Posts from the ‘Kapampangan’ Category


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by the International Association of Multidisciplinary Research (IAMURE)
at Marriott Hotel, Jakarta, Indonesia
on January 21-23, 2013.


Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using audiotapes, videotapes, or transcriptions of planned interviews. These interviews are conducted with people who participated in or observed past events and whose memories and perceptions of these are to be preserved as an aural record for future generations. Oral history strives to obtain information from different perspectives, and most of these cannot be found in written sources.

Oral history has become an international movement in historical research. Oral historians in different countries have approached the collection, analysis, and dissemination of oral history in different ways. However, it should also be noted that there are many ways of creating oral histories and carrying out the study of oral history even within individual national contexts.

Along this premise, the elders of Lubao, Pampanga, (Lubao is considered to be the Cradle of Kapampangan Civilization and Christianity) traditionally believed that the sacred Cross of the Crucified Christ was received by their ancestors led by Datu Macabulus after they capitulated to the Spaniards in September 14, 1571. Oral accounts indicated that the holy Image of the Crucified Cross was lost for a long period of time but was believed to re-appear sometimes in the middle of 1700. Since then, it was enshrined in barangay Sta. Cruz and is venerated by its countless devotees because of the countless favors and miracles the holy Cross has been sustaining them.

However, some people were skeptical about its authenticity and age; hence, this research. For this purpose, the investigatory research will employ the scientific inquiry method using carbon dating procedures as the primary method to yield empirical results.

Radiocarbon, or carbon 14, is an isotope of the element carbon that is unstable and weakly radioactive. The stable isotopes are carbon 12 and carbon 13.
Carbon 14 is continually being formed in the upper atmosphere by the effect of cosmic ray neutrons on nitrogen 14 atoms. It is rapidly oxidized in air to form carbon dioxide and enters the global carbon cycle.
Plants and animals assimilate carbon 14 from carbon dioxide throughout their lifetimes. When they die, they stop exchanging carbon with the biosphere and their carbon 14 content then starts to decrease at a rate determined by the law of radioactive decay.

Radiocarbon dating is essentially a method designed to measure residual radioactivity. By knowing how much carbon 14 is left in a sample, the age of the organism when it died can be known. It must be noted though that radiocarbon dating results indicate when the organism was alive but not when a material from that organism was used.

The scientific results of the study will provide not only empirical information to the on-going inquest of the Research Office of the Tarlac State University along social, technological, cultural, industrial and scientific realms but will also supply the Philippines with additional and valuable literature vis-a -vis church heritage.

The results will bolster the authentication and validation of oral traditions through scientific inquiry. This study, which is a pioneering research undertaking in the university on radiocarbon dating procedures, will invite the attention of local government and church authorities to involve themselves in allowing their surviving treasures i.e. church antiques, ancestral porcelains and the like to undergo scientific examination to bolster their local pride and heritage; thus, a boost to local tourism industry.

The results of the study will not only serve as local pride to the Municipal Government of Lubao, Pampanga and Archdiocese of San Fernando, Pampanga but as a national pride for the Tarlac State University in the field of socio-cultural-ecclesiastical research in exploring new investigative frontier. Similarly, its impact will serve as a great contributory to the re-discovery of Philippine’s national history and heritage.

The general objective of the study is to identify the age of the holy Crucifix using radiocarbon dating method. Specifically, it aims to carry out the study by identifying the age of the sacred Cross of the Crucified Image of Christ through radiocarbon dating procedures, and to provide scientific information to the people vis-à-vis results of the carbon dating analysis.

Specifically, the study aimed to:
1. Verify the age of the cross sample that was presumed to be brought by the Augustinian Friars in the Philippines in September 14, 1571 according to some documents and oral accounts through carbon-dating analysis.
2. For some time, the cross and the image were separated. To prove that the pieces are compatible, similarities in the matrices of radio-carbon data will justify that the two are compatible.

Methods and Materials

Radiocarbon dating (sometimes simply known as carbon dating) is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring radioisotope carbon-14 (14C) to estimate the age of carbon-bearing materials up to about 58,000 to 62,000 years.

