuel Diaz, E. Alvarez, and Antonio Bravo.


As the Lady of Lourdes in Cabetican is highly revered by enormous devotees, the bishop organized the Peregrinacion every Saturday in 1950. The devotion was held for five years until it was transferred at the sanctuary of Lourdes, Angeles.

Fathers Andres Bituin and Jose Guiao also became priests of the parish.


Parish of Maria Auxilladora (Potrero, Bacolor)


The parish was built on March 27, 1955. Rev. Guido Aliwalas was the first parish priest. He transformed the small chapel into a bigger church and built the convent too. He also improved the Catholic cemetery of the parish which in the past was under the jurisdiction of the parish of Bacolor.

Under the parish’s jurisdiction included the following barrios: San Antonio, Dolores, Concepcion, Maliaualu, Potrero, San Basilio, and sitios Balas and Duat. Because the barrios were too distant from the parishes of Bacolor and Santa Rita, the Bishop created the parish to facilitate the propagation of the faith.




History of Floridablanca


Floridablanca was formerly a hamlet of Lubao. Its original settlement was located in San Jose de Caumpauit. Its parish was erected on April 30, 1867.

The Conde de Floridablanca came to visit the place before its creation as a town. In his honor, the town was name after him.

From its original site in barrio Caumpauit, it was transferred to its present site in barrio Manggang Punglud where the town proper is now located.

Together with Tarlac and other Pampanga towns, the town was also placed under the Commandante Militar (military command) established by the Spaniards to pacify the natives during trhose times.


Parish of San Jose (Floridabalanca)

The parish was erected in June 1865. It was then popularly called Capella because it was the center of all the church’s activities of barrio Compania-Hacienda San Jose. Father Jose Hernandez, an Agustinian, was assigned in parish priest until April 1883.


Fr. Luciano Morros constructed the church in 1890 just before a powerful typhoon that stripped off the roof of the church in 1882. Father Jose Rodriguez built the huge convent of the church but was destroyed by a powerful typhoon in 1938.


From 1893 until 1904, the administration of the church was entrusted to the Filipino priests that included Fathers Higino Pabalan, Pablo Gamboa and Juan Almario. Father Elifio Aparicio constructed the huge foundations of the present church that were destroyed during the war. The repair of the church and convent was immediately made through the efforts of its parish priest and parishioners. At this time, the St. Augustine Academy was also established.


Rev. Fathers Mariano Espinosa, OSA and Lucinio Valles, OSA were also parish priest of the church.


Parish of Nuestra Senora del Carmen (Floridablanca)

Established in 1939, it was originally called the Parish of Lambac. At that time, there was no Catholic church in Lambac, hence, its first parish priest, Father Pablo Songco, built it in barrio Ebus, Guagua. After the World War in 1945, Fr. Gregorio Torres was assigned priest of the parish. The parish church was transferred in barrio Pulungmasle, Guagua probably due to its proximity to Del Carmen.


On March 1, 1954, Rev. Father Gregorio Torres was assigned priest of the parish. Two months after his stay in the parish, upon the permission of the parish priest of Guagua and Floridablanca, it was decided that the Parish of Lambac be transferred in Del Carmen. It was moved on May 29, 1954.

After his 2 years of stay in the parish, through the efforts of the people of the parish, he was able to build the present church and was named Nuestra Senora Del Carmen.




History of Guagua

UAUA or WAWA was the original name of the town. The word means asbuc ilug. The Spaniards coined the name Guagua. Wawa (saliva) ning ilug or asbuc ning ilug was used to describe the location of the town. Located along Pampanga River, it has rivers with wide doorways (asbuc) that are topologically and characteristically wet with salty waters).


During those days, various water transportations such as large bancas, cascos, and ships docked in the town’s harbor that carried commercial goods from Manila. As a trading center, it was the hometown of Chinese traders and entrepreneurs.

Geographically situated along riverbanks and wetlands, it has numerous fishponds that produced varieties of fish and shells. Its market is one of the largest in the country.


Cardinal Rufino Santos, Senator Gil Puyat, Aurelio Tolentino, and Jess Lapid Sr. came from this town.

In 1956, its population was 38, 097; number of public schools was 12; number of school children was 6, 345; its annual income was estimated at P310, 000. 00. Its municipal mayor was Isidro Ocampo.


Parish of Immaculada Concepcion (Guagua)



The parish was erected in 1590. Its first parish priest was Father Quevado, and was succeeded by Fathers Gutierrez, Serrano, Contreras and Valderrama. Father Jose Duque started the construction of the church, and the embellishments were done by Fathers A. Bravo and Paulino Fernandez. The most noted musical organ in Pampanga was located here and was donated by Dona Carmen Macan.

Mons. Pedro Puno repaired the tattered belfry and constructed the new convent. The huge convent was made into the Diocesan College Seminary “Mater Boni Consilii” in 1950, and was transferred in Apalit in 1952.

Rev. Fathers Jose de la Cruz and Benjamin Henson also became priests of the parish church.


Parish of Nuestra Senora de la Consolacion (San Isidro, Guagua)

The parish was erected on April 14, 1956. Rev. Fr. Julian Roque was the first parish priest of the church. The chapel that was built as the parish church was built in 1711. However, the chapel was destroyed and was consecutively reconstructed in 1919, 1946, and 1954.


The people who took charge in its reconstruction included the following: Dona Marcela Manalang, Don Leoncio Bacani, Don Paulino Morales, Don Gregorio Morales, Don Hermenegildo Tanquilut, and Don Timoteo de Mesa. The following residents supervised the construction of the new church: Engr. Teodoro Bacani, Mr. Aniano Morales, Dr. Gil Tanquilut, Mr. Mariano Nicdao, Engr. Modesto Dizon, Mr. Melchor Bacani, Archs. Jose Morales and Ricardo Bacani. Those who assisted the parish priest in the church’s building were Don Macario Bacani, Dona Exequiela Vda. de Mesa and Don Eulalio Tanquilut.


Parish of Santiago Apostol (Betis)

Betis was once a prosperous settlement before it was created as a town in 1575. It was formerly a part of Lubao and was annexed to Guagua in 1904.


The administration and evangelization was done by the Agustinian missionaries of Lubao led by Fr. Fernmando Pinto since 1594. It was Fray Jose de la Cruz who persevered in the building of the church in 1660 through the efforts of its parishioners headed by Santiago David Tindo. The church’s belfry was built 10 years later. In 1857, Fr. Antonio Bravo repaired the church’s boveda (arch/vault) and supervised its painting. Betis got its name from betis (Madhuca betis) plant that proliferated in the place during those days.


Fr. Santiago Blanco (1939-49) oversaw the aesthetic and fascinating painting of the church’s interior. Similarly, he took charged on the church’s exterior painting. He also managed the construction of the “Our Lady of Fatima” in front of the convent.

Rev. Fathers Fidel Dabu and Felipe Diaz also became priests of the parish.

Similarly, he established the parish’s cemetery that was donated by Mr. Galicano Enriquez.




History of Lubao


The name Lubao was derived from the indigenous word “lubo” which means low. “Lubo” is characteristically muddy and flooded; later, the term evolved into “lubao,” which is the town’s present name. The Austronesian word is associated with the low or depressed elevation of the town. Hence, Lubao is synonymous to its ancient name Baba.


Lubao was a prosperous kingdom with an organized system of government and with strong military fortifications when the Spaniards led by maestro de campo Martin de Goiti, together with Lt. Antonio Carvajal, selected Spanish soldiers and Augustinian friars, set foot to conquer Lubao on September 14, 1571 (Feast Day of the Triumph of the Cross). The Spaniards aptly chose the date because of its guiding providence and holiness. The town was then headed by Datu Macabulus, the last known Kapampangan king and first Kapampangan to receive Christian baptism from the Spanish missionaries. He received the holy Crucifix of Christ from the missionaries which is now permanently sheltered in the Holy Cross Parish in Santa Cruz.

Aptly called as the Cradle of the Kapampangan Civilization, Lubao is the hometown of Diosdado P. Macapagal, movie stars Rogelio and Jaime dela Rosa, and movie director Gregorio Fernandez, and others.


In 1956, its population was 29, 034; number of public schools was 28; number of school children was 6, 888; approximate annual income was P45, 000. 00. Its municipal mayor was Dominador Danan.


Parish of San Agustin (Lubao)

Immediately after the arrival of the Spanish militia and Augustinian missionaries on September 14, 1571 in the area, missionary efforts were already made by the friars. Soon after the baptism of Datu Macabulos and his family, and council of elders, Christian evangelization commenced.

Soon, the pioneering missionaries built the first chapel along the lakeshores (paroba) of the village of Gato (now barangay Santa Catalina). Using local materials, the church was made of light structures of indigenous wood, bamboos and thatched nipa by Fray Juan Gallegos with the help of Maestro de Campo Martin de Goiti.

On May 3, 1572, few months after its construction, it was officially accepted by the Archbishopric of Manila as a visita of Tondo. This acceptance officially marks the foundation date of the church. During the same year (1572), the church of Betis was annexed to Lubao.


On December 18, 1572, Agustin Cubacub and wife Mulao and four children received Christian baptism in this church from the Agustinian missionaries through Martin de Goiti and Captain Lorenzo Chacon.

On March 5, 1575, Father provincial Alfonso Alvarado was deputized to take care of the convent of the church and Father Juan Gallegos was named resident priest. In 1580, a school of Latin and Humanities was established for the inhabitants and missionaries from Spain and Mexico. In 1591, Lubao, together with Betis, had four convents and 20,000 souls or Christian converts.

On May 12, 1596, the Estudio de Gramatica (School of Grammar and Rhetoric) was transferred from Candaba to Lubao with the school’s superior Fr. Alonso de Mentrida as professor of Grammar. The school provided positive influences on the moral and cultural life of the people of Lubao that made them one of the earliest educated in the islands.

In 1599, the convent of Lubao contributed 100 pesos and 50 bushels of rice and 100 chickens for the construction of the San Agustin monastery and infirmary in Manila. As an Augustinian missionary center, its Book of Baptisms was often signed on the same day by several priests administering the sacraments.


Thirty years later (1602), due to the continuous floods that swept Santa Catalina, the church was transferred to its present site in San Nicolas 1st. Fr. Mateo Peralta, who was the church’s parish priest in 1602, must have started constructing the church with the same light materials that were used in erecting the first church in Santa Catalina.

Later, the nearby river that served as the landing area of the friars and missionaries was called “Sapang Pari.”

In 1613, Fr. Francisco Coronel started the construction of the present church building with stronger materials.

In 1614, the first Augustinian printing press in the country, which was bought by the Augustinians from Japan, was established in the convent of Lubao. The first book ever printed in the printing press was “Vida del Glorioso San Nicolas de Tolentino” (The Life of Saint Nichols) by Pr. Phelipe Tallada. Other books printed included the “Arte y Reglas de la Lengua Pampanga” by Fr. F. Coronel in 1617, “Relacion de el Martyrio de el S.F. Hernando de S. Josef en Japon y del Santo Nicolas melo en Mofcovia…” by Fr. H. Becerra in 1618, “Catechismo y Doctrina Christiana en la Lengua Pampanga” by Fr. F. Coronel in 1621 and others. In 1635, Fr. Jeronimo de Venasque continued the construction of the building.

In 1638, Fr. Francisco Figueroa led in the completion of the church. The structure of the church was Fr. Architect Antonio de Herrera, who also constructed the Church of San Agustin in Manila.

In 1645, the Church’s building must have been slightly damaged during the earthquake since the convent was then relieved from paying rent, an indication that there may have been construction going on.

In 1710, the prior of the church was exempted from paying the rent for the second time, later in 1717, due to the convent’s extreme poverty, and again in 1722. Due to the poor condition of the church, the Chapter of October 31, 1729 appropriated 500 pesos from the provincial funds for the construction of the convent of Lubao. Aside from this, all the income of the chaplaincies of the convent was allotted for this purpose all through the duration of the construction. Fr. Vicente Ibarra was the prior at that time.

In 1762, when Manila was occupied by the British, the students of Arts and Theology of the Estudio de Manila were transferred to the convent of Lubao for the continuation of their studies conducted under the supervision of Fr. Diego Noguerol. During this time, one author described the San Agustin Church of Lubao as “one of the most sumptuous in the islands.” Apart from being finely constructed with bricks, it had large proportions that resulted in a comfortable dwelling. It is the largest church in Pampanga.

From 1773-1791, the administration of the church was transferred to clerigos or secular priests. Fr. Martin Victoria was the first secular priest and Fr. Juan Zita was the last. In the inventory made in 1774, Lubao owned 2 large crosses of the Christ Jesus and another 2 smaller ones.

In 1791, after 18 years of secular administration, Lubao Church was returned to the missionary of the Order of San Agustin. Upon its transfer, Fr. Josef de Vetonio was assigned the parish priest in 1791.


A document dated 1829 disclosed that the church of Lubao was constructed by its people with massive masonry stones and bricks. It was constructed using indigenous materials including stones, egg white, lime, mollasses and heavy quality timbers such as Acli (Albizzia acle Merr.), Anibiung (artocarpus cumingiana Trec.), Bulaun (vitex parviflora Juss.), Apalait or narra (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.), Tindalo (Pahudia rhomboidea Prain.), Saplungan or yakal (Hopea plagata Vid.) and others.

In 1877, Fr. Antonio Bravo did some repair works. In 1893, Fr. Antonio Moradillo worked on the bells and interior decoration of the church. The murals depicting scenes from the life of Saint Augustine were also done during this period. Fr. Moradillo also built the chapel of the Lubao Catholic Cemetery in San Nicolas.

In 1898, the buildings were occupied by the revolutionary forces of General Emilio Aguinaldo. In 1945 and in 1962, they buildings of the church were damaged by the war and strong typhoons. The dome, transept and roof collapsed during the heavy shelling during the Japanese occupation. The sunken panels and other liturgical ornamentations painted by Dibella and Alberoni were lost. The main retablo escaped the damage.

In 1949-1952, it was repaired under the direction of Fr. Melencio Garcia. The rest of the church was restored in 1954.


Parish of San Rafael (Baruya, Lubao)



The parish was established and separated from Lubao parish on August 17, 1941. The first parish priest was Rev. Fr. Arsenio Yusi. The church was in poor in condition when he came to the parish, thus, began the improvement of the church’s structure through the cooperation of its parishioners. They solicited donations and contributions from neighboring parishes until the completion of the church.

For few months, Rev. Fr. Anastacio Silvestre was also assigned in the parish. He was succeeded by Mons. Serafin Ocampo. Rev. Fr. Emigdio Twano was also assigned priest of the parish.


Parish of Mal a Santa Cruz (Sta. Cruz, Lubao)




The parish was separated from the San Agustin Church of Lubao on May 21, 1951. The parish was initially administered by Father Melencio Garcia. Its first parish priest was Rev. Father Wilfrido Baltazar.

Upon assumption of the parish, he continued the construction of the church that was started by the parishioners. The lot occupied by the church and the convent were donated by Dona Camila Bamba and Dona Juana Uyguangco. The lot where the cemetery stood was donated by Dona Cristina Paule. The construction of the convent was initiated by Fr. Baltazar through the cooperative efforts of its parishioners.




History of Santa Rita



The town’s name was taken from the patroness of the town “Santa Rita de Casia.” It was originally called “Santa Rita de Lele” and “Santa Rita Baculud” because of its nearness to the town of Bacolor.


The seed of the Catholic faith was planted very early in the area that is why, the town produced numerous priests. Similarly, wealthy families immensely contributed for the church’s construction and supported various projects of the Holy Church.

In 1956, it population was 13, 541; number of public schools was 7; number of school children was 2, 691; approximate annual income of the town was P40, 000.00. Its municipal mayor was German Galang.


Parish of Sta. Rita de Casia (Sta. Rita)




The town and parish was separated from Porac in 1770 through the initiative of the Agustinian priest Father Eustaquio Polina. Father Francisco Rayo built the present church in 1839. It was further improved by Father Juan Merino.

The last Augustinian priest of the church was Father Celestino Garcia. The first Filipino priest was Father Braulio Pineda. He was succeeded by Fathers Nicanor Banzali, Tomas Dimacali, Pablo Camilo, and Genaro Sazon.

The people of the town are one of the most religious parishioners of the province. While the church was not too large, thousands come to celebrate the Holy Eucharist during the feast day of a confraternity. Numerous priests hailed from this parish.




History of Sasmuan


SASMOAN / SASMUAN was the etymology of the town’s name. It came from sasmo or samu. Also from abnuan and lastly, tabnuan (meeting/converging place).

The village was the meeting place or converging area of the various people of the town before they waged assaults against Chinese pirates that frequently abused them.

The Spaniards could hardly pronounced Sasmuan; hence, conveniently spoken it as Sexmoan.

During American war, two warships bombed and destroyed the town. One warship stationed itself in the town, and the other proceeded to assault Lubao and Guagua. After the war, the people of Sexmoan started rebuilding their houses. Due to the limited land area of the town, the houses were built narrowly compressed and mostly made of thatched nipa huts. Most of its lands were converted into fishponds (palaisdan).


In 1956, its population was 12, 330; number of public schools was 6; number of school children was 2, 059; estimated annual income was P35, 000. 00. Its municipal mayor was Luis Garcia.


Parish of Santa Lucia, V y M. (Sexmoan)

Sexmoan became a town in 1909. The first municipal mayor of the town was Don Faustino Mallari. However, the Augustinian missionaries created it as a parish church in 1590. Its first parish priest was Father Jose Borruel. Its original church and convent was swept by a powerful flood that struck the area. The Augustinian priests led by Father Zanjul and Illa rebuilt the church with great perseverance. First to be reconstructed was the church, then the convent in 1880.


According to the accounts of Blessed Pedro de Zuniga, the church was converted into a parish in 1615. Zuniga was assigned in Japan, and was martyred on August 19, 1622.

The administration of the church was transferred to the Filipino priests on April 23, 1955. What was left by the Agustinian priests was resumed by their Filipino counterparts. Rev. Fr. Diosdado Victorio became parish priest of the church.


It is famously known for its kuraldal dance. The kuraldal culminates the procession of Saint Lucy, the patroness of the town. The dance begins before the holy image of the patroness is taken inside the church. It is a dance of gaiety, petition, and devotion.




After 1956, the number of churches and parishes in the province enormously increased. The torch of the Christian faith has been more enflamed with fire and ember. Thus, faithfully fertilized the holy ground of the province turning it fruitful in greater. The richness of the Catholic faith is found in the following vicariates and parishes: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Catholic_Archdiocese_of_San_Fernando)



Vicariate of St. John Marie Vianney

Metropolitan Cathedral– San Fernando City, Pampanga
San Guillermo Parish– Bacolor,Pampanga
Sto. Niño Parish– Sto. Niño,San Fernado City,Pampanga
Sta. Lucia Parish– Sta Lucia,San Fernando City,Pampanga
San Isidro Labrador Parish– San Isidro,Bacolor,Pampanga
Sanctuario de San Jose Parish– San Jose, San Fernando, Pampanga (Arsoisprado de Pampanga)
Archdiocesan Shrine of Our Lady of Lourdes– Cabetican, Bacolor, Pampanga


Vicariate of the Holy Redeemer

Nuestra Señora dela Marced Parish– Bahay Pare, Candaba, Pampanga
San Luis Gonzaga Parish– San Luis, Pampanga
St. Michael the Archangel Parish– Anao, Mexico, Pampanga
Sta. Monica Parish– Mexico, Pampanga
Sto. Domingo Parish– Sto. Domingo, Mexico, Pampanga
The Lord’s Annunciation Parish– San Vicento, Mexico, Pampanga
Virgen Del Lourdes Parish– Talang, Candaba, Pampanga


Vicariate of the Mary Help of Christians

Most Holy Name of Jesus Parish– San Roque Bitas,Arayat, Pampanga
San Agustin Parish– San Agustin, Sta. Ana, Parish
San Andres Apostol Parish– Candaba, Pampanga
San Isidro Labrador Parish– Camba, Arayat, Pampanga
Lord’s Baptism Parish– Pasig, Candaba, Pampanga
Señor Salvador Parish– Salapungan, Candaba, Pampanga
Sta. Ana Parish– Sta Ana, Pampanga
Sta. Catalina de Alexandria Parish– Arayat, Pampanga


Vicariate of the Sacred Heart

Holy Rosary Parish (Auxiliary Bishop’s Parish)– Angeles City, Pampanga
Lord’s Transfiguration Parish– L & S Subd., Angeles City, Pampanga
Our Lady of Lourdes Parish– Lourdes Sur-East,Angeles City, Pampanga
Christ the King Parish– Pulung, Cacutud, Pampanga
Jesus the Eternal Word Parish– Anonas, Angeles City,Pampanga
Holy Spirit Parish– 254 Astoria St. Marisol Subd., Angeles City, Pampanga
San Ignacio de Loyola Parish– Manibaug, Porac, Pampanga
Sta. Catalina de Alexandria Parish– Porac, Pampanga
Sta. Teresita Parish– Sta. Teresita,Angeles City, Pampanga
Jesus Light of the Nation Parish– Model Community, Porac,Pampanga
Holy Cross Parish– Sapang Bato,Angeles City, Pampanga


Vicariate of St. John the Beloved

Good Shepherd Parish– Pandacaqui, Mexico, Pampanga
Holy Eucharist Parish– San Miguel, Magalang, Pampanga
Christ the Devine Healer Parish– Sta. Lucia, Magalang, Pampanga
Lord’s Epiphany Parish-San Francisco, Magalang, Pampanga
San Bartolome Parish– Magalang, Pampanga
San Ildefonso Parish– Balitucan, Magalang, Pampanga
Sto. Rosario Parish– Tinabang, Magalang, Pampanga


Vicariate of St. Joseph

Immaculate Conception Parish– Guagua, Pampanga
Sta. Rita Parish– Sta. Rita, Pampanga
Santiago Apostol Parish– Betis, Guagua, Pampanga
Sta. Lucia Parish– Sasmuan, Pampanga
Sto. Rosario Parish– Malusac, Sasmuan, Pampanga
Virgen De Los Remedios Parish– Dila-Dila, Sta. Rita, Pampanga


Vicariate of the Blessed Trinity

St. Peter Parish– Apalit, Pampanga
San Miguel Arkanghel Parish– Masantol, Pampanga
The Lord’s Presentation Parish– Batasan, Macabebe, Pampanga
Christ the Eternal High Priest Parish– Sulipan, Apalit, Pampanga
Nuestra Señora dela Divina Pastora Parish– Apalit, Pampanga
San Agustin Parish– Caingin, Masantol, Pampanga
Sto. Rosario Parish– Bulacus, Masantol, Pampanga
Holy Family Parish– Colgante, Apalit, Pampanga
San Nicholas De Tolentino Parish– Macabebe, Pampanga


Vicariate of the Holy Spirit

Our Lady of Grace Parish– Mabalacat City, Pampanga
Our Lady of Victory Parish– Dau, Mabalacat City, Pampanga
Parish of the Lord’s Resurrection– Madapdap, Mabalacat City, Pampanga
Christ, Prince of Peace Parish– Mauaque, Mabalacat City, Pampanga
San Rafael Parish– Mabiga, Mabalacat City, Pampanga
San Lorenzo Ruiz Parish– Duquit, Dau,Mabalacat City, Pampanga
Immaculate Conception Parish– Balibago, Angeles City, Pampanga
Our Lady of Fatima Parish– Hensonville, Angeles City, Pampanga


Vicariate of the Holy Family

St. Joseph the Worker Parish– Poblacion, Floridablanca, Pampanga
Sacred Heart Parish– Palmayo, Floridablanca, Pampanga
Nestra Señora Del Carmen Parish– Del Carmen, Guagua, Pampanga
San Roque Parish– Dau,Lubao, Pampanga
Jesus the Lamb of God– Pulungmasle, Guagua, Pampanga
Mother of Perpetual Help Parish– Gutad, Floridablanca, Pampanga
Divine Mercy Parish- San Jose, Floridablanca, Pampanga


Vicariate of Virgen De Los Remedios

The Lord’s Ascencion Parish– Lourdes Heights Subd.,San Fernando City,Pampanga
Virgen De Los Remedios Parish– Baliti,San Fernando City, Pampanga
San Vicente Ferrer Parish– Calulut, San Fernado City, Pampanga
Our Lady of Sorrows Parish– Dolores,San Fernando City, Pampanga
Sacred Heart Parish– Telabastagan, San Fernando City, Pampanga
St. Jude Parish– St. Jude Village, San Fernando City, Pampanga
Blessed Trinity Parish– Pilar Village, San Fernando City, Pampanga
Good Shepherd Parish– Bulaon, San Fernando City, Pampanga
San Agustin Parish– San Agustin, San Fernando City,Pampanga
Sto. Cristo Del Perdon Parish– Villa Julita, San Fernando City,Pampanga
San Jose Parish– San Jose Malino, Mexico, Pampanga


Vicariate of Christ the King

Sta. Monica Parish– Minalin,Pampanga
Nuestra Señora Del Pilar Parish– San Simon, Pampanga
Sto. Rosario Parish– Pau, Sto. Tomas, Pampanga
Virgen De Los Remedios Parish– Sto. Domingo, Minalin, Parish
San Matias Parish– San Matias, Sto. Tomas, Parish
Sto. Tomas Apostol Parish– Sto. Tomas, Pampanga


Vicariate of St. Agustin of Hippo

Conversion of St. Paul Parish– San Pablo 1st, Lubao, Pampanga
San Rafael Arkanghel Parish– Baruya, Lubao, Pampanga
San Antonio De Padua Parish– San Antonio, Lubao, Pampanga
Sta Cruz Parish– Sta. Cruz, Lubao, Pampanga
La Consolacion Parish– San Isidro, Guagua, Pampanga
San Agustin Parish– Plaza (San Nicolas 1st), Lubao, Pampanga



Parishes and cathedrals by year of establishment
• 1572 –  San Agustin Parish – Lubao
• 1575 – San Andres Apostol Parish – Candaba
• 1575 – San Nicolas de Tolentino Parish – Macabebe
• 1576 – San Guillermo Parish – Bacolor
• 1581 – Santa Monica Parish – Mexico
• 1590 – Immaculate Conception Parish – Guagua
• 1590 – Santa Catalina de Alexandria Parish- Arayat
• 1590 – Santa Lucia Parish – Sasmuan
• 1590 – San Pedro Apostol Parish – Apalit
• 1594 – Santa Catalina de Alexandria Parish – Porac
• 1607 – Santiago Apostol Parish Church – Betis, Guagua
• 1617 – Santa Monica Parish Church – Minalin
• 1726 -Santa Rita de Cascia Parish – Sta. Rita
• 1732 – San Bartolome Parish – Magalang
• 1740 – San Luis Parish – San Luis
• 1756 – Sta. Ana Parish – Sta. Ana
• 1771 – Virgen del Pilar Parish – San Simon
• 1830 – Holy Rosary Parish – Angeles City
• 1867 – San Jose Labrador Parish – Floridablanca
• 1880 – Our Lady of Grace Parish – Mabalacat
• 1893 – San Miguel Arkanghel Parish – Masantol
• 1914 – San Vicente Ferrer Parish – Calulut, City of San Fernando
• 1929 – Santo Tomas Apostol Parish – Sto. Tomas
• 1937 – Nuestra Señora dela Merced Parish – Bahay Pare, Candaba
• 1938 – Holy Cross Parish – Sapang Bato, Angeles City
• 1939 – Nuestra Señora del Carmen Parish – Guagua
• 1939 – San Raphael Arkanghel Parish – Baruya, Lubao
• 1940 – Divina Pastora Parish – Balucuc, Apalit
• 1941 – San Jose Parish – Malino, Mexico
• 1941 – San Rafael Parish – San Rafael, Macabebe
• 1943 – Virgen delos Remedios Parish – Baliti, City of San Fernando
• 1943 – San Ignacio de Loyola Parish – Manibaug, Porac
• 1950 – Santo Rosario Parish – Bulacus, Masantol
• 1951 – Santa Cruz Parish – Sta. Cruz, Lubao
• 1954 – Our Lady of Lourdes Parish – Lourdes Sur East, Angeles City
• 1955 – Our Lady of Victory Parish – Dau, Mabalacat
• 1955 – San Miguel Arkanghel – Anao, Mexico
• 1956 – La Consolacion Parish – San Isidro, Guagua
• 1956 – Virgen delos Remedios Parish – Sto. Domingo, Minalin
• 1957 – San Antonio de Padua Parish – Bacolor
• 1957 – San Agustin Parish – Caingin, Masantol
• 1962 – San Matias Parish – Sto. Tomas
• 1965 – Immaculate Conception Parish – Balibago, Angeles City
• 1965 – San Agustin Parish – San Fernando
• 1968 – Santo Niño Parish – City of San Fernando
• 1969 – Virgen Dolores Parish – City of San Fernando
• 1971 – Virgen delos Remedios Parish – Dila-dila, Sta. Rita
• 1971 – San Isidro Labrador Parish – Camba, Arayat
• 1979 – San Isidro Labrador Parish – Bacolor
• 1979 – Santo Domingo Parish – Mexico
• 1981 – Santa Lucia Parish – City of San Fernando
• 1981 – San Ildefonso Parish – Balitucan, Magalang
• 1981 – Santa Teresita Parish – Angeles City
• 1983 – Virgen de Lourdes Parish – Talang, Candaba
• 1984 – Señor Salvador – Salapungan, Candaba
• 1985 – Sanctuario de San Jose Parish – City of San Fernando
• 1986 – Santo Rosario Parish – Malusac, Sasmuan
• 1986 – Santo Rosario Parish – Magalang
• 1986 – Sacred Heart Parish – Telabastagan, City of San Fernando
• 1986 – San Antonio de Padua – Lubao
• 1986 – Sagrada Familia Parish – Colgante, Apalit
• 1987 – Perpetual Help Parish – Gutad, Floridablanca
• 1989 – San Jose Parish – Cabalantian, Bacolor
• 1990 – San Roque Parish – Dau, Lubao
• 1991 – Santo Rosario Parish – Pau, Sto. Tomas
• 1991 – Saint Jude Parish – St. Jude Village, City of San Fernando
• 1991 – San Lorenzo Ruiz Parish – Dau, Mabalacat
• 1992 – San Agustin Parish – Sta. Ana
• 1993 – Christ the King Parish – Cacutud, Angeles City
• 1993 – San Rafael Arkanghel – Mabiga, Mabalacat
• 1994 – Divine Mercy Parish – San Jose, Floridablanca
• 1995 – Good Shepherd Parish – Bulaon, City of San Fernando
• 1995 – Holy Spirit Parish – Marisol, Angeles City
• 1996 – The Lord’s Resurrection Parish – Dapdap, Mabalacat
• 1996 – The Lord’s Transfiguration Parish – L & S Subd., Angeles City
• 1996 – The Lord’s Presentation Parish – Batasan, Macabebe
• 1996 – The Lord’s Epiphany Parish – San Francisco, Magalang
• 1996 – Santo Cristo del Perdon Parish – Villa Julita, City of San Fernando
• 1996 – Holy Eucharist Parish – San Miguel, Magalang
• 1996 – The Lord’s Ascension Parish – Lourdes Heights Subd., City of San Fernando
• 1996 – The Lord’s Annunciation Parish – San Vicente, Mexico
• 1998 – Christ Light of all Nation Parish – Model Community, Porac
• 1998 – Christ Prince of Peace Parish- Mauaque-Camachiles, Mabalacat
• 1998 – Good Shepherd Parish – Pandacaqui, Mexico
• 2000 – Blessed Trinity Parish – Pilar Village, City of San Fernando
• 2001 – Christ the Divine Healer Parish – Sta. Lucia Resettlement, Magalang
• 2001 – Christ the Eternal High Priest – Sulipan, Apalit
• 2003 – Jesus the Lamb of God – Pulungmasle, Guagua
• 2003 – Sacred Heart of Jesus Parish – Palmayo, Floridablanca
• 2004 – Most Holy Name of Jesus Parish – Bitas, Arayat
• 2007 – Jesus the Eternal Word Parish – Anonas, Angeles City
• 2010 – Our Lady of Fatima Parish – Hensonville, Angeles City
• 2010 – Conversion of St. Paul Parish – San Pablo I, Lubao, Pampanga
• 2010 – New Sta. Lucia Parish – San Fernando, Pampanga




Luid ya ing Indung Kapampangan!

Luid ya ing Indung Kapampangan kapilan man!

Luid ka O Indu ming pakamalan kapilanman eraka paimburisan!

Luid ka O Indung Kapampangan ing legwan mu era aparisan ding ninuman!

Luid ka O balayan ming kaluguran at palsintan!


Read more…



Keti bangsang Pilipinas, alang lugal magpakasakit nung Kaleldwan liban mu karing Kapampangan. Atin man mekad mapilan dapot iti ali kasing sapsap wangis kapingas ding Kapampangan.
Bakit kaya? Bakit ila mu ing ating panugali o panata king anti kaniti? Kareting panatang mesabi, miyaliwa ing akit tamung pamagpakasakit ing akit karela: mamusan kurus o maglakad kilu-kilumetru maka-imalan Nazareno; mamusan kurus papalasan at ibabatbat karing sari sakit paldak at palupalu; gagapang kereng dalan malipugpug atnang kabatu; magsalibatbat alang patugut papaspasan gulut king dadayang sasayu; manambayuk dutung misna king kabayat nung nukarin bitis at gamat makatanikala la kaniti; mamusan kurus makayagpa king gulut da; magpatali o magpayatyat king makatalakad kurus o kaya, magpapaku pa at aliwa pa….
Bakit kaya menasang Kapampangan la mu detang gaganap ketang anti kaniti? Ala kang akit king anti kaniting panugali liban mu kareng Kapampangan. Nukarin man labwad Pilipinas, ding Kapampangan ila mu ing malugud gaganap kaniting makapagmulalang panugali. Ilokano la man o Pangasinense o Tagalog, ala lang apanugalian anti kaniti. Bicolano la man o Binisaya o Muslim la man, ala lang tradisyun kalupa niti.
Kapampangan la man Pampanga o Kapampangan la man Tarlac, o Kapampangan la man Bataan, Bulacan o Nujeva Ecija, bakit kaya, nung maleldo, ila mung magpakasakit karening panata anti kaniti.
Marayil iti yang pakibat kaniti. Uling ding Kapampangan ila ing menimunang mig-imagsik kareng Kastila king Kababan ketang October 1660, ing pamamalaspas king katawan (flagellation) ya ing timbas ding paring Agustinos antimong kapagsisyan keretang kasalangsangan gewa da laban kareng Kastilang mamuntukan. Migit malugud at mapamintu kareng pakisabi ding Agustinos, kaysa kareng utus ding mamuntukan alcalde’t gobernadorcillo, iting pamagpinitencia ya pin ing pemintuan da. Iti yang pemaligwan dang pamagsisi ketang pamaglaban o kasalanan da karing Kastila menalipusta karela.
Tanda ning kababan lub at ganaka ding Kapampangan karing pari da, at kanita, e na la mulit pasibayu, ing salitang “panata” mitimu ya karing sablang Kapampangan tanda ning pakamal da karing Agustinong mipoli king panga-Kristyano da. Tanda mu naman nung bakit malugud lang pari ding Kapampangan kaysa kareng mamuntukan karela!
Banal Maleldo ngan pu kekayu.

2014 in review

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The Kapampangan Surnames


By Dr. Rodrigo M. Sicat

Glossary of Kapampangan Indigenous Surnames

Herewith are some of the numerous Kapampangan surnames culled and selected from various sources.

Intuitively and romantically, each surname is given a meaning that is proximate to its nature and etymology. The assignments of the meanings are mostly guided by the dictionary of Fr. Diego Bergano, from the epistemological and intuitive mastery of elderly Kapampangans about the language, from the feedbacks of Kapampangan scholars and academicians, and of the author’s romantic and meta–linguistic analysis of the surnames.

Sample illustrative sentences in the Kapampangan and English forms are given to allow the reader a clearer grasp on the subject at hand. The illustrations showcase the richness of Kapampangan language. The samples are combined form and style of the various Kapampangan dialects of the Kapampangan dominions. Generally, the orthography is classical and contemporary in organization.

Faithful to the surnames, the author made no alteration or adulteration


Ing amanung “abacan” miyaliwa ya kabaldugan king amanung Kapampangan

The word “abacan” (meal) has different meanings in the Kapampangan language.

ABAD. V. Inculcated

Ing lugud ding matua keya maka abad king isip na.

His parents’ love for him is inculcated in his mind.

ABAYAN. V. To join

Abayan me potang bengi.

You join him tonight.

ABE. N. Friend

Ing e tuki eke abe.

He who comes not is not my friend.

ABE. V. Joined

I Landu meki abe yang mendilu.

Roland joined them swim.

ABUAN. V. Ashed

Abuan mu la ding itu bayu mu la piritu.

Ash the catfish before you fry them.

ACMA. V. To match

Ing sasabia’na maca acma king dapat na.

What he speaks match to his actions.

AGAD. Adv. Quickly

Kagad-agad, likuan na ku.

Quickly, he left me.

AGAD. N. Chafing

Ding agad na mang gatal la.

His chafing are getting itchy.

AGUL. Akin to DAGUL. Adj. Big

Ing tauan-tauan a geua nang Mr. Timbol atneng ka dagul.

The scarecrow made by Mr. Timbol is very large.

AGUL. Akin to DAGUL. N. Vastness

Ing dagul ning gabun da e ra abut ding mata na.

The vastness of their land cannot be reached by his sight.

AGUL. Akin to DAGUL. V. Grown

Ding payung – payungang tenam na me dagul na la.

The mushrooms that he planted have grown already.

ALALAN. N. Election

Ing alalan kaya malaus king tutuking banua?

Will the election push through next year?

ALAMO. Diminutive of LAMU. N. A bamboo wharf

Lamu yank makaba ing gagato king sapa.

A large bamboo wharf is floating in the river.

ALIWALAS. N. Extensiveness

Ing aliwalas ning banua meka tula karing kegana-gana.

The extensiveness of the sky gave joy to everyone.