The technique of radiocarbon dating was developed by Willard Libby and his colleagues at the University of Chicago in 1949. Libby estimated that the steady state radioactivity concentration of exchangeable carbon-14 would be about 14 disintegrations per minute (dpm) per gram. He demonstrated the accuracy of radiocarbon dating by accurately estimating the age of wood from a series of samples for which the age was known, including an ancient Egyptian royal barge of 1850 BC. ( dating)
Using this investigative method, the objectives of the research were carried out with the results presented in the foregoing discussion.

This undertaking is an inter-agency research that endeavored to provide, facilitate, and conduct actual procedures in collecting samples to authenticate the oral tradition of the devotees of the Holy Cross of the Crucified Christ located in Sta. Cruz, Lubao, Pampanga, which they have been devoted with since time past.

The age of the holy Image was determined through radiocarbon dating procedures. The research was started January 2012 until April, 2012.

Initially, the researchers facilitated links with local and national agencies as regards protocols and carbon dating service providers. Unfortunately, no local radiocarbon dating agency in the country today is available to conduct the objectives of the research.

Finally, the proponents succeeded in connecting links with the Beta Analytic Inc. based in Miami, Florida, USA, which is probably one of the largest radiocarbon dating service providers in the world at present.

The Research and Development Office of the Tarlac State University through its Research Office provided technical assistance to the local government of Lubao, Pampanga. The municipal government of the town represented by Mayor Mylin Pineda-Cayabyab agreed to finance the services of the radiocarbon dating agency.

Collaboratively, the researchers created a working team composed of archeologist, chemist, planning officer, parish priests, carpenter, photographer, and municipal mayor to carry out the methods and procedures on the technical components of the project i.e. sampling, transport of samples, and the likes. Collaborations with the local parish priests, the Archdiocese of San Fernando, Pampanga and the
National Museum of the Philippines were made as regards the undertaking.

The radiocarbon dating agency provided the method and procedures with regard the technical aspects of the study. Classified as archeological artifacts, the samples were transported to the radiocarbon dating agency (Beta Analytic Inc.) via cargo flight of the Federal Express in Clarkfield Freeport, Angeles City, Pampanga.

Two weeks later, the radiocarbon results were provided to the researchers and chief executive of Lubao, Pampanga.
Wood samples were collected from the cross and from the image. Standard procedures were conducted prior to shipment to Beta-Analytic Laboratory for radio carbon dating:

A. Wood Collection and Sampling:

1. Select an area that does not show signs of rot or insect activity. Also make sure that the area does not show signs of being treated with shellac, oil, glue, other preservatives or additives.
2. Ideally the wood should be collected from the outer-most section of the piece, this will ensure that the outer-most growth rings are dated and provide the approximate time of death of the tree or branch, as close as physically possible.
3. Obtain two (2) new, wood twist-drill bits. Approximate size recommended is 5/32” for the first drilling and 1/8” for the second drilling. These drill bits should be cleaned prior to use with acetone to remove any machine oils and then allowed to air dry.
4. Drill a 5/32” hole approximately 1/4” to 3/8” deep and discard these drill shaving. It may be necessary to drill deeper if the wood is rotted or altered. Try to get some wood that has been isolated from any sort of surface contamination.
5. Lay the object on its side and place a piece of aluminum foil under the area to be drilled approximately 4” by 4” store bought foil is fine and requires no precleaning.
6. Drill the second hole with the 1/8” drill bit into the center of the 5/32” pilot hole and allow the shavings to collect onto the aluminum foil. Collect approximately 100-200 milligrams of wood sample shavings.
7. Once the shavings have been collected onto the aluminum foil, fold the foil such that you make a small pouch. Label the pouch with the sample code or name. Place this aluminum foil pouch in a zip-lock container and label.

B. Radio-Carbon Dating:

The samples were shipped for testing to Beta-Analytic Inc., known for more than 30 years; it is the pioneer in the radio-carbon dating business. It is the only radiocarbon dating laboratory accredited to the ISO 17025 standard. The samples were treated and analyzed as follows:

A. Principal Methods of Measuring Radiocarbon


There are three principal techniques used to measure carbon 14 content of any given sample gas proportional counting, liquid scintillation counting, and accelerator mass spectrometry.