ALIMURUNG. Phrase of ALI MURUNG. Will not withdraw

Ding Kapampangan ali la murung king annu mang labanan.

The Kapampangans will not withdraw from any combat.

ANAD. V. Instructed

I Mr. Macapinlac inanad na la ding keyang anac king mayap.

Mr. Macapinlac instructed his children towards righteousness.

ANDAN. Akin to TANDAN. V. Remember

Bakit ala na kang atatandan king bague nanu man?

Why haven’t you remember anything at all?

ANGAD. N. Aspiration

Ing angad ding mensa bie masagana.

The aspiration of everyone is prosperity in life.

ANGLI. V. Simmer

Ibangli me ing babi king kuali.

Simmer the pork on the frying fan.

ANLOAGUE. Akin to ANLUAGI. N. Carpenter

Ing anluagi mayap ya ugali.

The carpenter is good mannered.

APALIT. N. Narra tree

Ala yang kapalit ing siasa’ning dutung apalit.

There is no substitute for the agility of narra tree.

AYAD. Akin to SAYAD. V. Touching the ground

Ing piniping imalan sasayad keng gabun.

The laundried clothes are touching the ground.

AYSON. Akin to AYUSAN. V. Arrange

Ayusan mu la ding imalang binie da keka.

Arrange the clothes given to you.

AYUYAO. Akin to YUYU. V. Sway (in a cradle)

Ayuyu mu ku mu nung e na ku kukuku.

You can only sway me if I cough no more.

BABALO. Diminutive of BALU. V. Know

Ing mebalu binang anak ya pamu.

The widow/widower is still too young.

BABALO. Diminutive of BALU. V. Know

E ku balu nung bakit pilsintan da ka!

I do not know why I have loved you!


Ing keganagana dapat pamintuan la ban canita alang misasala

Everything must be obeyed so that no one will commit mistakes.

BACAY. V. Carrying

Nanu mo kaya ing pibake-bake na ning malagung Analiza.

What is it that pretty Analiza is carrying?

BAGANG. N. Molar

Ing bagang ipa’na lalput na ya.

His molar is starting to pop out.

BAGSIC. N. Ferocity

Itang bagsic ning asu uyang migpatunud kang Tibu.

It was the canine’s ferocity that tamed Stephen.

BALABA. N. Prune

Ding saging belaba na atnong kabungang kabunga.

The banana trees he pruned down were aplenty with fruits.

BALABAL. N. Scarf, Shawl

Ing balabal a susulud na kikinang yang alang patna.

The scarf she is wearing shines endlessly.

BALAJADIA. Phrase of BALANG ADIA. Every preparation

Ing baling adia a daraptan ku macatula king Miglalang


Every preparation that I make delights my Creator.

BALATBAT. N. Assault

Ing balatbat ning tatso makatakut at makasigpo.

The assault of a rooster is scary and frightening.

BALATBAT. V. Assault/attack

Ing pabu belatbat ne ing dadalan a tau.

The turkey attacked the passer-by.

BALAYO. Akin to BALE. N. House

Ing bale yung matua penga’ne ning lahar.

Your ancestral house was ruined by lahar.


Ing maka balingit nang lupa malagu yang anting diosa.

Her open face is as beautiful as goddess’.

BALUYUT. N. Huge space basket with round opening

Ding buluyut nang apu ku kapmu lang paleng malutu.

My grandfather’s huge baskets are filled with brown rice.

BANAL. Adj. Divine

Ing pamamatawad karing mikasala banal a dapat king Mayupaya

Forgiving the sinners is a divine work to the Lord God.

BANSIL, BANGSIL. Akin to BANGSALI. Adj. Incongruent

Ing dapat na bangsali king sasabia’na.

His deed is incongruent to his word.


Nucu rugo! O bat ing lingo mung isip makabanting ne naman?

Oh, by golly! Why is your stuporous mind slanted again?

BANTING. Adj. Slanting

Ing banting nang sapi-sapi tutuklu ya karing kurienti.

His slanting kite is tripping on the electrice wirings.

BANTUG. Adj. Renowned

Ding bantug a Kapampangan kasebian la king karelang lutung maniaman.

The renowned Kapampangans are famous for their fine cuisine.

BANTUG. V. Publish

Ding lagiu ding bayung talasawa maka bantug la king munisipiu.

The names of the new couples are publicized at the municipal hall.

BANZALI. Akin to BANGSALI. Adj. Incongruent

Masakit na nang ikawani ing bangsali nang ugali.

He could hardly deviate from his incongruent psyche.

BAQUE. Akin to BAKE. V. Bring

Nanu kaya ing pibake-bake nang Pepe?

What is it that Joseph brings?

BAQUE. Akin to BAKE. N. A light basket

Ing bake nang apu atin yang abe ginilu.

Grandmother’s basket contains some coco-gel juice.

BAQUING, BAKING. Diminuitive of BAQUE. V. Bring/ carry along

Ing imala’nang Lolita a keying pibaque-baque seli na pa Menila.

The clothes of Lolita that she carries along were bought from Manila.

BARIN. Phrase of BAN RING. Adv. So that

Ding kamaganak tamu pagsarian la, ban ring sabla matulang tumagun la.

Our relatives must be personally visited, so that all will gladly come.

BASA. Akin to MABASA. Adj. Convivial/ sociable.

Ing wali nang Perla e ya mabasa.

The younger sister of Pearl is not sociable.

BASA. Akin to MABASA. Adj. Wet

Alang e mabasa karela nung aldo San Juan.

Nobody is not wet on St. John the Baptist’s Day.

BASA. V. Read

Ing mulala e ya makabasa.

An illiterate cannot read.

BASI. N. Nipa wine

Lambanug ing kawari ning alak a basi.

Coconut wine is the likness of nipa wine.

BATAC. V. Stretch

Ding sablayang maka kalikat mabatac la pangayatyat.

The twined clothlines are sturdily stretched.

BATO. N. Stone

Ing pusu nang koya ku masia yang anting batu.

My brother’s heart is as hard as stone.

BAU. N. Aroma

Ing bau ning taju susulapo manibat king fiesta ning bariu.

The aroma of the viand spells from the village’s fiesta.

BAUL. N. Chest

Ding lagiu ding ibpa da makakulku’la king baul a’mana da.

Their parents’ names are engraved on the chest, which they have inherited.


Ing bayo na manuknangan ya Australia.

His brother in-law is living in Australia

BIE. N. Life

Ing bie ala yang kabaldugan nung mabie kang anting mete.

Life is meaningless if you are living like dead.

BIAG. N. Prisoner

Acu, bijag nacu ning Apung Guinu.

I am a prisoner of the Lord God.

BIAG. V. Capture

Ding sundalu a bijag da la ding mangulu.

The soldiers captured the trouble makers.

BILDAN. V. Answer

Ing dalagang pakisabian ku e nacu bildan.

The lady I was talking with did not answer me.

BILINGAN. V. To turn upside down

Bilingan mung malagua ing paleng kapalut palut pa.

You turn upside down the fresh-scythed rice.

BINUYA, VINUYA. V. Cultivated

Ing ortelanu binuya na ing gabun a calulu.

The farmer cultivated the dreary land.


Batuin yang masala ing makaslag taldawa.

A star brightly shines in the meadows.

BOGNOT. V. To get annoyed

Mag bugnut ya uling ding kualta na mewala la.

She is annoyed because her money was lost.


I Luz misusulud yang imalang bulus-bulus.

Luz is wearing an awful outfit.


Bulus a masalusu ing dinugpa karela.

A rapid torrent struck on them.


Binulus ne ing biseru.

He freed the calf.

BONDOC. N. Mountain

Ing Bondoc Arayat malagu ya’t mayatyat.

Mt. Arayat is lofty and stately.

BUCU. N. Coconut Tree

Pinupu de ing tanaman a bucu.

They cut the coconut tree.

BUCU. N. Bud

Ing inagtal na, bucu yang sampaguita.

What he took was a sampaguita bud.

BUCU. N. Node

Magsilbi yang angusan ing bucu ning atbu.

The sugarcane’s node can be chewed.

BUAN. Akin to BULAN. N. Month

Agusto ing bula’ ning kepanganak ku.

August is the month of my birth date.


Ding sampagang sampaguita mibubucadcad la nung ing silim dating na.

The sampaguita flowers begin to bloom as twilight sets in.

BUCUD. Adv. Only/Unique

Ding malugud kung indu bucud la mu pangatau.

My loving parents are unique persons.

BULACSAO. Akin to BULAGSAC. Adj. Careless

Ing bulagsac a’nak atnia naming kasitak.

The careless child is very talkative too.

BULANADI. Akin to BULANDAL. Adj. Forlorn

Ing bulandal kung caluguran makalunus yang tutu.

My forlorn friend is immensely pathetic.

BULANADI. Diminutive of BULAN. N. Moon

Cabilugan ning bulan ngeni.

It is full moon today.

BULAON. N. Molave

Ding ipil ampon bulaon mative lang dutung.

Ipil-ipil and molave are durable wood.

BUMANLAG. V. To have slightly squint eye

Ding mata mu bumanlag la nung pane kang lalawe keya.

Your eyes will slightly squint if you frequently look at her.

BUNDALIAN. Akin to BANDALAN, BANDAL. V. To intimidate

Bandalan me ba’nang abalu nung nanu ing makarine.

Intimidate him, so that he will know what is humiliating.

BUNGAD. Adj. Croaky

Ing bungad a suala na kakalugkug at makatula.

His croaky voice sounds jolting and funny.

BUNGAD. V. Peep out

Ali ka bubungad pota akua mung mibaligtad.

Do not peep out or you might trip.

BUNGAD. N. Façade, front

Ing bungad ning bale da kule yang kalawang.

The façade of their house is colored rust.

BUNGAY, BUNGUE. N. A criss-cross walk

I Pepe menabu ya tete uli ning bunge-bungeng lakad na.

Peter fell down the bridge because of his criss-cross walk.

BUTIU, BOTIO. Akin to BATIO. N. Stare

Bat kaya ing batio na kanaku atnang karatna?

Why is his stare to me so stationary?

BUTIU, BOTIO. Akin to BATIO. V. Look

E ka babatio karela pota basibasan da ka.

Do not stare at them or they will stone you.

CABAL. V. To cut the leaves using scythe

Ing bayung cabal a pale mamutaktak nang butikas king marangle.

The newly cut rice plants bear plenty of flowers in the field.

CABAL. Akin to CABALAN. Adj. Callous

Ing cabalan a’nak na king tumbukan ali tataliu ya.

His callous child never retreats in any fistfights.

CABAL. N. Dirt

Ing cabal king takde na menangsu’t buburak ya.

The dirt on his collar is filthy and soily.

CABALEN. N. Townmate

Ding cabalen kung Kapampangan matas la lub dapot malugud la.

My Kapampangan townmates are proud, yet, affectionate.

CABALU. Adj. Knowledgeably

Ing manako atneng cabalung maglaram.

The burglar tells lies knowledgeably.

CABASAL. N. A fertile soil

Mangaragu’l lang pakwan ding apupupul king cabasal-basal a gabun.

Giant watermelons are harvested in fertile soil.


Ing kekaming biltangan atneng cabatung dalan.

The path we trailed is a rocky alleyway.


Ing dinuang na kanaku cabias ya mung atbu.

He handed to me a node of sugarcane only.

CABIAS. N. Akin to ABIAS. Rice

Nanu ing cabiasan na?

What type of rice is it?

CABIGTING. N. A heavy bunch

I Ricky manambayukan yang cabigting wake mani.

Ricky is carrying a heavy bunch of peanut.


Ding miapsang sisi cabilangan lamu.

The eggs that hatched are only few.


Bilangan mu la.

You count them.

CABILBIL. Diminutive of BILBIL. N. Bulges

Ing bibili nang darang Sebya mamalita.

The bulges of Aunt Celia show.


Peinawa’t metudtud ya cabiling ning pale palangya’ na.

He rested and slept aftewr turning down the rice grains.

CABIUS. V. To slip

Ing soga ning biseru micabius ya ketang tulus na.

The roipe of the calf slipped from its stake.

CABLING. Akin to Abli. V. Earn/ sell

Ing maglacu meca’bling kapurit ya mu.

The vendor has earned/sold very meafer only.

CABUG. N. A loud sound/thug

Kabud a bud mekaramdam kang maragul a cabug.

Suddenly, I have heard a loud sound/thug.

CABUSAO. Diminutive of CABUS. V. Redeem

Guinu, icabus mu kami karing sablang marok.

Lord, redeem us from all evil.

CADIANG. Akin to ADIA. Phrase. Very prepared

Ding sundalo atna lang ca adia king nanu mang gulu.

The soldiers are very prepared for whatever eventuality.

CABIONG. Akin to BIUNG. V. Hissing

Siniklaud la’t menalangin cabiung na nung angin.

They knelt and prayed as the wind started hissing.

CACALDA. Phrase of CARACAL DA. Adj. Plentiful

Ding ikua dang asan caracal da.

The fish they caught are plentiful.

CAGUIAT. Adj. Immediately

Ing salol na milukas ya caguiat a ukiat na king tanamang manga.

His trouser dropped as he immediately climbed the mango tree.


Ing tiup ning Pasku binang makagalunggung.

The breeze of Christmas is especially chilling.

CAGUNGAO. Diminutive of GANGO. Adj. Intoxicating

Ding makagungo alak baua’la karing mangalating anak.

Intoxicating liquors are prohibited among minor children.

CAINGAT. Adj. Careful

I Analiza misna ya caingat ketang imalang peparam da kaya.

Analizaq was very careful with the dress lent to her.

CAISIP. V. Think a like

Ing asung sese ku caisip yang tau.

My pet dog’s thinks like man.

CALAGUAS. Diminutive of CALGUA. Adj. Easy

Ing dalan calagua’t katakbangan ya mu nung memaltang ya dalan Santiagu.

The road was just easy and short if he only trailed the St. James route.

CALAGUI. Akin to CALAGIU. N. Namesake

Ing wali kung Gina calagiu yang artista.

My younger sister Gina has an actress namesake.

CALALANG. V. Create / born

Ing tau misapuak ya calalang na ning yatu.

Man was born as the earth was created.

CALALU. Adj. Extreme

Ing anak nang Huli atneng calalu’t katsura ugali.

Julie’s son has extreme and unpleasant manners.

CALANSA. Adj. Fishy/ stinky

Ing tagilo linutu na bina la calansa.

The fermented fish she cooked is too fishy/ stinky.

CALAPAN. V. Treasure

Ing cayapan calapan, iugse ing deuakan.

Treasure the good, curse the evil.


Ing damulag a lalaki ausan yang calaquian.

A male carabao is called a bull.

CALARA. Adj. Peppery

Ing bualanglang a nilutu na misna ya calara.

The guava soup she cooked is so peppery.

CALSANZ. Akin to CALASAN. V. Detach

Ing karpinteru cacalasa’na la ding matuang yeru.

The carpenter is detaching the old galvanized iron.

CALAUNAN. Akin to LAUN. Adj. Old

King calauna’ning ulas ikua na nang menasnas.

Age has made the blanket tattered.

CALBANG. Diminutive of CALBAG. N. Gas pain.

Ing aske ku maputla yang siguradu nung calbag ku aplita’ naku.

I will surely look pale once struck by gas pain..


Ding marinu matula la calayag da.

The sailors were delighted as they sailed.

CALILUNG. Adj. Dizzy

Atna kung calilung-caliliu kaibat ku king Baguio.

I was awfully dizzy after coming from Baguio.


Ing caling ning lansena mebating ya.

The food storage’s lock is lost.

CALINGO. Adj. Stuporous/ confused

Ing taung teterak atneng calingo utak.

The dancing man has a stuporous/ confused mind.


Ing sabla calinguan ku na ngan dapot ing lugud ku kang Lolitang sinta ku iti eku   agaua.

All shall I forget, but my love for my darling Lolita I can not do.

CALMA. N. Calmness

Ing calma na mamalitang tinud ya.

His calmness foretells that he won.

CALUB. Adj. Once in

Calb na king sular da disa’na la ding matua ku.

Once in their yard, she found my parents.

CAMILING. N. Type of Tree

Makapanggatal ya ing dutung camiling.

The camiling tree causes itchiness.

CAMUA. Adj. Angry

Camua ku keya.

I am angry at her.

CANASA. Adj. Earnest

Ing kapagnasan nang kabiasnan atnang canasa’t kalalam.

His aspiration for education is earnest and profound.

CANLAS. V. Found

Ding micanlas king labuad Kapampangan memalen lang misnang tenakan.

Those who founded the Kapampangan dominion were people of wisdom.

CANO, CANONO.Adj. Fortunate

Ing kabiaia’nang koya atnang canono ngeni.

My brother’s enterprise is very fortunate now.

CAPARAS. Adj. Spicy

Ing baka caldereta atnang caparas a lasa.

The beef caldereta has a very spicy savor.


Ing maestra atneng capili inia metua yang dalaga.

The teacher was very choosy, thus, she grew a spinster.

CAPATI. N. A chupa

Nabengi, capati mung abias ing keyang seli.

Last night, she bought only a chupa of rice.

CAPULI, CAPULE. Akin to PULI. V. To inherit

I ana’kung Jaime pemulia’na ing mayap kung ugali.

My son, James, has inherited my positive traits.

CAPULONG. N. One with whom one meets

Detang capulung na napun dinatang lang gatpanapun.

The persons he met came yesterday afternoon.

CAPULONG. V. Hold meeting

Mikawa-kawani la capulung na karela.

They parted ways after meeting them.

CAPUNO. Diminutive of PUNO. N. Leader

Ing punu ning balen kasebian ya Minalin.

The town leader is popular in Minalin.

CARAGUE. Akin to CARAQUE. N. A tiny share

Ing punu ning balen kasebian ya Minalin.

The town leader is popular in Minalin.


Ing kwa kung Tagpi carangan ya mu pilai.

Spot, my puppy, took just a little

CASABAL. Adj. Deeply concerned

Ding siping bale atna lang casabal ketang anak ning mangubie.

The neighbourhood is too concerned over the orphaned child.

CASALLA. Akin to CASALA. Adj. Impaired

Atin kung anak a casala panamdam.

I have achild who is hearing impaired.

CASANTING. Adj. Beautiful

Ing gawa nang Miding atnang casanting.

Mercy’s handiwork is beautiful.


Ing pangage nang anak iya ing keying casaupanan marangle.

His eldest son is his farm aider.

CATACUTAN. V. To be object of fright

Ing bale lele sapa catacutan de ding sabla.

The house beside the river frightens everyone.

CATALAN. V. Got hold

Catalan ku keng eran, saka ku menabu.

As soon as I got hold of the stairs, I fell.

CATALIG. Diminutive of TALI. N. Bunch

Sinali yang cataling kamangian.

She bought a bunch of string beans.

CATAPANG. Adj. Ferocious

Ing ubingan atneng catapang.

The snake is very ferocious.

CATU. N. Companion

I apu ku ing catu bale ku.

Grandmother is my house’s companion.

CAU. Akin to CAUA. N. Vat

I Siana tinun yang metung caua.

Josephine cooked vat of rice.

CAUGUIRAN. Diminutive of CAUIG. Adv. Similarly

Ing asta na ccauig-auig makualta.

His poised action is similar to the affluent.

CAWILI. Akin to CAWILI-WILI. Adj. Entertaining

I Dolphy atneng cawili-wili

Dolphy is very entertaining.

CAWILI. Akin to CAWILI-WILI. N. A plant

Manakit ku pang tanamang cawili-wili ngeni.

I still find “cawili-wili” plants nowadays.

CUBACUB. Diminutive of CUBCUB. V. To besiege

Ding mapanako me cubcub la iniang Sabadu ning maleldo.

The robbers were besieged on Black Saturday.


Cunan me ing tagnan.

Get the chopping board.


Cuananan meng amanu dikil ketang ipu-ipu.

Take her story about the twister.

CURAN. N. Clay pot. Diminutive of CURA

Ing sabo babi linutu na king curan a malati.

The pork soup was cooked on a small clay pot.

CUYUGAN. Diminutive of CUYUG. N. Legion of snakes

Ding kamaganak na anti la uaring cuyug.

His relatives are like legion of snakes.

DABU. Akin to DABUL. N. Burst

Ing dabulbul ning danum atnang ssalusu’t dagul.

The burst of the torrent is swift and high.


Dacayanan yu lang lunus ding magpalimus.

Share alms to the beggars.

DAGAT. N. Ocean

Ing Pilipinas macapadurut yang dagat.

The Philippines is surrounded by oceans.

DAGDAG. N. Supplement

Ing dagdag a binie da meka tula karing matua na.

The supplement they gave has pleased their parents.

DALE. Akin to DALI. V. Punish

Madali ka kanaku nung ali ka mamintu.

You will be punished if you will not obey.

DALIGDIG. Diminutive of DALIG. N. Wall

Yuyudyuran deng masime ing daling ning bale.

They are meticulously scrabbing the wall of the house.

DALISAY. Adj. Pure

Ing lugud ku king asawa ku dalise’t masanque.

My love for my wife is pure and sincere.

DALUS. Adj. Reckless

E ka padalus-dalus kareng galo mu.

Do not be reckless with your actions.

DALUSUNG. V. Sudden attack

King kakadalusung na ketang asu, ding buldi’t butit na mekinis la.

As he goes attacking the dog, his thigh and butt were gripped.


Ing dalusung ning manuk a gaindu maka galgal salu.

The hen’s attack is heart breaking.

DAMPIL. V. Prepare

I dampil meng masalese ing marangle.

You prepare the farm thoroughly.

DANAN. Akin to ATDANAN. V. Bring something

Ding sabla dapat lang atdanan mayap a balita.

Everyone must be brought with good news.

DANAN.  Akin to TANDAN. V. Remember

Atatandanan mu pa ba iniang malati ka ta pa?

Do you still remember when we were still young?

DANGANAN. Diminutive of DANGAN. N. Respect

Ing taung alang pakundangan ala yang kamarinayan.

A man who has no respect is shameless.

DAQUE. Akin to DAKE. N. Share

Ding dagis pengan da ing dake nang mais.

The rodents ate his share of corn harvest.

DARE. Diminutive of ARE. N. Hay

Ing are ugse-ugse karing gule.

The hay is scattered on the vegetables.


Ausan mu ku nung dating ya I apu mu.

Call me if your grandmother comes.

DATU. N. Noble man

E me apagliwalu ing datu.

You can never deceit a noble man.

DATUN. Adj. Peaceful

Ketang banda mi misnang datum lalung lalu na neng gatpanapun.

Our place is so peaceful especially in the afternoon.

DAYAO. Diminutive of DAYU. N. Distance

Ing dayu ku kang Pedru atlu mung metru.

My distance to Peter is only three meters.

DAYAO. Diminutive of DAYU. V. To exclude

Pepa dayu ne kang Marta ing lagiu na.

He asked Matha to exclude his name.

DAYRIT. Diminutive of DAYI. N. Descendant

Ding kekaming dayi matapang lang anting putakti.

Our descendants are fierceful as the wasps.

DEANG. Akin to DETANG. Article the

Detang melaus nang malagung dalaga calugura’na lang Portia.

The lovely ladies who had left were Portia’s friends.

DIMARUCUT. Phrase of ALI A DUCUT. V. Cannot draw out

Ali cu a ducut ing e canacu.

I cannot draw out what is not mine.

DIMATULAC. Phrase of ALI A TULAC. V. Cannot push

Ali ke a tulac ing anac king pitac.

I cannot push the kid to the mud.

DIMITUI. Diminutive of DIMIT. Adj. Plentous

Ing pakauasang inampang da dimit a dimit at sobra-sobra.

The refreshment they served was plenty and excessive.


Madimla ngeni.

It is cold today.

DIWA. N. Essence

Ing diwa ning amanu atiu king parnasu.

The essence of the words is in the verse.

DIZON. Akin to DISON, DISAN. V. Found

I Linu a kapatad ku disan keng susulat amlat a bayu.

I found Lino, my brother, writing a new history book.

DUAT. N. Black plum tree

Ing balat duat mayap yang panulu.

Black plum’s bark is a good medicine.

DUE. Akin to DUI. N. A fish spine

Ing gurami matilus ya dui.

Gourami has thorny spine.

DULA. Akin to DULANG. N. A low dining table

Tara na’t lumapit tamu king dulang ning Guinu.

Come let us join the table of the Lord.

DULA. Akin to DULANG. V. Roll

Ding dulang-dulang a batu kapilan man e la mangulapu.

The rolling stones will never catch any moss.

DUMAPAL. Adj. Hurriedly

Dumapal kang muli dapot e ka pupulai.

You hurriedly come home but never race.

DUNGO. Adv. Timid, naïve

Ing kaburi nang Tina pungguk ampon dungo ya.

Tina’s fiancé is small and naïve.

DUNGO. Akin to DUNGAO. V. Look out

E ka dudungo king pasamanu uling kapmu yang gogo.

Never look out of the window because it is very starchy.


Dungdung kang Biblia king upayang mabiasa ka.

Read the Bible in order for you to earn wisdom.

DUYA. Diminutive of DUYAN. N. Hammock

Ing balayang Kapampangan duya’ne ning tepangan.

Pampanga Province is the hammock of gallantry.

ERANA. Diminutive of ERAN. N. Ladder

I Lorina seli ne ing eran a gewa na.

Lory bought the ladder he made.

GADDI. Akin to ADDIA. V. Prevent.

Guinu, addia mu la king pamikasala.

Lord, prevent them from sins.

GAGUI. Akin to AGUI. N. Web

Ing babagua malagu neng teji ing keying agui.

The spider has beautifully woven its web.

GALAMAY. Akin to GALAME. N. Members

Ding galame ning Aguman pane lang ortelanu.

The members of the Union are mostly farmers.

GALANG. N. Respect

Ing pami galang pupupulan ya, aduan, ali ya.

Respect is acquired; it is not requested.


Iniang malati ku, ing galang-galang atneng kaniaman kanaku.

When I was young, the “galang-galang” bread is delicious to me.


Tuknang kang gagalanggang uling keka ala namang makiramdam.

Stop sobbing because nobody will mind you though.

GALINGAN. Adj. Smart

Galingan mu abe ban kang mituki Macabebe.

Buddy, be smart, so you can join in Macabebe.

GALURA. Akin to GALO. N. Movement

Ing galo da ring pabu atnang kalume’t kalagu.

The turkey’s movements are so gentle and nice.

GANTANG. V. To get too excited.

Tuknang kang gagarigantang.

Stop getting too excited.

GATDULA. N. Mansion

King gatdula ning Guinu, ding tau sukad lang pare-parehu.

In the mansion of the Lord, all men are judged equally.

GATDULA. N. Affluent man

Mayupaya ya ing taung magatdula.

The affluent man is powerful.

GATUS. V. Pinch

Ing anak a megatus balugbug minuli yang karug-karug.

The boy whose ear was pinched went home nervously.

GUESE. Akin to GUSI. N. Jar

Ding dakal a barang guintu selikut da la karing mangaragul a gusi.

The enormous gold bars were hidden on the large jars.

GUIAM. N. Pleasure

Ing maglalawe karing susulapo bulawe babie guiam kang Jaime.

Viewing the flying eagles provides pleasure to James.

GUIAM. V. Pleasure

I Ibang me guiam yang lipang-lipang.

Ivy was pleasured wandering around.

GUIANG. Adj. Whatsoever

E ku magmarinu angguiang nanu mu!

I will not to be a sailor whatsoever!

GUILAS. Adj. Smart

Ing sabunga’nang Tembung maguilas ya’t masanting.

Tommy’s fighting cock is smart and fine-looking.

GUINA. Akin to GUINU. N. God

Ding pusu ding tau ilang santunga’ning Guinu.

Men’s hearts are the sanctuary of God.


Ing taung guintu pusu mayumu ya king Guinung Indu.

A person with a heart of gold is precious to the Lord God.

GULAPAY. Akin to GULAPE. V. Creep

Ing taung lapastangan gulape yang anting ubingan.

A treacherous person will creep like a snake.

GUMABON. V. Play with soil

Nanu mo ing akua mu nung ika gumabu’na kang gumabun?

What will you get if you keep on playing with soil?

GUMAMIT. V. To use

Gumamit kang pamispisan ban ali ka mapapali.

Use pot holders so that you will not get scalded.

GUNGON. V. Jumble

Tuknangan mu lang gugungan ding selese ku nang tanaman.

You stop jumbling the plants which I have already arranged.

HALILI. V. To substitute

Ninu ing halili keya?

Who will substitute him?

IBAY, IBE. Akin to BEBE. V. Walk

Ing ninu mange pa mekabebe king danum ning lating Kapampangan eya pa tune Kapampangan.

He who has not walked into the waters of Pampanga River is not yet a true Kapampangan.

ICBAN. Akin to LICBANG. V. Cross/traverse

Ding taung susuba licbang da la king mibubulang a tete.

The arriving people crossed the crumbling bridge.

IMPUN. N. Body

Ing impu’ning tau yang temple ning Espiritu Santu.

The human body is the temple of the Holy Spirit.

INGAL. Akin to SINGAL. N. Gasp

Ing singal na alang painaua.

His gasp is relentless.

INTAL. Akin to QUINTAL. V. To brand

Macaquintal karing baka ing apelidu na.

The cows are branded with its surname.

INTON. V. To look

Ninu ing manintun kang Antun?

Who is looking for Anthony?

IPORAC. V. Hide into the tree

Iporac me I Memitu kaibat nang sinaklu.

Hide Remy into the tree after he fetched water.

IQUIN. Dimunitive IQUI. N. Tail

I tagpi malati ya iqiu.

Spotty has a short tail.

ISIP. N. Mind; Thinking

Ing isip nang Alfredo lipo-lipo’t sula-sulapo.

Alred’s mind is absent and wandering

ISIP. N. Tree that bears soar and tiny red fruits.

Ing isip kung teman mamunga’t mamuyatputa ‘ ne naman.

The “isip” tree that I planted is fruiting enormously again.

LABUNG. Adj. Dense

Ding malabung a sagin makanayun la karing bangin.

The dense banana trees five beauty to the hills.

LABUNG. N. Shoot

Deng matas a labung kuayan mamalita lang matas a danum.

The high bamboo shoots foretell enormous torrents.


Ing laca’ning dulang matingiran ya’t matapang.

The chieftain is shrewd and audacious.


Ing lacan a lalake matenakan ya’t mapangumpuni.

The male master is clever and adaptable.

LACAP. DImunitive of SALACAP. N. A fishing tool

Ing salacap nang Manding melakuan ya king taguling.

Mandy’s “salacap” was left In the ditch.

LACSAMANA. N. Plentiful wealth

Ding lacsan a manang tinggap da mupaniua ‘ la ketang kasamak da.

The plentiful wealth they had inherted was entrusted to their tenant.

LACSON. Akin to LACSAN. N. Bundle

Ing ka lacsan a dutung tatambayuka’ na pepalangia’ na king mula.

The bundle of firewood he carries was sun-dried in the backyard.

LACSINA. Akin to SINALAC. V. Strained

Sinalac na ing palak ning mayumung atnang pekat.

She strained the residue of the thickened sweet.

LACTAOTAO. Akin to LACTAO. Adv. Irregularly

Ding tabtab mitanam tinggap lang lacto-lacto.

The sugar cutting were planted irregularly.

LAKI. Akin to LALAKI. N. Male, boy , brothers

Lima keng mika kapatad a lalaki king bale.

We are five brothers at home.

LALIC. Adj. Substantial

I matuang Lucia panuala’ na lang malalic ding makapagmuulala ng istoria.

Old Lucille substantially believes her amazing story.

LALIC. V. Shape

I Mamang Dedu ing meglalic karing matibe inbudu.

It was uncle Doods who shaped the durable funnels.

LALU. Adj. More

Luguran taya ing amunung sisuan lalu ding kayanakan.

Let us love our native language, especially, the young.

LAMBAT. Adj. Late

E ku bisang magdatun malambat uling manasi’ ku pa dayat.

I do not want to stay late because I will still tend the farm.

LAMPA. Adj. Frail

Ing anak a lampa ala yang aparusta.

A frail child gains nothing.

LANDINGIN. V. TO toy playfully

Ing angina landi-landingia’ na ing api.

The wind playfully toys the fire.

LANGIT. N. Heaven

“Langit at Lupa”, “Yin-Yang”, “Banua’t Gadun”, deti wagis-wagis la kabaldugan.

“Heaven and Earth”, “Body and Soul”, “Land and Horizon” all these have common meaning.

LANSANG. Aking to MALANSA. Adj. Fishy

Deng malansang igat makukua lamu king ning bundaki.

Fishy eels are raised only in salty waters.

LANSANG. Diminutive of LANSA. N. Slime

Ing imang kakagli e na buri ing lansa ning bundaki.

An infanticipating mother dislikes the large mudfish’s slime.


Ing anak a lama’ning lasangan ararakap na ngan ing sablang pisasabian.

A child who is a street bystander catches all the news around.

LAPID. Diminutive of LAPI. V. Lop

I Pepe linapid ne ing dutung bulaun.

Peter lopped the molave tree.

LAPUS. V. Overcome

Salamt pu Guinu, a lapus ku mu rin ing kapibabatan ku.

Thank you Lord, I have finally overcome my sacrifices.

LAQUINDANUM. Phrase of LALAQUI KING DANUM. Man from the river.

Ing lalaqui king danum ala yang takut kung bague nanu man.

A man from the river is not frightened in whatever thing.

LARA. N. Pepper

Patugutan mu lang gigigutan ding larang maparas.

Stop munching the spicy pepper.

LARIN. N. To repair

Ing eran masanting ya pangalarin.

The ladder is well repaired.

LATAY. N. Scourge

Ding late ning magsalibatbat makalunus la’t makakakiak.

The flagellant’s scourges are pathetic ad and saddening.

LAUS. Adj. Old

Ding tigtigan laus na la.

The old songs are already old.

LAUS. Akin to MALAUS.  V. Welcome

Malaus kop u king bale ku.

Welcome to my house.

LAWAN. V. Look

E mu ku lalawan makanian.

Do not look at me like that.

LAYUG. Adj. Lofty

Ing bale ning pepagawa na pekalayug ya karing kegana gana.

The house that he had built wes the loftiest of all.

LAZATIN, LASATIN. Diminutive of LASA. N. Taste

Ing lasa ning taramindu atnang kayunang kayumu.

The taste of the taramid jelly is too sweet.

LELAY. Adj. Near

Ing balen lele Apalit iya ing Calumpit.

The town near Apalit is Calumpit.

LENON. Aking to LINGUN V. To attend

Lunguna’ na la ding mapanirang pusa.

He attended to the destructive cats.

LENON. Akin to LINGUN. Adj. Care

Ing lingu’ning pengaring babai ala yang kawari.

A mother’s care is uncomparable

LENON. Akin to LINGUN. Caring

Itang matuang dalaga malingun at malingan ya.

The old lady is exceptionally caring.

LIBAN. V. Got/Entered into

E na balu ing liba’ na.

He does not know what he got into.

LIBAN. Prep. Except

Ding sabla meko la liban I tata.

All went except Father.

LIBUT. N. Travel

Ing wari ku e na alarawan ing matula kung libut king binduc Pinatubu.

My thought cannot picture my delightful travel in Mt. Pinatubo

LICAD. V. To leap

I pedru mitalabu’t menabu ya king kakalicad na.

Peter slipped and jerked as he leaped.

LICAD. Adj. Straight

Ing licad a katawa’nang Nina iyang migpapaniambut keya.

Nina’s straight body was her winning form.

LICTAWA. V. Skipped

Kalakalale na lang pibula-bulaya ding kutang a kayang lictawan.

She carefully analysed the questions that she skipped.


Licuanan deng dinalan a pesus.

They left him one hundred pesos.

LICUP. V. Shrouded

Ing dalumdum licupa’na ing sala padane balen Candaba.

Darkness shrouded the skied towards Candaba town.


Mebaril ya ing limlingan na.

His temple was shot.

LIMPIN. Akin to LIMPE V. TO compete

Ing Kapampangan a limpi kenu man.

A Kapampangan can compete with any one

LINDO. V. To confuse

Ding anak a mamialung linindu da la ding managal karela.

The playing children confused those running towards them.

LINGAD. V. Denied

Lingad na la ding marinat nang dapat king malugud nang asawa.

He denied his filthy acts against his loving wife.

LINGAT. V. To be awaken

I ima mipalangit ya ketang akbung a masigla.

Mother was awakened by the noisy shot.

LINTAG. V. Rolled Down

I Nanang ku lintag na ne ing dase uling I Jose mitutundu ne.

My aunt rolled down the mat because Joseph is already sleepy.

LISING. Akin to ISING. N. To cry

Nanu mo kaya ing pisaingsing-saingsing na?

What is it that she is crying about?

LIWAG. V. To loosen

Ing soga ning biserung baka liwaga’neng kakang Maria.

The rope of the oxen was loosened by my sister Mary.

LIWANAG. V. To explain

Dapat kang magpaliwanag marapal.

You must explain immediately.

LOBO. N. Balloon

Ing lobo malutu ya.

The balloon is red.

LUAT. Adj. Late

I Kat-Kat dinatang yang atnang luat.

Katrina came very late.

LUGUE, LUGAY. V. TO hang loosely

Ing buak nang Ella malagu yang maka lugue king takde na.

Ella’s hair beautifully hangs loosely around her shoulder.

LUGTU. Diminutive of UGTU. Adv. Too late

I maglutung tiburan ku meniasat yang atnang ka ugtu.

The chef I asked cooked too late.

LULU. N. Race

Ing lulung kabayu piyalung a maka karug salu.

Horse race is a heart- thrilling contest.

LULU. V. To race

Ding mikakaluguran milulu lang pulanditan.

The comrades raced a sprint challenge.

LUMABAS. V. Drop in

Lumabas ka keni bayu ka muli.

Drop in before you go home.

LUMALU. Adv. Excessively

Nung lumalu ka pengan, sakit ka atian.

If you excessively eat, you will have stomach ache.

LUMAME. Adv. Sluggish

Aro, Guinu ko! Kalumame nang anting pau.