Gas proportional counting is a conventional radiometric dating technique that counts the beta particles emitted by a given sample. Beta particles are products of radiocarbon decay. In this method, the carbon sample is first converted to carbon dioxide gas before measurement in gas proportional counters takes place.

Liquid scintillation counting is another radiocarbon dating technique that was popular in the 1960s. In this method, the sample is in liquid form and a scintillator is added. This scintillator produces a flash of light when it interacts with a beta particle. A vial with a sample is passed between two photomultipliers, and only when both devices register the flash of light that a count is made.

Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a modern radiocarbon dating method that is considered to be the more efficient way to measure radiocarbon content of a sample. In this method, the carbon 14 content is directly measured relative to the carbon 12 and carbon 13 present. The method does not count beta particles but the number of carbon atoms present in the sample and the proportion of the isotopes.

B. Radiocarbon Dating Standards
The radiocarbon age of a certain sample of unknown age can be determined by measuring its carbon 14 content and comparing the result to the carbon 14 activity in modern and background samples.
The principal modern standard used by radiocarbon dating labs was the Oxalic Acid I obtained from the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Maryland. This oxalic acid came from sugar beets in 1955. Around 95% of the radiocarbon activity of Oxalic Acid I is equal to the measured radiocarbon activity of the absolute radiocarbon standard—a wood in 1890 unaffected by fossil fuel effects.
When the stocks of Oxalic Acid I were almost fully consumed another standard was made from a crop of 1977 French beet molasses. The new standard, Oxalic Acid II, was proven to have only a slight difference with Oxalic Acid I in terms of radiocarbon content.

Over the years, other secondary radiocarbon standards have been made.
Radiocarbon activity of materials in the background is also determined to remove its contribution from results obtained during a sample analysis. Background radiocarbon activity is measured, and the values obtained are deducted from the sample’s radiocarbon dating results. Background samples analyzed are usually geological in origin of infinite age such as coal, lignite, and limestone.

C. Radiocarbon Dating Measurements
A radiocarbon measurement is termed conventional radiocarbon age (CRA). The CRA conventions include (a) usage of the Libby half-life, (b) usage of Oxalic Acid I or II or any appropriate secondary standard as the modern radiocarbon standard, (c) correction for sample isotopic fractionation to a normalized or base value of -25.0 per mille relative to the ratio of carbon 12/carbon 13 in the carbonate standard VPDB – Cretaceous belemnite formation at Peedee in South Carolina, (d) zero BP (Before Present) is defined as AD 1950, and (e) the assumption that global radiocarbon levels are constant.
Standard errors are also reported in a radiocarbon dating result, hence the “±” values. These values have been derived through statistical means.

D. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
Mass spectrometers detect atoms of specific elements according to their atomic weights. They, however, do not have the sensitivity to distinguish atomic isobars (atoms of different elements that have the same atomic weight, such as in the case of carbon 14 and nitrogen 14—the most common isotope of nitrogen).
Thanks to nuclear physics, mass spectrometers have been fine-tuned to separate a rare isotope from an abundant neighboring mass, and accelerator mass spectrometry was born. A method has finally been developed to detect carbon 14 in a given sample and ignore the more abundant isotopes that swamp the carbon 14 signal.




As presented on the spread sheet of the results and the calendar calibration graphs, the results disclosed that at 2-sigma statistics (95% probability), 2 dates yielded overlapping ranges, indicating that the results are statistically identical. Overlaps occur at Cal AD 1680 to 1690, Cal AD 1730, Cal 1810, Cal AD 1920 to 1930 and post AD 1950.

In an inquiry with Ron Hatfield, the deputy director/quality manager of radiocarbon dating agency (Beta Analytic Inc.), he explained “the result means that if no recent contamination was introduced into the wood which could not be removed by the acid and alkali treatments performed, then the tree growth rings dated for each sample were last in equilibrium with the atmosphere (alive) in one of these ranges. “

As he further explained “radiocarbon dating cannot determine exactly which range the rings actually represent, but it is one of them for each sample.”