Oh, my God! He is as sluggish as a turtle.

LUMANOG. Diminutive of LUMA. Adj. Old

Dapot luma nong bina ding pangaral nang tata, malaman at maulaga la pa.

Though father’s teaching teachings are very old, they still hold meaning and value.

LUMANLAN. Diminutive of LUMA. Adj. Old

Ing lumang malan pemie na ngan karetang mangailan.

The old clothes were all given to the needy.

LUMBA. Akin to LUMBA-LUMBA. N. Dolphin, whale

Ing lumba-lumba misadsad ya king sapang mamala.

The whale landed in the shallow river.

LUMBA. Adj, Great

Ing lumba nang dapat kasing lualas ning damun dayat.

Her great deed is as astounding as the waters of the sea.

LUNDANG. Diminutive of LUNDAG. V. To jump

Tuknang kang lulundag pota akua mung mituag.

You stop jumping or else, you might trip.

LUNDANG. Akin to UNDANG. N. Bamboo craft

I apung Gundang permisali ne ing keying makabang undang.

Grandmother Gertrude sold her large bamboo craft.

LUSUNG, LUZUNG. Akin to SULUNG. V. To advance

Sasabian ning Kasulatan: “Sumulung ing kabiasnan anti murin ing dewakan”.

The Holy Testament says: “As knowledge advances, so too, is wickedness”.

MABANGLO. Adj. Fragrant

Ding sampagang sampaguita mabanglu la.

The sampaguita flowers are fragrant.

MABUTUL. M. A seedful

Ing unaba mabutul yang bungang fruta.

Sour soup is a seedful fruit.


Ding dase macabali la king mialiua- liung kule.

The mats are woven in different colors.

MACABULOS. V. Scattered

Ing imalang kapipipi, macabulos lele ning bale patipati.

The new laundried clothes are scattered near the pigeon’s cage.


E macapagal ing sasaup karing taung mangailangan.

It is not tiring to help needy people.


Ing mapinac a malubang mamuyutputan yang asan.

The muddy pond is aplenty with fish.

MACAPINLAC. V. Wholesaled

I Sisa macapinlac na lang pisali ding ararung apupul na.

Josephine wholesaled the arrowroots she harvested.

MACARAYO. N. Distance

King macarayu, ing Guinu lalon naka tamu.

From a distance, God is watching us.

MACARAYO. V. Removed

Ing tastas na macarayu ne yang iniang ding kalugura’na dinatang la.

His nick has already been removed when his friends arrived.

MACASIO. V. To shout

Nuco! Anti yang kabayu nung macasio ya.

Gosh! As is she is a horse as she shouts.

MACASPAC. V. To crack

Ding dayus mani mengaspac

The peanut’s furrows cracked due to extreme heat.

MACASAQUIT. V. To cause pain

Mcasaquit lub ing guluta’ n aka ning taung liguran mu na.

It causes me pain to be abandoned by someone whom you have loved.


Ing aldo macasinag ne.

The sun has risen already.

MACATULA. Adj. Hilarious

Ing magplulosa macatula ya.

The fold singer is very funny.


Ing gitara e ta macatonu.

The guitar is out of tune.

MADLA. Pronoun. Everyone

Ing madla minie yang tula king Reyna ning Labuad at banua

Everyone gave honor to the Quenn of Heaven and Earth.

MADLAMBAYAN. N. General Public

Ing madlambayan minie yang puge king bayung alcalde.

The general public gave welcome to the new mayor.

MAGALING. Adj. Smart

Ding memale’ ning San Fernandu magaling lang gauang parul a mautitu.

The town of San Fernando are smart in making very well lanterns.

MAGAT. N. Noble man

Ing taung magat masakit yang ibabatbat.

A noble man could hardly be destroyed.

MAGBAG. V. Detach

Magbag kang table karing lande maka’rela.

Detach some boards on the scantlings.

MAGBANUA. Akin to MAGPABANUA. V. To turn one year old

I Inggu magpabanua ne keng Domingo.

Dominic will be one year old on Sunday.

MAGCALAS. V. To severe

E mayap ing magcalas ka ring malugud mung bilas.

It is unworthy for you to severe ties with your caring in-laws.

MAGDANGAL. Adv. Proudly

Ing burarul nang Jaime Crisanto magdangalan yang susulapo banua.

James Christian’s kite is proudly soaring in the horizon.

MAGGAY. Akin to MAGE. V. To conduct

I Mrs. Del Rosario iyang mega king koro.

Mrs. Del Rosario will conduct the choir.

MAGGAY. Akin to MAGE. N. Conductor

Ing mamage king banda menibatan ya Florida Blanca.

The conductor of the band came from Florida Blanca.

MAGLAGUI. Diminutive of LAGUI. N. Name

Nanu ing lagui nitang malagung dalaga?

What is the name of the beautiful maiden?


Ing Maglalang a Guinu iyang miulip king laduad at yatu.

God, The creator, fashioned the heaven and the earth.

MAGLALANG. V. To twine

I Iskung bayung talasawa maglala yang dala.

Francis, the newly wedded, is twining fishing net.

MAGLANOC. V. To fret, to show discontent

Ing ninu mang maglanuc-lanuc ala yang kakapuntalan.

Whosever frets goes nowhere.

MAGLANQUE. Akin to LANGCUL. V. Knotted

Ing lubid linangcul neng Apung Celu.

The rope was knotted by Grandfather Marcel.

MAGLAQUI. Diminutive of LALAQUI. N. Male

Ing lalaking kambing ausan deng potru.

The male goat is called a billy.


Tuknagan mung gugogo ing sabo uling pota maglasang apdu.

Stop mixing the broth or it might taste bitter.

MAGPAYO. N. Counselor

Ing malagu’t maganakang magpayu me ragul ya balen Masicu.

The lovely and kind counselor grew up in the town of Mexico.

MAGSINO. Akin to MAGSINUP. N. Custodian

Ing magsinup king bale mi matua yang dalaga.

Our house custodian is spinster.

MAGSINO. Akin to MAGSINUP. V. To treasure

Nung magsinup kang mayap, mupul ka naming mayap.

If you treasure kindness, you too will harvest kindness.

MAGTIBAY. Diminutive of MATIBE. Adj. Strong

Ding ipa’na matibe la pa.

His teeth are still strong.

MAGTOTO. Akin to MAGPATUTU. V. TO affirm

Magpatutu ku king kayupaya’ ning Apung Guinu.

I do affirm the omnipotence of God.

MAGSAYO. V. TO become wet

Ing gabun a pipamiyalungan da magsayung-magsayu.

The ground where they played has become so wet.


Ing seli na makabili king palanggana.

Her merchandise is placed on the basin.

MALANG. N. Dress

Ing malutung imala’na binie ne ning kaburi na.

The red dress was his fiancee’s present to her.


King malapitan , ing ana’kung Katrina Bianca binang malagu ya.

Closely, my daughter Katrina Bianca is very pretty.

MALIG. Akin to MALIGUA. Adv. Hurriedly

Maligua yang tinipa uling ding kaluguran na manenaya la.

Hurriedly, he went down because his buddies are waiting.

MALINAO. Adj. Clear

I Simun lebuga’na ing danum a malino.

Simon soiled the clear water.

MALIWAT. Akin to MALUAT. Adv. So long

Bakit meluat ka?

What took you so long?


Ing bague ali mu maliari iya itang nanu mang e buri mu.

The only thing that is not possible is what you dislike.

MAMACLAY. V. To turn around

Ing mamacle ketang sake’na yapin I koya na.

The one who turns his car around his brother.

MAMANGUIN. V. To restore

Ninu kaya karela ing mamangun king lagui dang mesira?

Who among them restore their desecrated reputation?

MAMAWAL. V. To prevent

Alang maroc nung mamawal cu man karetang pulpiaru kung disipulu.

There is nothing wrong if I will prevent my bullying pupils.

MAMAWAN. Adj. Infectious, communicable

Ding ipe ilang mamawang sakit.

Measles is the infectious disease.

MAMUCUD. Adj. Rasest

Ing mamucud kung tatso kasebian ya king mabilug a bariu.

My rarest rooster is far known in the whole village.

MANABAT. V. To wait

I Portia Elena, a bisita ning Baba, matula yang manabat saken a marimla.

Portia Elaine, a visitor of Lubao, eagerly waits for an air-conditioned bus.

MANACMUL. V. Swallow

Mabaknal ka nung manacmul kang mabilug a sagin.

You will choke if you swallow a whole banana.

MANAID. V. To lead

Ing gaindu manaid yang sisi.

The hen is leading its chicks.

MANAGO. V. To butt with a horn

Ing baka manage yang e basta-basta.

The cow is butting unjokingly.

MANALAC. V. Strain

Manalac yang paro king sapang mababo.

She strains shrimps on the shallow stream.

MANALANG. V. Opposes

Ninu ing pane manalang karing kanakung sasabian?

Who frequently opposes my propositions?

MANALANG. Diminutive of MANA. N. Treasures

Ding tingga nang ima ku mana lang matua nang matua.

My mother’s earrings are treasures that are very old.

MANALANSAN. V. To file neatly

Manalansan yang batu padurut ning gripu.

He files the stones neatly around the artesian well.

MANALASTAS. V. to think

Ing talaturu manalastas yang bayu nang ituru.

The teacher is thinking of new lessons to teach.

MANALESE. V. To settle, to arrange

Ing kapitan ing manalese king karelang pisasabian.

It is the chieftain who settles their understanding.

MANALILI. V. To change

Ing tatang ku manalili yang sandu.

My father changes undershirt.

MANALOTO. Diminutive of MANALO. V. To catch

Alang manalu karing bungang mananabu.

No one catches the falling fruits.


Ding manalungsung ketang babi, ikua rang mesora’t mekulami.

Those who were hunting for the hog got disgusted and upset.

MANANQUIL. Akin to MANAGKIL. V. To touch with the hand

I Sita mananquil yang langka king mula nang Apung Pala.

Cynthia is touching jackfruits at old Pauline’s yard.


E ka Manansala king nanu mang e keka.

Do not destroy anything that is not yours.


Ing manapat mayap mamungang masampat.

He who does goodness earns godliness.

MANAPLAS. Akin to MANGAPLAS. Adj. Pungently painful

Ding malutu nang matang Malu mangaplas la king seli nang panulu.

Malou’s red eyes get pungently painful with the medicine she bought.

MANAPSAL. V. To extract.

Manapsal yang ungut uling maglutu yang sampelut.

She extracts coconut milk because she will cook porridge.

MANAPUL. V. To blow

Ing anging mangie manapul yang bale.

The hissing wind blows the houses.

MANARANG. V. To close

Ing malagung Bebang iyang manarang awang.

It is pretty Elizabeth who closes the windows.

MANASAN. N. Fisherman

Ing manasan sinaka yang atnang tula king sapa.

The fisherman rose pleasantly from the river.

MANASAN. V. To go fishing

Manasan tamu ketang plasdan.

Let us go fishing in the fishpond.

MANAYANG. Akin to MANAYA. V. To wait

Ing matuang manayang saken menibatan ya balen Minalin.

The elderly who is waiting for the bus came from the town of Minalin.

MANDAL. V. To intimidate

I Mayang memandal ya karing marok nang kararaptanan.

Mary was intimidated from her unpleasant actuations.

MANDAP. Diminutive of ANDAP. N. Flicker

Ing andap ding sulu anti lang alitaptap.

The flicker of the lights is like that of the fireflies.


Ing manucduc imalan atneng ka bague king matimias nang timan.

The laundry woman looks lovely with her gentle smile.

MANDUCDUC, MANUCDUC. V. To pound with a wooden club

Eka manucduc imalanketang sapang mabuluc.

Do not pound the clothes on the stinking river.

MANESE. V. Raising

Manese lang limang babi king daratang nang kasal Randy.

They are raising five hogs for Randy’s forthcoming wedding.

MANGACU. V. Promise

Mangacu ka kakung manabi ka mung tutu.

You promise to me to tell only the truth.


Ing mangalinduan a isip ala yang kapupuntalan.

He who gets a confused mind is directionless.


Mangalino ngan ing kayang sinabi.

All that he said are clear.

MANGALUS. N. Scratching

Ing pusang mangalus sinalikut ya king busbus.

The scratching cat hides on the hole.

MANGANTI. Pron. How much

King palage mu, manganti karaka ling pusanan kung bakal?

In your opinion, how much steel shall I carry?

MANGANTI. Diminutive of MANGAN. V. To eat

Ume na cayu at mangan tana.

You come now and let us eat.

MANGAYA. V. To spread rumor

E ka mangaya king nanu mang e mu kabalu-balu.

Never spread rumor on anything that you do not know.

MANGILA. Akin to MANGILAG. V. To avoid

Ding dalaga mangilag la karing baintuang maglolo karela.

The ladies are avoiding the gentlemen who are courting them.

MANGILIMAN. Diminutive of GILI. V. Slices

I nanang Cely mangili ya namang paskad karni.

Aunt Cely is slicing meat too.

MANGILIT. Phrase of MANGILI. AT. Slice and

Ing talaturu tuturu ya kabang mangili’t manggisea yang kulubasa.

The teacher is instructing while slicing and sautéing the squash.

MANGIO. Akin to MANAGIU. V. To defeat

Ing deuakan e managiu king kayapan kapilan man.

Wickedness will never defeat goodness forever.

MANGUBAT. V. Hunting

Ding anak nang Putak mangubat lang barak.

Crow’s children are hunting monitor lizards.


Ding matapat a mangulabanuan piyabaian dang metung ing karelang sikanan.

The faithful fighters have joined their strength as one.

MANGUNE. Akin to MANGANE. N. A new mother

Ing indang mangane miraramdam ne.

The new mother is already laboring with pains.

MANIAGO. V. Butting

I Apung Sisu bandi ne ing damulag a managu.

Grandfather Frank owns the butting bull.


Ing manianglung kasakitan magtagumpe ya king katataulian.

He who carries his burden reaps success in the end.

MANIAUL. V. To abuse

Eya mapamaniaul anggiang ati ya king katungkulan.

He does not abuse although he is in power.

MANICAD. V. Kicking

Tucnang kang manicad pota akua mung mibaligtad.

Stop kicking or you might turn upside down.


Manicdo na ko ngan, uling ing aldo lalto ne’t manandauan.

You all rise now because the sun is already rising and manifesting.


Ing maninang bakal menibatan ya Capalangan.

The steel welder came from Capalangan.

MANINANG. V. To weld

E ka maninang bakal a makalauang.

Do not weld corroded steel.

MANIO, MANIA. Adj. Fortunate

Ing ninu mang mapibabata manio ya’t masaplala.

He who is persevering is fortunate and triumphant.

MANIPON. V. Gathering

I Pepe manipun yang are keta king marangle.

Joey is gathering hay in the farmland.

MANITI. V. Fries

I Lani maniti yang tabang babi king malating kauali.

Lilibeth is frying pork fats on a narrow pan.

MANIULIT. Akin to MANULIP. V. Patching

I Jose matiaga yang manulip king peimburisa’nang pamagaral.

Joey is patiently patching for his abandoned studies.

MANLAPAS. Adj. Precisely

Ing sasabia’na manlapas king katutuan.

He is precisely speaking in truth.


Ing manlapat misna ya caingat.

The tailor is extremely careful.

MANLICLIC. Adv. Competently

Ing orador ning Magalang mangamanu yang maliclican.

The orator of Magalang speaks competently.

MANLUCU. Akin to MANLUCUT. V. To fold the bedding

I Meming ing manlucut king pipagkeran mi.

It is Remie who folds our beddings.

MANLULU. Diminutive of LULU. N. Racer

Ding maki lulung bisikleta menibatan la bariu Sta. Maria.

The bicycle racers came from the village of Sta. Maria.

MANLUTAC. Akin to MANULAC. V. To push

Manulac tamung karosa keng daratang a fiesta.

Let us push the holy carreta this forthcoming fiesta.

MANUBAY. Akin to MANABE. V. To accompany

Kaninu ka manabe kasal?

Whose wedding will you accompany?

MANULID. Adj. Moving straight

Ing burarul nang Jaime Crisantu manulid yang susulapo banua.

James Christian’s kite is flying straight in the sky.


Ing katuanga’na mangutang yang pipipian.

Her mother-in-law is asking laundry.

MANUYAG. Akin to MANUYANG. N. Son-in-law

Ing manuyang nang lalaki maglaku ya’t managpi.

His son-in-law is a vendor and a weaver.

MARIMLA. Adj. Chilly

Marimlang marimla ustung Pascu.

It is very chilly during Christmas.

MARIN. Akin to MURIN. Adv. Also

Nung marimla, bala mu ati ka murin Amerika.

When cold, it is as if you are also in America.

MARUCUT. Akin to DUCUT. V. To take

E me duducutan ing bague e naman keka.

Do not take anything that is not yours.

MASA. Diminutive of ASA. N. Hope

Ing asa ku keya malalam.

My hope for him is great.

MASA. V. Hope

Eku mamasa anggang nanu pa keya.

I am not hoping anything from him.

MASANQUE. Akin to MASANGCAY. Adj. Earnest

Ing masanque nang nasa ing iya magmadre ya.

Her earnest aspiration is to become a nun.

MASICLAT. Adj. terribly hot

Ing aldo masiclat ya ustung ugtung aldo na.

The sun is terribly hot when it is high noon already.

MASIGLA. Adj. Noisy

E kayu masigla.

Do not be noisy.

MATAGA. V. Struck by a fish hook

E ka lelele king matua uling pota mataga ka king paduas na.

Do not go close to the old man, or you might be struck by his rod.

MATIC.  V. To drizzle

Salilung mu nang malagua ing imalan, matic na kanian.

Take in the clothes immediately, it will drizzle.

MATIC. Akin to MATICAS. Adj. Smart

Ala nang maticas pa king Kapampangan a baintau.

No one can be as smart as a Kapampangan gentleman.

MATITU. Akin to MAUTITU. Adj. Skillful

Ing mautitu dapat katulan deyang masampat.

He who is skillful in work is truly admired by all.

MAUN. V. To dig

Maun kang malalam ban manikua tamung ng danum a maniaman.

Dig deeper so that we can secure good potable water.

MAYAP. Adj. Good

Mayap namu dinatang naya i Malou.

It is good that Marilou has already come.

MAYUYU. Adj. Greatly swayed

Ing anak cuna mayuyu yang tutu.

The crib greatly swayed.

MENESES. Diminutive of MENESE. V. Raised

I Pablu menese yang dakal a pabu.

Paul raised a lot of turkeys.

MICLAT. V. Opened

Ninu ing miclat king pasbul tamu?

Who opened our door?

MUAN. V. To be offended

E na dapat pika muan e pikatulan nang gagawan.

He is not to be offended with the wrong actions he makes.

MULA. N. Yard

Ing mula da makapadurut yang manga.

Their yard is surrounded by mangoes.

MULA. N. Beginning

Ing Guinu Ya ing Mula at Kapupusan.

God is the Beginning and End.

MULA . V. To begin

Nukarin ku magmula?

Where will I begin?

MULDONG. Akin to MALDO. V. Shine

Ngeni, maldong atnang pali inia ume na kayung mamipi.