It is to be noted that the prior to the pretreatment (acid/alkali/acid) procedure, the deputy director suggested special pretreatment (acid/alkali/acid/cellulose extraction) considerations prior to the laboratory analysis. The suggestion was made due to the heavy presence of paint, varnishes, oils and the likes in the samples. Special pretreatment is necessary to maximize the reduction of chemical contaminants that allow cellulose extractions easier for final analysis. However, it may or may not yield significant result than the pretreatment protocol that also needed added cost. As prior agreed, the researchers opted and deemed for the pretreatment analysis to proceed.

Beta-316804 (The Wooden Cross) yielded ranges of Cal AD 1650 to 1690 (Cal BP 300 to 260), Cal AD 1730 to 1810 (Cal BP 220 to 140), Cal AD 1920 to post 1950 (Cal BP 30 to post 1950)


Beta-316805 (The Image of Christ) yielded ranges of Cal AD 1680 to 1730 (Cal BP 270 to 220), Cal AD 1810 to 1930 (Cal BP 140 to 20), Cal AD Post 1950.

If the expected age was somewhere around 1570AD as traditionally believed by the residents, the results indicated that the very oldest that the dates seemed to represent would be the overlap from around the time of AD 1680 to1690. This is to assume if all the growth rings dated from both the samples were the same.

Seemingly, the age appears to be about 100 years later than was expected. This would mean that either the actual time the cross arrived in Lubao, Pampanga was more recent than historically reported or that the wood was contaminated by more recent organics such as penetrated oils, varnishes, paints, etc.

As observed by the Mr. Hatfield, the wood samples looked physically very clean and similar but this does not rule out a more recent chemical contaminant such as those indentified above.

Where does the contamination emanate from?

There are considerations which should be noted on the results of the study. First is the ability of the radiocarbon dating technique (2 sigma calibration) results to predict perfect outcome due to some calculation error factor i.e. carbon dating test allows 5% probability of error. Second is the noticeable heavy contamination of the Crucifix with hardened coals, paints, varnishes, oils and the like that blackened the Cross and Christ’s Image. Largely, the presence of these chemicals is attributed to the cultural traditions of the people to preserve the Crucifix against deterioration. Hence, the huge contaminations are both ancient and recent, which probably and largely affected the results of the analyses.

However, Mr. Hatfield further noted and suggested that if the more recent ages cannot be resolved in terms of the historical reporting of the time of arrival of the Crucifix, then the only way to know if there was some effect from more recent contamination would be to take some of the remaining wood shavings for one of the samples that they are still keeping. After the special pretreatments has been performed prior the final analysis, a new date will reveal if the age comes in agreement with the historical reporting with regard the arrival of the Crucifix in the area. As previously mentioned, however, it may or may not produce new result.

VI. Summary of Findings

1. Radiocarbon dating analyses showed that Beta-316804 (The Wooden Cross) indicated a measured radiocarbon age Cal AD 1650 to 1690 (Cal BP 300 to 260) compared to Beta-316805 (Image of Christ) Cal AD 1680 to 1730 (Cal BP 270 to 220).

2. Results disclosed that at 2-sigma statistics (95% probability), 2 dates yielded overlapping ranges, indicating that the results are statistically identical. Overlaps occur at Cal AD 1680 to 1690, Cal AD 1730, Cal 1810, Cal AD 1920 to 1930 and post AD 1950.

3. Results did not rule out human and laboratory (chemical) contamination which directly or indirectly influenced the results of the analyses. Special pretreatment procedure was suggested to possibly validate the current results.

4. Analyses of samples indicated that samples came from the same tree. Beta-316804 (The Wooden Cross) is a little older than Beta-316805 (Christ’s Image).