Today, the sun hotly shined, hence, you begin your laundry.

MULI. V. To go home

Muli ka Capas bukas.

Go home to Capas tomorrow.

MUSNGI. Diminutive of MUSNI. V. To open

Nung musni kang pisasabian iti e mu gugulutan.

If you open a discussion, this you must not abandon.

MUTUC. Akin to MUTUNG. V. To place in the head, as a crown

Mamutung cang reyna kaibat mung migpoesia.

You will crown the queen after reciting your poem.

NABUNG. V. To fall

Ing menabung karpinteru titika yang pepaulu.

The carpenter who fell went limping to the doctor.

NACIS. Akin to NASI. N. Rice

Ing nasing bayung llutu atnang kaniaman.

Newly cooked rice is very delicious.

NACPIL. Akin to PINLAC. N. Merchant

Ing magpinlac ning Minalin mamisali yang matuang imalan.

The merchant of Minalin is selling used clothings.


Ing bayo mu inaguiat nacung datang ku.

Your brother-in-law invited me to come.

NAGUIT. Akin to NAGUIAT. V. Invite

Ing caluguran ku inaguiat nacung manukiat king balubad.

My friend invited took me to climb on the cashew tree.

NALUS. Akin to NALAS. V. To drift

Ing pauas manalas karing frutas.

The mist drifts into the fruits.

NICDAO. Akin to TICDAO. V. To rise

Manicdo na kayu uling makalto ne ing aldo.

Rise now because the sun has already shined.

NONO. Adj. Opportune

Nung bisa kang bie manono, apusan mu ing sipag mang apu mu.

If you want an opportune life, emulate your grandfather’s industriousness.

NUCUM. V. Judge

Ninung ing menucum ketang taung makadalum?

Who judged the accused person?

NUCUP.  V. Enveloping

Ing manucup a lulam susulapo papunta balen Sasmuan.

The enveloping dark clouds are moving towards Sasmuan town.

NUGUID. V. Provoking

Ing babaing melapastangan manuguid yang gunutan.

The scandalized woman was provoking a hair-pulling fight.

NULUD. V. Picking young leaves

Manulud yang langguk kulubasa king malualas dang mula.

She is picking squash tops at their spacious backyard.

NULUD. V. To wear

Manulud kang ita mung keka.

Wear that is only yours.

NULUD. V. To enter

Eka manulud keng kawayanan.

Do not enter the bamboo groove.

NUNAG. Akin to MUNAG. Adj. Shining

Ing talang munag kilap-kilap yang alang tuknang.

The shining star is unendlessly radiating.

NUQUI. V. Took

Menuqui yang kalugaran iniang minata ya Sasmuan.

He took a friend with him when he went to Sasmuan.

PABALAN. V. To be forewarned

I bapa mu dapat yang pabalan a’manu uling ing panaun ali piju.

Your uncle must be forewarned because of the uncertainly of times.

PABALATE. Adj. Elevated

Ing matas dang pasbul atin yang matibe batung pabalate.

Their tall doll has a strong elevated concrete.

PABUSTAN. V. To be forsaken

I Jason tamung kaluguran ali ya dapat pabustan.

Our dearest Jason must never be forsaken.

PACU. N. Fern

Mapacu lele tete.

Ferns are plentiful in the nearby bridge.

PACO. N. Furrow

Matalusad la deng paco ning plaisdan.

The fishpond’s furrows are slippery.

PAGALA. V. To get tired

Ding anak nang Clarita mepagal’ ang magdulap keya.

The children of Claire got tired searching for her.

PAGAO. N. Shoulder

E masanting ing mananabu pago.

It is not nice to have dropping shoulders.

PAGCU. Diminutive of PACU. N. Nail

I Iru sinali yang kapurit a pirasong pacu.

Peter bought few pieces of nails.

PAGUIO. V. To contain

Ding apalya mipagui la ngan king bandala na.

The bitter gourds were all contained on her basket.

PALAD. N. Palm

Ding palad nang masias mamalitang dapat na masiamas.

His toughened palms foretell his assiduous diligence.

PALAD. Akin to MAPALAD. Adj. Fortunate

Ding tau mapalad la king Guinu tamung Hesukristu.

The people are fortunate with our Lord Jesus Christ.

PALAGANAS. V. To spread

Ing dalukat pale palaganas na king mabilug a marangle.

The rice leaf blight is now spreading in the whole farm.

PALEAN. N. Ricefield

I Apung Damian malualas ya palean.

Old Arman has a wide ricefield.

PALLASIGUI. Diminutive of PALLIGUI. N. Ditch

Ing palligui marakal ya butiti.

The ditch has plenty of tadpoles.

PALO. V. Strike

Iti kasebian yang talaturu: “ipalu ung wanan, ipanaru ung kaili.”

This teacher’s saying: “Strike your right, caress your left.”


Iti adua’ ning Kasulatan:” Pamintuan yu lang masampat ding kekayung pengari.”

Thus, asks the Bible:” Obey truthfully your parents.”


Ing sabla ating sariling panaun.

Everything has its own time.

PANGAN. V. Be eaten

King palage mu, ding kamamarung merakap lele sementeryu apangan la kaya?

I your opinion, can the crickets that were caught near the cemetery be eaten?

PANGANOCAN. Akin to PANGUNACAN N. Relative-nephew/niece

I Fernan , a paungncan cu,matas ya’t masanting a baintau.

Fernan, my nephew, is a towering and a good-looking guy.


Ding sablang Kristianu masusi deng pangilinanind aldo Bierne’Santu.

The whole Christendom religiously observes Good Friday.

PANIGBATAN. Akin to PANIBATAN. N. Origin,source, cause

Ing pamisasagsagan iyang panibata’ ning paminggulutan.

Division is the cause of disintegration.

PANIGBATAN. Akin to PANIGBATAN. V. Come from/Origin

Nukarin yam o kaya ing keying penibatan?

Where do you think did she come from?

PANLAQUI. Diminutive of LALAQUI. N. Male

Ding panlalaking kanangga atiu la keni.

The perfumes for males are here.

PANLICAN. Diminutive of PANICAN. V. To go up

Panican meng maistilu ketang kayang pipainauan.

Go up to him politely In his lounging room.

PANLILIO. Diminutive of LILIO. N. Dizziness

Ing panga liliu na iyang pepalawe na nan ketang manuku.

It was her dizziness that she had consulted to the doctor.

PANTIG. N. Stroke

Itang maya’nang pantig ing migpatunud king damulag.

Is was his light stroke that tamed the carabao.

PAPA. V. To be cursed

E ka makanian a sasabian , pota mapapa ka.

Do not speak like that , or you will be cursed.

PARAS. Adj. Peppery

Maparas ing linutu nang tinola.

The chicken broth she cooked is peppery.

PARUNGAO. Akin to PADUNGO. V. To look out from the window

Padungo yang sinilip karing keya kukulait.

She looked out from the window to glimpse to her calling friends.

PASANTING. Phrase. Looks better

I Jason pasanting neng pasanting.

Jason looks better and better.

PASINAG. V. To manifest, show

Ing lugud ku karing matua ku ipapainag ku king dapat ku.

My love for my parents is manifested through my actions.

PASAMBUL. V. To exempt

Ala kekatamu ing makapasumbali king pamanubus cedula.

No one of us is exempted from taking residence certificate.

PATAWARAN. V. Forgiven

Ding makasalanan dapat lang patawaran.

The sinners must be forgiven.

PATDU. Akin to PATDA. V To put off

Ding sulu makapatda na la.

The lights are off already.

PATING. Diminutive of PATI. N. Ganta

I Mr. Manalastas sinali yang metung pating abias

Mr. Manalastas bought one ganta of rice.

PAULE. Akin to PAULI. V. To leave for home

Pauli na ku iniang dinatang ya.

I was leaving when she came.

PAULE. Conj. Because.

Migtagumpe ya pauli ning kapagmasusia’ na.

He succeeded because of his dedication.

PAULE. Akin to PULI. Adj. Well-mannered

Mayap ya pangapuli.

He is well-mannered.

PAYABYAB. V. To warm

Ipayabyab me ing sulasi king api.

Warm the “salusi” into the cinder.

PAYAD. V. To touch into the surface.

Ipayad me ing bitis mu king samientu.

Touch your foot into the floor.

PAYAG, PAYANG. V. To allow

King palague mu payagang de mo kaya?

Do you think they will allow him?


Ing kata-katang akakit tamu menibat king upaya ning Guinu.

The multitude that we see came from the power of the Lord.

PAYUAN. V. To advise

Ing ninu man e me papayuan nung iti e na aduan.

Anybody must not be advised if he does not seek for it.

PAYUMO. Phrase. Getting sweeter

Ding bunga patua nong patua inia payumo nong payumu.

The fruits are becoming older, thus, they are getting sweeter.

PELAYO.V. Nickname

I Francisco pelayuan deng “Kiku”.

Francisco was nicknamed “Kiko”.

PILI. V. Selected

Ding tinuki pili lamu.

Those who joined are selected.

PINGUL. V. Earpinch

Ing masias a buntuk a’nak pingula’ neng Mr. Bondoc.

The hardheaded boy was earpinched by Mr. Bondoc.

PINILI. V. To choose

Ing Guinu pinili na la ding Pilipinu bang mamunu ngening bayung siglu

God has chosen the Filipino people in order to lead in the new millennium.

PINPIN. V. Fold nearly

I apung Daling masanting na lang pininpin ding lampin.

Grandmother Adelaida neatly folded the diapers.

PRING. Akin to PURI. N. Reputation

Ing puring meuala kaya maragul pa king kaladua na.

The reputation lost to him is much greater than his soul.

PUNLA. N. Seedling

Ding punla pitput da la karing kama at dela da la king taldaua.

The seedlings were uprooted from the ricebeds and were taken to the farm.

PUNO. N. Chief

I Mr. Palo I yang punu ning bariu.

Mr. Palo is the chief of the village.


Ding beluga ilang pungsalang ning balayang Kapampangan.

The Aetas are the pioneers of the province of Pampanga.

PUSUNG. Adj. Naughty, fond of joking

Ing pusung a’nak nang Tina e ne katulan Gina.

The naughty son of Tina displeases Gina.

PUYAT. Adj. Sleepless

Ing puyat a tau e ya dapat pipilitan manasik king dayat.

A sleepless man should not be forced to tread in the farm.

QUIAMBAO. Akin to QUIAMBAY. V. To sway

Paquimjbe-quimbe ing lakad na.

She sways her body as she walks.

QUIBOLOY. Diminutive of QUIBUL. V. To throb

Ing pusu na quiquibul ya ustung akakit ne ing paglolua’ na.

His heart throbs whenever he sees the maiden she woos.

QUILALA. N. Acquaintance

Deti ilang quilala-quilalang maestra yapin ing kanakung asawa.

The very famous teacher is my wife.

QUILLING. Adj. Tilted

Ing quilling a kalderu semasa’ neng Remigio.

The tilted pot was fixed by Remy.

QUIOC. N. Turkey’s sound

Ing pabu danupan ne nung mag “quiuc-quiuc” nay a.

The turkey is already starving as it sounds “quioc-quioc”.

QUIZON. Akin to QUISAO. V. To wade

Ing pipagquison ding damulag atnang kaburak.

What was waded by the carabaos is so muddy.

QUITALIG. Diminutive of TALI. N. String

Inaptas da ing pale quing taling matibe.

They tied the rice stalks with hard strings.

SABANGAN. V. To expose

E mu sasabangan ing angina uling iti babie kuku’t sipun.

Do not expose yourself to the breeze because it causes cold and sneeze.

SABAT. N. Obstruction

Ing sabat king dalan memunga yang pate’t pamisagsagan.

The obstruction on the pathway brought mayhem and disorder.

SABAT. V. To butt in

Ali masanting ing sabat mung sabat.

It is not good to butt in relentlessly.

SABLAN, ZABLAN. Diminutive of SABLA. Adj. All.

Ding sabla siniklaud la

All knelt.

SACDALAN. Diminutive of SACDAL. Adj. Immense

Sacdal ing lugud ning asawa ku kanaku.

The love of my wife for me is immense.

SACLAO. N. Dominion

Ing kegana-gana saclo ning Mayupayag Guinu.

Everything is the dominion of the Lord Almighty.

SADDI. Akin to ADDIA. V. To prepare

Ding tau maka’ddia la king nanu mang mallari.

The people are prepared to whatever might happen.

SADIAN. V. Preparing

Ding sablang Cristianus mayumu dang pag sadian ing paniatang ning Pascu.

All Christians are enthusiastically preparing for the coming Christmas.

SADSAD. V. To embank

Ing banca mi sadsad ya banda paroba.

Our boat embanked near the lakeshore.

SAGAD. Adv. Extremely

Ing sagi’nang Bebut sagad ne lulut.

Beth’s bananas are extremely ripe.

SAGCAL. V. To prop

Ing banca macasagcal yang dutung a matua.

The banca is propped with a strong timber.

SAGMIT. V. To seize

Sagmit kang pabu at ibie me kang Mr. Dabu.

Seize the turkey and give it to Mr. Dabu.

SAGUM. Akin to AGUM. V. To unite.

Ding Kapampangan mak’agum la pamicacapatad.

The Kampapangans are united in brotherhood.

SAGUM. Akin to AGUMAN. N. Association

Ing pamisanmetung ding Kapampangan mayayakit ya karing aguman da.

The unity of the Kapampangans is found in their associations.

SALA. N. Light

Ing sala ning also makaslag na.

The sunlight is shining already.


Sinalac na ing palak.

He filtered the particle.

SALALAC. V. To be caught, to hang

Ding pakpak ning tagak misalalac la king dikut tarlak.

The heron’s wings were caught on the Tarlac grass.

SALALILA. Akin to SALALE. V. Borne/depend

Ing paintungula’na makasalale king takde nang ating na.

His future is borne on her sister’s shoulders.

SALAMAT. N. Thanks

Guinu, dakal pung dakal a salamat.

Lord, I owe you many thanks.

SLAMAT. V. To thank

Aku magpasalamat ku keka.

I am thanking you.

SALAMAT. Adj. Thankful

Pasalamat ku king katuangan ku.

I am thankful to my mother-in-law.


Ing sungkit na ala yang salangat.

His stick is hookless.

SALANGSANG. N. Contradiction/opposition

Ing mete salangsang ala yang kararasan.

A dead contradiction is directionless.

SALANGSANG. N. To contradict/oppose

Ninu keka yu ing sasalangsang mung sasalangsang?

Who among you is always contradicting?


Ing matas a salansan dutung pelatio nang Damian.

The tall pile of firewood was chopped by Arman.

SALANSAN. V. To pile neatly

Sasalansanan da la ding ugse-ugse ulunan.

They are piling neatly the scattered pillows.

SALENGA. Diminutive of SALE. N. Nest

Ing kanakung bilas inukiat ne ing saleng atnang katas.

My brother-in-law climbed the very high nest.

SALENGA. Diminutive of SALE. N. Citronella

Migdala yang sale a mepupul Sta. Rita.

She brought citronella harvested in Sta. Rita.

SALISI. V. To replace

Ninu kaya ing salisi karela?

Who will replace them next?

SALTA. V. Bounce

Tampian me ing bola, iti salta ya.

Tap the ball; this will bounce.

SALUNGA. Akin to SALUNGAT. Adj. Contrary

Ing buri ding tau salungat king keying balu.

The choice of the people is contrary to his knowledge.

SALUNSON. V. To fetch

Ninu kaya ing salunsun karela?

Who will fetch them?

SAMBA. V. To worship

Samba ka mu king Guinu.

Worship to God only.

SAMBAT. Akin to SAMBA. V. To worship

Samba’t mangadi ka mu king mapamakalulung Guinu.

Worship and praise only in the merciful Almighty.

SAMIA. Akin to SAMIU. V. Fragrance

Ing samiu ning sampagang sampaguita ala yang kalupa.

The fragrance of the sampaguita flower is uncomparable.

SAMPANG. Akin to SAMPA. V. To rise, to ascend

Ding melahar sinampa lang malagua.

The lahar victims rose immediately.

SANGALANG. Akin to SANGAL. V. To break

Ing paratut a’nak asangal ne ing tindaragul ning gamat na.

The boastful child broke the thumb of his finger.

SANGALANG. Akin to SANGAL. Adj. Broken

Ding mesangal a sanga abuta’na lang Patricia Ella.

The broken branches are being reached by Patricia Ella.

SANGGALANG. V. To resist

Ing sulisitud ding migpusitara singgalang da ding mangatua.

The betrothal of the couple who eloped was resisted by the elderly.

SANGGALANG. N. Resistance

Ing sanggalang tamu karing mapanupil balu da ding sablang Pilipinu.

Our resistance against the oppressors is known by all the Filipinos.

SANGIL. N. Cruelty

Ing sangil ning tau e na katulan ning Guinu.

The cruelty of man is nor pleasing to the God.

SAPAD. Adj. Flat

Ding arung a sapad malagad na la ngeni.

Flat noses are rare nowadays.

SAPAD. V. To lay flat

Ing pale makasapad king marangle.

The rice plants lay flat on the field.

SAPLALA. V. To succeed

Ing ninu mang e matiaga e ya misaplala.

He who is not patient will not succeed.

SAPNU. V. To catch or prop with the hand

I Portia makasapnu ya baba uli ning malumbe ya.

Portia props her chin with her hand because she is sad.

SARASA. Adj. Seemingly

Ing tarat sarasaramatsa yang teterak keng pitak.

The sparrow seemingly dances on the murk.

SARASA. N. White spotted rooster

Iniang malati cu atin cung manuc a sarasa.

When I was young, I have a white spotted rooster.


Atin cung bayung singsing.

I have a new ring.

SESE. N. Pet

I Tagpi mayap yang sese.

Spotty is a good pet.

SIBAL. Akin to SIBUL. N. Spring

Ing danum ning sibul malinong-malino.

The water of the spring is very clear.

SIBAL. Akin to AKSIBAL. N. A purple herb

Ing aksibal panulu ya karing tigsang tutubu.

An “aksibal” is a cure for skin boils.

SIBUG. Akin to SIBUNG. V. To push

Sibung ne ing gareta padulung king budega.

She pushed the cart towards the storeroom.

SICAT. N. Brilliance

Ing sicat ning aldo memie yang tula karing liligo.

The brilliance of the sun gave laughter to the fishermen.

SICAT. Adj. Popular

Ing sicat a talaturu bait at meragul ya king pangulu.

The popular teacher was born and grew in a rustic village.

SIGUA. N. Storm

Ding sigua ning bie dapat lamung kilikang kala-kalale.

The storms of life must be taken easily.

SIMBUL. N. Symbol

Ding pusu tamu ila ing simbul ning Guinu tamung Hesu Kristu.

Our hearts are the symbol of our Lord Jesus Christ.

SIMBULAN. V. To symbolize

Ing aklis ning bunduk Arayat sisimbula’na ing ugali tamung mayayatyat.

The extensiveness of Mt. Arayat symbolizes our forthright character.

SINAMBAN. V. To worship

Ding tau sinamban de ign Mayupang Guinu king santuariu.

The people worshipped the Almigbty Creator in the sanctuary.