VII. Conclusions:

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions are drawn:

1. Results of the study revealed the proximity of the radiocarbon dating analyses to the traditional accounts of the people of Lubao, Pampanga. Considering the highly sensitive nature of analytical chemistry apparatuses, the time ranges (ages) drawn from the chemical analyses were closely proximate to the oral history accounts of the place. Notwithstanding, the errors on probability and contamination are important considerations which must be accounted as regards imperfect results of the analyses.
2. The results revealed the antiquity of the Crucifix (Cross and Image of Christ). The results predicate the customary and traditional social and religious norms of the people as regards their reverence and devotion to the Crucifix even in this contemporary milieu.
3. Results of the analyses were limited only to the perceived period when the Crucifix arrived in Lubao, Pampanga. It did not include the actual age of the tree when it was cut down or harvested from its original abode. It did not also include the condition of the Cross and Christ’s Image after they were rediscovered by some residents after its long period of concealment in the ground.

VIII. Recommendations

The following recommendations are derived from the conclusions:

1. To further bolster the result of the study, the proposed special treatment for the remaining wood samples offered by the radiocarbon dating agency must be availed to obtain a new perspective with regard the radiocarbon age of the sample.
2. The Archdiocese of San Fernando, Pampanga and National Commission on Culture and Arts should support the preservation of the Crucifix of the Holy Cross because of ecclesiastical and cultural significance.
3. The people of Lubao, Pampanga must be proud of the history and heritage of the Crucifix because of the glory that it has contributed to the nation. Its impact can contribute to the fertilization of spirituality and tourism.
4. The history of the Crucifix should be reintroduced and reinvigorated through book writings and construction of museum to reverberate its place in church history.
5. The Crucifix should be given due homage and historical recognition by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines.

IX. Documentation

The Image of Apo Sto Cristo de Lubao

The Team

Wood sample taken from the wooden Cross (Beta 316804)

Wood sample taken from Christ’s Image (Beta 316805)

Web Design by Engr. Mark Jason V. Sicat
Photo Credit: Sam C. Nicdao

Upaya Ding Amanu

UPAYA NING AMANU                                                                                                                              (Pamibule king Santiago 3:1-12)                                                                                                                 Rodrigo M. Sicat

Makananu kang mangamanu? Deng bang kekang amanung sasabyan babie lang sikanan at kapayapan kapilubluban o babie lang migit pang kaplas salu?

Ing amanu o salita metung yang tyup (sound) o myabe tyup a sisimbul at babie kabaldugan. Yagkas o makasulat, ding amanu dake na la ning kekatamung panga-tau. Deti magsilbing pasiknangan na ka tamu, siran nakatamu panga-tau, panasakitan nakatamu o kaya, ampatan ing sugat ding pusu tamu. Ding amanu atin lang upayang pisasagsagan na la ring tau, at mu naman, mibalangkas at mitangkas pamikakapatad o kaya pagumpisan ning patayan ding tau.

Makananu ing kekang pamangamanu keng aldo mengalabasan? Deng amanung kekang sasabyan atin la bang epektung malalam kareng balang taung makaramdam? Makasiknang la bang lub ding kekang amanu o makasakit lang kapanamdaman?

Pauli ding kekang amanu, itatangal mo ba pangatau kareng masanting salita ding kekang anak, asawa, kaluguran o kaya, karetang tau emu man balu king kekang daralanan? O susugatan mo salu ding lulugud keka pauli detang kekang amanung mapanatu, masalpak at mapanusga? Ing mismu mu bang sarili keka mu yang panasakitan pauli ding mapait mung amanu mismu kaniti?

Yalimbawa neng Santiago ing dila ning tau keng kabayu. Apatunud ta ya ing kabayu pauli na mu ning malati at kaputut bakal, dapot ing tau atnayang pamagkasakit magmintini kareng salita lalual king kayang labi.

Bakit ing tau atnayang pamagkasakit lilisya king pamagsalitang amanu babie palsimi king kayang kaparang tau? Ing pamagmintini kareng kekatamung sasabyan, anti la man kasakit, adapatan ta lang mayap nung iti kekatamung buryanan. Disiplina king sarili yamung kailangan, kanita ing buri nang sabyan ning dila’t labi eya misala.