SINDALAN. V. To shelter

Ding mengalahar sinandal da la king matas a sular.

The lahar victims were sheltered in high places.

SINGIAN. V. To part the hair

I Esting masanting neng singian ing titikdo nang buak.

Ernest stylishly parted his rising hair.

SINIO. V. Shouted

I Antu matni neng sinio ing keyang lagiu.

Tony loudly shouted his name.

SOLIMAN. Diminutive of SULI. N. Seed

Ing suling mitanam karing kaladua ding Kapampangan iya ing tepangan.

The seed that was implanted into the souls of the Kapampangans is gallantry.

SUBA. V. To go up

Ding talangka susuba la pangulu neng bula’ning Agostu.

Palm crabs go up the village during the month of August.

SUING. N. Breech

Ing suing anak mibait yang mipnung taun.

The breech baby was born with heavy pigment.

SULA. N. A deep-red stone

Maracal a sula king bariu Iba.

There are plenty of deep-red stones in the village of Iba.

SULIT. V. Compensate

Ing penga’na e sulit king binayad na.

What he ate does not compensate with what he paid.

SUMANG, SUIMANGA. Akin to UMANG. V. To place something against

Ding palwe inumang na la lete tete.

He placed the fish poles near the bridge.

SUMANGUID. Adj. Opposite/across

Sasamasan de ing bale sumanguid ning tete.

They are fixing the house opposite the bridge.

SUMAT. Akin to SAMAT. N. A smooth heart-shaped vine

King bulung samat ipapalaman da ing luyus ampon api.

On the “samat” leaf is stuffed the bettle nut and the lime.

SUNDIAM. Diminutive of SINDI. V. To kindle, to light

Sindian me ing kalang.

Kindle the stove.

SUNGA. N. Gasping, panting

Ing sunga na iyang mekabungsul keya.

Her gasping caused her to faint.

SUPAN. Akin to SAUPAN. V. To help

Nung saupan me ing sarili mu, saupa’na ka naman ning Apung Guinu.

If you will help yourself; the Lord God will help you also.

SUSI. N. Key

Lugud ing susi king pamakawani.

Love is the key to disunity.

TABION, Akin to TABUN. N. Soil cover to contain water/water embankment

Ing tabu’ning sapa kapmu neng kapmung danum.

The soil cover of the riverbank is already full of water.

TABLANG. Diminutive of TABLA. N. Flat wood

Ing tablang matibe mesali ya Macabebe.

The strong wood was bought in Macabebe.

TAGLE. N. Pole

Ding bule igapang la karing matibe tagle.

The purple beans must be crept on the strong poles.

TAGUINES. V. To drag

Ing bundaki piki’teginis ne ing paduas nang Basti.

The huge mudfish broke and dragged the fish rod of Sebastian.

TAJU. N. Food prepared during feast or party.

Ing tajung Kapampangan malasa’t maniaman.

The Kapampangan food is tasty and delicious.

TALA. N. Star

Itang tala king aslagan iyang tintunan ding manasan.

It was the eastern star that was trailed by the fishermen.

TAMAYO. Phrase of TAMA YO. V. Make precise

I tama yu ing ulam king maniaman a aslam.

Make precise the foodstuff in fine vinegar.

TAMAYO. Akin to TAMAK. Adj. Precise

Ing pakibat na tamak ya.

His answer is precise.

TANDO. V. To look out

Tando ka saguli.

Look out for a while.

TANGLAO. Adj. light

Ing tanglo ning bie ku atiu king Apung Guinu.

The light of my life is in the Lord God.

TAPANG. Akin to TAPA. N. Dried meat

I Nanang kung Menang maglutu yang tapang damulag.

My Aunt Carmen is cooking dried cara-beef meat.

TAPANG. Adj. Valor, bravery

Dapat tamu mu naming kilalanan ing tapang ding sundalung Amerikanu.

We must recognize the bravery of the American soldiers.

TAPNIO. Akin to TAPIO. V. To cause a tiny cut

Ing tinlalati nang Simang mitapiusan ya king palang.

Marcy’s small finger was almost cut by the knife.

TARUC. V. To fathom

E mu tatarucan ing belua’ning Mayupayang Miglalang.

Do not fathom the wisdom of the Almighty Creator.

TARUC. N. Measure

Ing taru’cu king isip nang tatang alang kapiuan.

My measure of father’s thoghts is uncertain.

TAYAG. V. To hang, to raise, to lift.

Itayag me ing pusu mu king Guinu nung mabayat la ding pupusanan mu.

Raise your heart to the Lord when your burdens are heavy.

TIBE. N. Strength/durability

Ing tibe ning pusu na minie sikanan king tagumpe na.

The strength of her heart paved power to her success.

TICSAY. Akin to ACSE. V. To stretch

Ding gamat ning Guinu tamung Hesu Cristu make’cse la king pacalulu.

The arms of the lord Jesus Christ are stretched with mercy.

TIGLAO. Adj. Prosperous

Ing bie nang Pining atna’nang ka tiglo ngeni.

The life of Josephine is now very prosperous.

TIGLAO. Akin to TIGLAUS.V. To accomplish, to continue

Ing e malaus nang paninap tiglaus nitang keying anak.

Her unrealized ambition was accomplished by her son.

TIMBOL. Diminutive of TIMBU. N. Broom grass.

Ding sampagang timbu mamuyutputan la king pangulu.

The broom grass blossoms abound in the prairie.

TIMBOL. V. To beat

Ding anak timbulan da la ding batya.

The children beat the basins.

TIMBANG. N. Weight

Ing timbang ku igit a mabayat ngeni.

My weight is heavier now.

TIMBANG. V. To weigh

Tinimbang da la ding seli ku.

They weighed what I bought.

TIMPUG. Diminutive of TIMPU. V. To sit with folded legs infront of the body.

Tucnang kang timpu mung timpu.

Stop sitting with your folded legs.

TINDAN. V. Marked out

Tinda’na king isip na ing marok a depat da kaya.

He marked out in his mind the insults done to him.

TIPA, TIPAY. Diminutive of TIPA. V. To go down

I tata tipa ya mu potang ima dating nay a.

Father will only go down when mother comes.

TIQUI. V. Brought along

I tatang ku tiqui na ku ketang bariu dang matua.

My father brought me to their old village.

TIRAO. Adj. High

Ing tuku atneng ka tiro ukiat king tanamang caimitu.

The chameleon has crawled high on

TIRU. V. Taught

Deti ilang tiru ning maestro ku ketang malati ku: pamanulat, pamamasa, pamamilang

These are what my teacher taught me when I was young: writing, reading and counting.


Ing maka sogang damulag makatali ya king makutkut a tulus.

The grazing carabao is knotted into a deep buried pole.

TONGIO. Akin to TANGO. N. Nod

Ing tangu na kanaku atnang kayumu.

Her nod to me is very sincere.

TUA. Diminutive of MATUA. Adj. Old

I inang ku matua nay a.

My mother is already old.

TUAZON, TUASON. Akin to TUAS. V. To beat

E mu la a tuasan ding Kapampangan.

You can never beat the Kapampangans.

TULABING. V. Walk on a narrow path, rope, pole, top of a wall

Ding kambing tutulabe la karing malating pilapil.

The goats are walking on the narrow hill.

TULABOT. Akin to TABALU. V. To Trip

Ding damulag mengatalabu la king burak.

The carabaos tripped into the mud.

TULLAO, TULAO, TULIO. V. To look at a short distance

Tulauan mu na la ding wali mu nung daratang na la.

Look at your small brothers if they are already coming.

TULUD. N. Young leaf

Ing tulud balubad misna kaniaman king tiris kamatis.

Cashew’s young leaves are edibly luscious in crushed tomato.

TUMANG. V. To get hold

Tumangan meng tulus ing posting mikakabius.

Hold with a pole the falling post.

TUNGCAB. V. To open forcibly

Ing maca candadung pasbul metungcab yang mapanaco.

The locked door was forcibly opened by burglars.


Ing magaral a mapagbulakbul madalumdum ya paintungulan.

A student who is procrastinating has a bleak future.

TURLA. Akin to TUDLA. V. To hit with a bow and arrow

Ding kulut atudla de ing maragul a babing dikut.

The Aetas hit the big wild boar with their arrow.

TWANO. Akin to TUA. Adj. Old

Ding kaluguran ku matua nong memamakiasawa.

My friends were old when they got married.

UMALI. Akin to TUMALI. V. To rise

Tumali kang maranun potang gatganapun.

You rise early this afternoon.

UMLAS. Akin to MULAS. V. To share blanket

Umulas ka kang Kulas.

Share blanket with Luke.

VINLUAN. Akin to BANGLU. V. Made fragnant

Ding dalaga pepa bangluan da la ding imalan da.

The ladies made their dresses smell fragrant.

VINUYA, VIUYA. Akin to BINUYA. V. Cultivated

I Mr. Sese binuya neng masalese ing keying marangle.

Mr. Sese rigidly cultivated his farmfield.

VIRAY. N. Boat

I Pepe gagamita’neng keyang pamamagale.

Peter is using his boat in fish hunting.

VITUG. Akin to BILITUG. N. Fried corn

Ding bilitug a binie ning wali ku maniaman la pamangamayumu.

The fried corns given by my sibling are deliciously sweetened.

VITUG. N. Akin to BITAOG. N. A Hardwood

Malagad na la mu deng dutung bitaog ngeni.

Bitaog trees are scarce nowadays.

WANTA. Diminutive of WA. Adv. Yes

Wa, tuki ku karela.

Yes, I will join them.

YABUT. V. To offer

E ka painainggulat king saup a keka na yabut.

Never discard the help which to you he offers.

YADAO. V. To seek

Yaduan mu ing pacalulu ning Guinu.

Seek the mercy of the Lord.

YALUNG. V. To play

I Buru memiyalung yang pau inya mapangaliguan yang tutu.

Robert played a turtle, that’s why, he is truthfully forgetful.

YAMAT. V. To get pleased

I inang ku meyama’t metula ya king panyake nang tsubibu.

My mother got excited and happy riding on a ferries wheel.

YAMBAO. V. To set in front.

Yamba me ing palupalu ban mikarugan ya I Goriu.

Set the paddle to the front so that George will get frantic.

YANDAN. V. To prepare

Ding maisawa piyandan dang mayap ing pamaglako da.

The couple has prepared well for their departure.

YANDOC. V. Allure

I Ando inandu na la ding manuk a malutu.

Fernand allured the red cockfighters.

YANGA. V. To raise

Yanga me king api ing kabukal-bukal a nasi.

Raise from the fire the simmered rice.

YUMANG. Diminutive of UMA. N. Kiss

Ing umang ima misna king yumu.

A mother’s kiss is very sweet.

YUMUL. Akin to MAYUMU. Adj. Sweet

Ding mayumung caimitu pemisali na lang apu ku.

The sweet starapples were sold by the grandmother.

YUNUN. Akin to AYUNU. N. Fasting

Ing ayunu katulan’ing Guinu.

Fasting is delightful to the Lord.

YUSI. V. To close

Manyusi na kang pasbul.

Close the door now.

YUSON, YUZON. Akin to AYUSAN. V. T fix

Ayusan me ngeni murin.

Fix it immediately now.

YUTUC. V. To bend

Beyutuc na la ding sangang sari baba.

He bent the very low branches.

ZABAT, SABAT. V. To butt, to meddle

E ka sabat mung sabat nun gala kang masalese pakibat.

Stop butting in if you have none sensical answers.


Karing anggang mamasa kaniting libru, mayap a oras pu kekayung sabla.

To those who are reading this book, a very fine day to all of you.


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by the International Association of Multidisciplinary Research (IAMURE)
at Marriott Hotel, Jakarta, Indonesia
on January 21-23, 2013.


Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using audiotapes, videotapes, or transcriptions of planned interviews. These interviews are conducted with people who participated in or observed past events and whose memories and perceptions of these are to be preserved as an aural record for future generations. Oral history strives to obtain information from different perspectives, and most of these cannot be found in written sources.

Oral history has become an international movement in historical research. Oral historians in different countries have approached the collection, analysis, and dissemination of oral history in different ways. However, it should also be noted that there are many ways of creating oral histories and carrying out the study of oral history even within individual national contexts.

Along this premise, the elders of Lubao, Pampanga, (Lubao is considered to be the Cradle of Kapampangan Civilization and Christianity) traditionally believed that the sacred Cross of the Crucified Christ was received by their ancestors led by Datu Macabulus after they capitulated to the Spaniards in September 14, 1571. Oral accounts indicated that the holy Image of the Crucified Cross was lost for a long period of time but was believed to re-appear sometimes in the middle of 1700. Since then, it was enshrined in barangay Sta. Cruz and is venerated by its countless devotees because of the countless favors and miracles the holy Cross has been sustaining them.

However, some people were skeptical about its authenticity and age; hence, this research. For this purpose, the investigatory research will employ the scientific inquiry method using carbon dating procedures as the primary method to yield empirical results.

Radiocarbon, or carbon 14, is an isotope of the element carbon that is unstable and weakly radioactive. The stable isotopes are carbon 12 and carbon 13.
Carbon 14 is continually being formed in the upper atmosphere by the effect of cosmic ray neutrons on nitrogen 14 atoms. It is rapidly oxidized in air to form carbon dioxide and enters the global carbon cycle.
Plants and animals assimilate carbon 14 from carbon dioxide throughout their lifetimes. When they die, they stop exchanging carbon with the biosphere and their carbon 14 content then starts to decrease at a rate determined by the law of radioactive decay.

Radiocarbon dating is essentially a method designed to measure residual radioactivity. By knowing how much carbon 14 is left in a sample, the age of the organism when it died can be known. It must be noted though that radiocarbon dating results indicate when the organism was alive but not when a material from that organism was used.

The scientific results of the study will provide not only empirical information to the on-going inquest of the Research Office of the Tarlac State University along social, technological, cultural, industrial and scientific realms but will also supply the Philippines with additional and valuable literature vis-a -vis church heritage.

The results will bolster the authentication and validation of oral traditions through scientific inquiry. This study, which is a pioneering research undertaking in the university on radiocarbon dating procedures, will invite the attention of local government and church authorities to involve themselves in allowing their surviving treasures i.e. church antiques, ancestral porcelains and the like to undergo scientific examination to bolster their local pride and heritage; thus, a boost to local tourism industry.

The results of the study will not only serve as local pride to the Municipal Government of Lubao, Pampanga and Archdiocese of San Fernando, Pampanga but as a national pride for the Tarlac State University in the field of socio-cultural-ecclesiastical research in exploring new investigative frontier. Similarly, its impact will serve as a great contributory to the re-discovery of Philippine’s national history and heritage.

The general objective of the study is to identify the age of the holy Crucifix using radiocarbon dating method. Specifically, it aims to carry out the study by identifying the age of the sacred Cross of the Crucified Image of Christ through radiocarbon dating procedures, and to provide scientific information to the people vis-à-vis results of the carbon dating analysis.

Specifically, the study aimed to:
1. Verify the age of the cross sample that was presumed to be brought by the Augustinian Friars in the Philippines in September 14, 1571 according to some documents and oral accounts through carbon-dating analysis.
2. For some time, the cross and the image were separated. To prove that the pieces are compatible, similarities in the matrices of radio-carbon data will justify that the two are compatible.

Methods and Materials

Radiocarbon dating (sometimes simply known as carbon dating) is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring radioisotope carbon-14 (14C) to estimate the age of carbon-bearing materials up to about 58,000 to 62,000 years.

The technique of radiocarbon dating was developed by Willard Libby and his colleagues at the University of Chicago in 1949. Libby estimated that the steady state radioactivity concentration of exchangeable carbon-14 would be about 14 disintegrations per minute (dpm) per gram. He demonstrated the accuracy of radiocarbon dating by accurately estimating the age of wood from a series of samples for which the age was known, including an ancient Egyptian royal barge of 1850 BC. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiocarbon dating)
Using this investigative method, the objectives of the research were carried out with the results presented in the foregoing discussion.

This undertaking is an inter-agency research that endeavored to provide, facilitate, and conduct actual procedures in collecting samples to authenticate the oral tradition of the devotees of the Holy Cross of the Crucified Christ located in Sta. Cruz, Lubao, Pampanga, which they have been devoted with since time past.

The age of the holy Image was determined through radiocarbon dating procedures. The research was started January 2012 until April, 2012.

Initially, the researchers facilitated links with local and national agencies as regards protocols and carbon dating service providers. Unfortunately, no local radiocarbon dating agency in the country today is available to conduct the objectives of the research.

Finally, the proponents succeeded in connecting links with the Beta Analytic Inc. based in Miami, Florida, USA, which is probably one of the largest radiocarbon dating service providers in the world at present.

The Research and Development Office of the Tarlac State University through its Research Office provided technical assistance to the local government of Lubao, Pampanga. The municipal government of the town represented by Mayor Mylin Pineda-Cayabyab agreed to finance the services of the radiocarbon dating agency.

Collaboratively, the researchers created a working team composed of archeologist, chemist, planning officer, parish priests, carpenter, photographer, and municipal mayor to carry out the methods and procedures on the technical components of the project i.e. sampling, transport of samples, and the likes. Collaborations with the local parish priests, the Archdiocese of San Fernando, Pampanga and the
National Museum of the Philippines were made as regards the undertaking.

The radiocarbon dating agency provided the method and procedures with regard the technical aspects of the study. Classified as archeological artifacts, the samples were transported to the radiocarbon dating agency (Beta Analytic Inc.) via cargo flight of the Federal Express in Clarkfield Freeport, Angeles City, Pampanga.

Two weeks later, the radiocarbon results were provided to the researchers and chief executive of Lubao, Pampanga.
Wood samples were collected from the cross and from the image. Standard procedures were conducted prior to shipment to Beta-Analytic Laboratory for radio carbon dating:

A. Wood Collection and Sampling:

1. Select an area that does not show signs of rot or insect activity. Also make sure that the area does not show signs of being treated with shellac, oil, glue, other preservatives or additives.
2. Ideally the wood should be collected from the outer-most section of the piece, this will ensure that the outer-most growth rings are dated and provide the approximate time of death of the tree or branch, as close as physically possible.
3. Obtain two (2) new, wood twist-drill bits. Approximate size recommended is 5/32” for the first drilling and 1/8” for the second drilling. These drill bits should be cleaned prior to use with acetone to remove any machine oils and then allowed to air dry.
4. Drill a 5/32” hole approximately 1/4” to 3/8” deep and discard these drill shaving. It may be necessary to drill deeper if the wood is rotted or altered. Try to get some wood that has been isolated from any sort of surface contamination.
5. Lay the object on its side and place a piece of aluminum foil under the area to be drilled approximately 4” by 4” store bought foil is fine and requires no precleaning.
6. Drill the second hole with the 1/8” drill bit into the center of the 5/32” pilot hole and allow the shavings to collect onto the aluminum foil. Collect approximately 100-200 milligrams of wood sample shavings.
7. Once the shavings have been collected onto the aluminum foil, fold the foil such that you make a small pouch. Label the pouch with the sample code or name. Place this aluminum foil pouch in a zip-lock container and label.

B. Radio-Carbon Dating:

The samples were shipped for testing to Beta-Analytic Inc., known for more than 30 years; it is the pioneer in the radio-carbon dating business. It is the only radiocarbon dating laboratory accredited to the ISO 17025 standard. The samples were treated and analyzed as follows:

A. Principal Methods of Measuring Radiocarbon


There are three principal techniques used to measure carbon 14 content of any given sample gas proportional counting, liquid scintillation counting, and accelerator mass spectrometry.

Gas proportional counting is a conventional radiometric dating technique that counts the beta particles emitted by a given sample. Beta particles are products of radiocarbon decay. In this method, the carbon sample is first converted to carbon dioxide gas before measurement in gas proportional counters takes place.

Liquid scintillation counting is another radiocarbon dating technique that was popular in the 1960s. In this method, the sample is in liquid form and a scintillator is added. This scintillator produces a flash of light when it interacts with a beta particle. A vial with a sample is passed between two photomultipliers, and only when both devices register the flash of light that a count is made.

Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a modern radiocarbon dating method that is considered to be the more efficient way to measure radiocarbon content of a sample. In this method, the carbon 14 content is directly measured relative to the carbon 12 and carbon 13 present. The method does not count beta particles but the number of carbon atoms present in the sample and the proportion of the isotopes.

B. Radiocarbon Dating Standards
The radiocarbon age of a certain sample of unknown age can be determined by measuring its carbon 14 content and comparing the result to the carbon 14 activity in modern and background samples.
The principal modern standard used by radiocarbon dating labs was the Oxalic Acid I obtained from the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Maryland. This oxalic acid came from sugar beets in 1955. Around 95% of the radiocarbon activity of Oxalic Acid I is equal to the measured radiocarbon activity of the absolute radiocarbon standard—a wood in 1890 unaffected by fossil fuel effects.
When the stocks of Oxalic Acid I were almost fully consumed another standard was made from a crop of 1977 French beet molasses. The new standard, Oxalic Acid II, was proven to have only a slight difference with Oxalic Acid I in terms of radiocarbon content.

Over the years, other secondary radiocarbon standards have been made.
Radiocarbon activity of materials in the background is also determined to remove its contribution from results obtained during a sample analysis. Background radiocarbon activity is measured, and the values obtained are deducted from the sample’s radiocarbon dating results. Background samples analyzed are usually geological in origin of infinite age such as coal, lignite, and limestone.

C. Radiocarbon Dating Measurements
A radiocarbon measurement is termed conventional radiocarbon age (CRA). The CRA conventions include (a) usage of the Libby half-life, (b) usage of Oxalic Acid I or II or any appropriate secondary standard as the modern radiocarbon standard, (c) correction for sample isotopic fractionation to a normalized or base value of -25.0 per mille relative to the ratio of carbon 12/carbon 13 in the carbonate standard VPDB – Cretaceous belemnite formation at Peedee in South Carolina, (d) zero BP (Before Present) is defined as AD 1950, and (e) the assumption that global radiocarbon levels are constant.
Standard errors are also reported in a radiocarbon dating result, hence the “±” values. These values have been derived through statistical means.

D. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
Mass spectrometers detect atoms of specific elements according to their atomic weights. They, however, do not have the sensitivity to distinguish atomic isobars (atoms of different elements that have the same atomic weight, such as in the case of carbon 14 and nitrogen 14—the most common isotope of nitrogen).
Thanks to nuclear physics, mass spectrometers have been fine-tuned to separate a rare isotope from an abundant neighboring mass, and accelerator mass spectrometry was born. A method has finally been developed to detect carbon 14 in a given sample and ignore the more abundant isotopes that swamp the carbon 14 signal.




As presented on the spread sheet of the results and the calendar calibration graphs, the results disclosed that at 2-sigma statistics (95% probability), 2 dates yielded overlapping ranges, indicating that the results are statistically identical. Overlaps occur at Cal AD 1680 to 1690, Cal AD 1730, Cal 1810, Cal AD 1920 to 1930 and post AD 1950.

In an inquiry with Ron Hatfield, the deputy director/quality manager of radiocarbon dating agency (Beta Analytic Inc.), he explained “the result means that if no recent contamination was introduced into the wood which could not be removed by the acid and alkali treatments performed, then the tree growth rings dated for each sample were last in equilibrium with the atmosphere (alive) in one of these ranges. “

As he further explained “radiocarbon dating cannot determine exactly which range the rings actually represent, but it is one of them for each sample.”

It is to be noted that the prior to the pretreatment (acid/alkali/acid) procedure, the deputy director suggested special pretreatment (acid/alkali/acid/cellulose extraction) considerations prior to the laboratory analysis. The suggestion was made due to the heavy presence of paint, varnishes, oils and the likes in the samples. Special pretreatment is necessary to maximize the reduction of chemical contaminants that allow cellulose extractions easier for final analysis. However, it may or may not yield significant result than the pretreatment protocol that also needed added cost. As prior agreed, the researchers opted and deemed for the pretreatment analysis to proceed.

Beta-316804 (The Wooden Cross) yielded ranges of Cal AD 1650 to 1690 (Cal BP 300 to 260), Cal AD 1730 to 1810 (Cal BP 220 to 140), Cal AD 1920 to post 1950 (Cal BP 30 to post 1950)


Beta-316805 (The Image of Christ) yielded ranges of Cal AD 1680 to 1730 (Cal BP 270 to 220), Cal AD 1810 to 1930 (Cal BP 140 to 20), Cal AD Post 1950.

If the expected age was somewhere around 1570AD as traditionally believed by the residents, the results indicated that the very oldest that the dates seemed to represent would be the overlap from around the time of AD 1680 to1690. This is to assume if all the growth rings dated from both the samples were the same.

Seemingly, the age appears to be about 100 years later than was expected. This would mean that either the actual time the cross arrived in Lubao, Pampanga was more recent than historically reported or that the wood was contaminated by more recent organics such as penetrated oils, varnishes, paints, etc.

As observed by the Mr. Hatfield, the wood samples looked physically very clean and similar but this does not rule out a more recent chemical contaminant such as those indentified above.

Where does the contamination emanate from?

There are considerations which should be noted on the results of the study. First is the ability of the radiocarbon dating technique (2 sigma calibration) results to predict perfect outcome due to some calculation error factor i.e. carbon dating test allows 5% probability of error. Second is the noticeable heavy contamination of the Crucifix with hardened coals, paints, varnishes, oils and the like that blackened the Cross and Christ’s Image. Largely, the presence of these chemicals is attributed to the cultural traditions of the people to preserve the Crucifix against deterioration. Hence, the huge contaminations are both ancient and recent, which probably and largely affected the results of the analyses.

However, Mr. Hatfield further noted and suggested that if the more recent ages cannot be resolved in terms of the historical reporting of the time of arrival of the Crucifix, then the only way to know if there was some effect from more recent contamination would be to take some of the remaining wood shavings for one of the samples that they are still keeping. After the special pretreatments has been performed prior the final analysis, a new date will reveal if the age comes in agreement with the historical reporting with regard the arrival of the Crucifix in the area. As previously mentioned, however, it may or may not produce new result.

VI. Summary of Findings

1. Radiocarbon dating analyses showed that Beta-316804 (The Wooden Cross) indicated a measured radiocarbon age Cal AD 1650 to 1690 (Cal BP 300 to 260) compared to Beta-316805 (Image of Christ) Cal AD 1680 to 1730 (Cal BP 270 to 220).

2. Results disclosed that at 2-sigma statistics (95% probability), 2 dates yielded overlapping ranges, indicating that the results are statistically identical. Overlaps occur at Cal AD 1680 to 1690, Cal AD 1730, Cal 1810, Cal AD 1920 to 1930 and post AD 1950.

3. Results did not rule out human and laboratory (chemical) contamination which directly or indirectly influenced the results of the analyses. Special pretreatment procedure was suggested to possibly validate the current results.

4. Analyses of samples indicated that samples came from the same tree. Beta-316804 (The Wooden Cross) is a little older than Beta-316805 (Christ’s Image).

VII. Conclusions:

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions are drawn:

1. Results of the study revealed the proximity of the radiocarbon dating analyses to the traditional accounts of the people of Lubao, Pampanga. Considering the highly sensitive nature of analytical chemistry apparatuses, the time ranges (ages) drawn from the chemical analyses were closely proximate to the oral history accounts of the place. Notwithstanding, the errors on probability and contamination are important considerations which must be accounted as regards imperfect results of the analyses.
2. The results revealed the antiquity of the Crucifix (Cross and Image of Christ). The results predicate the customary and traditional social and religious norms of the people as regards their reverence and devotion to the Crucifix even in this contemporary milieu.
3. Results of the analyses were limited only to the perceived period when the Crucifix arrived in Lubao, Pampanga. It did not include the actual age of the tree when it was cut down or harvested from its original abode. It did not also include the condition of the Cross and Christ’s Image after they were rediscovered by some residents after its long period of concealment in the ground.

VIII. Recommendations

The following recommendations are derived from the conclusions:

1. To further bolster the result of the study, the proposed special treatment for the remaining wood samples offered by the radiocarbon dating agency must be availed to obtain a new perspective with regard the radiocarbon age of the sample.
2. The Archdiocese of San Fernando, Pampanga and National Commission on Culture and Arts should support the preservation of the Crucifix of the Holy Cross because of ecclesiastical and cultural significance.
3. The people of Lubao, Pampanga must be proud of the history and heritage of the Crucifix because of the glory that it has contributed to the nation. Its impact can contribute to the fertilization of spirituality and tourism.
4. The history of the Crucifix should be reintroduced and reinvigorated through book writings and construction of museum to reverberate its place in church history.
5. The Crucifix should be given due homage and historical recognition by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines.

IX. Documentation

The Image of Apo Sto Cristo de Lubao

The Team

Wood sample taken from the wooden Cross (Beta 316804)

Wood sample taken from Christ’s Image (Beta 316805)

Web Design by Engr. Mark Jason V. Sicat
Photo Credit: Sam C. Nicdao

Upaya Ding Amanu

UPAYA NING AMANU                                                                                                                              (Pamibule king Santiago 3:1-12)                                                                                                                 Rodrigo M. Sicat

Makananu kang mangamanu? Deng bang kekang amanung sasabyan babie lang sikanan at kapayapan kapilubluban o babie lang migit pang kaplas salu?

Ing amanu o salita metung yang tyup (sound) o myabe tyup a sisimbul at babie kabaldugan. Yagkas o makasulat, ding amanu dake na la ning kekatamung panga-tau. Deti magsilbing pasiknangan na ka tamu, siran nakatamu panga-tau, panasakitan nakatamu o kaya, ampatan ing sugat ding pusu tamu. Ding amanu atin lang upayang pisasagsagan na la ring tau, at mu naman, mibalangkas at mitangkas pamikakapatad o kaya pagumpisan ning patayan ding tau.

Makananu ing kekang pamangamanu keng aldo mengalabasan? Deng amanung kekang sasabyan atin la bang epektung malalam kareng balang taung makaramdam? Makasiknang la bang lub ding kekang amanu o makasakit lang kapanamdaman?

Pauli ding kekang amanu, itatangal mo ba pangatau kareng masanting salita ding kekang anak, asawa, kaluguran o kaya, karetang tau emu man balu king kekang daralanan? O susugatan mo salu ding lulugud keka pauli detang kekang amanung mapanatu, masalpak at mapanusga? Ing mismu mu bang sarili keka mu yang panasakitan pauli ding mapait mung amanu mismu kaniti?

Yalimbawa neng Santiago ing dila ning tau keng kabayu. Apatunud ta ya ing kabayu pauli na mu ning malati at kaputut bakal, dapot ing tau atnayang pamagkasakit magmintini kareng salita lalual king kayang labi.

Bakit ing tau atnayang pamagkasakit lilisya king pamagsalitang amanu babie palsimi king kayang kaparang tau? Ing pamagmintini kareng kekatamung sasabyan, anti la man kasakit, adapatan ta lang mayap nung iti kekatamung buryanan. Disiplina king sarili yamung kailangan, kanita ing buri nang sabyan ning dila’t labi eya misala.

Nung eme pin akontrol ing kekang sarili, malagwa ya ping rendan ing kabayu kaysa keng dila’t labi ning tau!

Nung eme arenda ing dila, iti pane yang bubugang api king mua. Ken mung nanung bage keng bale, pane kang makipate. Kalual mu keng dalan, ken mung trapik siguradu kang makibungil.

Anang sasabing Dorothy Nevill: “Ing malagung pamipagsalita, eya mu itang buri mung sabyan ketang panaun isipan mung dapat, dapot, dapat mu la namang ipipilpil detang aliwang salita, lalu na’t deti, makapanakit lang kapanamdaman karing menasa.”

 Ing buri nang sabyan: e sablang buri tamung sabyan dapat tamung sasambitlan.

 Antimong pengari, maingat ku kareng salita padugpa ku kareng ana’ku. Nung damdaman dakung malmura o manusga kareng aliwa, migit la pang mabyasang managkas at manusga kaysa kanaku. Nung akakit at daramdaman da kanaku, ing biasa kung manyawad patawad karetang pikasalanan ku, makanyan mu naman ing karelang gawan king migit pang manayun a paralan. Nung magsalita kung alang modu ampon respetu kareng kasabi ku, iti gawan da mu naman karing balang metung karela at karing aliwa pa.

 Iti balu ku uling iti akakit ku. Nung ding ana’ku ila lang gulisakan ku, ila mu namang migugulisakan kaibat ning limang minutu, karetang salita dimdam da kanaku.

Ngeni ku lubus aytindian nung bakit migit kung dapat maging mapanupaya kareng ana’ku at aliwa pang tau. Inya ngeni, kareng anak ku, mimisip at mangisnawa ku pa mung malalam bayu ku magsalita nanu man karela. Apagisip-isip ku, ing kanaku yang dapat isane ing kanakung dila king pamagsalita, kanita, malagwa ku lang asanak lub ding kanakung anak, kamaganak, kasiping bale at kaluguran king mipmung lugud at kabanalan. 

Migit pa kaniti, deti, amanu lang kanakung tutunggen king aldo-aldo king mipmung yumu at pakalulu:

Guinu, gawan mu kung instrumentu king Kekang kapayapan; Nung nukarin atin pamimua, patanman mu kung lugud; Nung nukarin atin pamikasala, pamamatawad; Nung nukarin atin pamiyalinlangan, kasalpantayanan; Nung nukarin atin pamagkasakit, pagasa; Nung nukarin atin dalumdum, sala; Nung nukarin atin lungkut, saya.

Deng amanu apasiknangan naka tamu king kayupayan. Magsilbi na lang ipugung malalam ding kaladwa ding sablang tau. Deng amanu malyari na lang ikumun king legwan ding balang metung kekatamu. Nung deng amanu gamitan la king misnang lugud, ing yatu, miyubug yang labuad misna santing ampong kapayapan.   

Mamili ka bang amanu babye bie kareng kaluguran at pakamalan mo?

 Anang Gautama Buddha: neng deng amanu gagamitan la keng ustu at tutu, ing aske ning yatu mibayu ya sari king payapa at lagu.




(My Grade I Teacher)

A Tribute by Rodrigo M. Sicat

Bula’ning Hunyo petsang nineteen sixty four kanita

Inyang itang kanakung papel de baptisimo yang pelad nitang kanakung ima

Kang Miss Celerina Turla a pikabalwan king kaganaka ding sabla

At king pamanurung wambi alang anak ing e misaplala’t mitutula.

Ketang muna keng akit i Miss Turla atna kung takut ka ya

Bala ku rugu ena ku yural at akung tanggapan ketang klasi na

Uling Hunyo kanu dapat pitu na kung banua

Uling Agostu ya pa ing beitan ku, anya, ing irad ku alangan ya pa kanu ana.

“Munta ka keni” anang minepe kanaku

“Abutan me ing balugbug mu” ana pa kanaku

“Mamintu ka” anang inang ku kanaku

“Magislbi na ka” ana ng Miss Turla kanaku.

Meko ne inang ku, melakwan na ku king kuartu

Pepalwal na la ketang handbag ku retang papel at lapis ku

Meg-umpisa kaming gugulis angga keng mebiasa na ku

Kaibat ning paruminggu, itang lagyu ku agugulis ku neng mautitu

Mapilan aldo kaibat nita, detang  “a, e, i, o, u” ilang tiru na kekami

Aldo-aldo pasulat yang tya metung letra kareti

Munaman, ilang pabasa nang tunggal-tungal balang kanakung kaklasi  

Bayu muli manabilin ya kekami “magsane mamasa ban mika-mastery”

King kelwatan ning pamanyulat at pamamasa

Metalas na kaming metalas, metalustus na kami king sabla

“I Bagul”, “ I Tagpi,” at “King Dane Mi” ilang minuna nang pepabasa

 Anya, “Very Good” at “pikpik buntuk” ilang premyu at pabuya na.

Sinane na kaming mamilang karetang myaliwang “devices” na

Mialiwa-liwa la itsura, e la pare-pareu kule pa

Ating mabilug, ating atlu-suluk, atin mu namang kwadradu

Ating asan, ating ayup, ating sampaga at myaliwang insektu

Aldo-aldo, dumi-dumnggu, bulan-bulan atin yang ituturu

Yapin angga ngeni, itang tiru na maka-anad pa king ukul ku

Pamanyulat, pamamasa, pamamilang at pamagkanta

Deting sabla simula at inubug na la nitang maestra kung i Miss Turla.

 Dakal a dakal salamat pu maestra ku

Utang mi keka itang belwan ming mumuna

Salamat ketang kekang tenam at pinunla

Salamat king kekang tyaga kekami ngeni mamungang masaplala.

King kesyasan ding buntuk mi, deti alang sawang pigmasabalan yu   

Uli niti, meging bantug ka karing pusu ding anggang memaryu

Migit pa kaniti, pinili mu kami kesa ketang sarling kaligayan mu

Pauli mi, eka mikyasawa, meging mapamintu ka king aus ning Apung Guinu!

Ala na ka dapot maybe ka pa

Uli ning masamyu at dalise mung kaladwa

E ka mi mu mapilan kayanakan ding kekang inaruga

Nune deti, e mu la abilang uling katakata la.

Inyang ika nang inaus ning Mayupaya

Sayang pu eku man abalu, eku man mekapagadya

Sana, nung abalu ku mu, agawa ra ka mu mang makuyad a tula

A magpatiman mu man keka nung eka man tumula.

Balu mi ing ala kaming dapat pigaganakan, alang dapat pikakunwan

Uling balu ming sabla nung nakarin ngeni itang kekang karinan

Karin king labuad ding Angeles at Santos ning Kayarian

Nung nukarin la manuknangan, karin ka mu naman magluluklukan

Atyu na ka banwa, atyu ke pa yatu

King mayap mung kabilyan, panalangin mu pa kami

Yawad mu king Mayupaya ing itaid nawa kami

Karin king pusu Na a mipmung pamagkandili!

Madam, salamat pung pasibayu

Mapalyaring kalingwan yu kami dapot ikami, ali pu

Maging matatag ya ing yatu pauli ding tau a kalupa yu

Kawangis nitang dalit tiru yu kekami ketang WAMBI ku

“Mamun na ke pu maestra, datang kami naman pota…..”


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