Nung eme pin akontrol ing kekang sarili, malagwa ya ping rendan ing kabayu kaysa keng dila’t labi ning tau!

Nung eme arenda ing dila, iti pane yang bubugang api king mua. Ken mung nanung bage keng bale, pane kang makipate. Kalual mu keng dalan, ken mung trapik siguradu kang makibungil.

Anang sasabing Dorothy Nevill: “Ing malagung pamipagsalita, eya mu itang buri mung sabyan ketang panaun isipan mung dapat, dapot, dapat mu la namang ipipilpil detang aliwang salita, lalu na’t deti, makapanakit lang kapanamdaman karing menasa.”

 Ing buri nang sabyan: e sablang buri tamung sabyan dapat tamung sasambitlan.

 Antimong pengari, maingat ku kareng salita padugpa ku kareng ana’ku. Nung damdaman dakung malmura o manusga kareng aliwa, migit la pang mabyasang managkas at manusga kaysa kanaku. Nung akakit at daramdaman da kanaku, ing biasa kung manyawad patawad karetang pikasalanan ku, makanyan mu naman ing karelang gawan king migit pang manayun a paralan. Nung magsalita kung alang modu ampon respetu kareng kasabi ku, iti gawan da mu naman karing balang metung karela at karing aliwa pa.

 Iti balu ku uling iti akakit ku. Nung ding ana’ku ila lang gulisakan ku, ila mu namang migugulisakan kaibat ning limang minutu, karetang salita dimdam da kanaku.

Ngeni ku lubus aytindian nung bakit migit kung dapat maging mapanupaya kareng ana’ku at aliwa pang tau. Inya ngeni, kareng anak ku, mimisip at mangisnawa ku pa mung malalam bayu ku magsalita nanu man karela. Apagisip-isip ku, ing kanaku yang dapat isane ing kanakung dila king pamagsalita, kanita, malagwa ku lang asanak lub ding kanakung anak, kamaganak, kasiping bale at kaluguran king mipmung lugud at kabanalan. 

Migit pa kaniti, deti, amanu lang kanakung tutunggen king aldo-aldo king mipmung yumu at pakalulu:

Guinu, gawan mu kung instrumentu king Kekang kapayapan; Nung nukarin atin pamimua, patanman mu kung lugud; Nung nukarin atin pamikasala, pamamatawad; Nung nukarin atin pamiyalinlangan, kasalpantayanan; Nung nukarin atin pamagkasakit, pagasa; Nung nukarin atin dalumdum, sala; Nung nukarin atin lungkut, saya.

Deng amanu apasiknangan naka tamu king kayupayan. Magsilbi na lang ipugung malalam ding kaladwa ding sablang tau. Deng amanu malyari na lang ikumun king legwan ding balang metung kekatamu. Nung deng amanu gamitan la king misnang lugud, ing yatu, miyubug yang labuad misna santing ampong kapayapan.   

Mamili ka bang amanu babye bie kareng kaluguran at pakamalan mo?

 Anang Gautama Buddha: neng deng amanu gagamitan la keng ustu at tutu, ing aske ning yatu mibayu ya sari king payapa at lagu.

Nung Makananu Minuli Kung Talasawa


Dr. Rodrigo M. Sicat


Dakal lang sasabi at maniwala, ing pamakyasawa kanu anti ya waring kamatayan a daratang king bie ning ninu man tau. Iti eku lubus paniwalan ketang bayu ku pamung tau (baintau) anggang ing tune nang kabaldugan dinatang yang anting alisus kanaku.

King katatawlian, akung sasabi kaniting kanakung sarili, tutu ya pin pala ing kasebyan a piyamanuan ding makatua! Ing pamakyasawa anti waring kidlat ya! E muya man piadyan, iti kabud datang ya keka.  Eka man maka adya, ampitan at ampita’na ka.

Iting pamikatagun, aku iting aranasan. Nung bigla aganaka ku iti, matula ku yang pipiling-piling ing buntu’ku potang pasibayu kung babalikdan nung makananu minuli kung talasawa…

Misan abak king trade school (Don Honorio Ventura College of Arts and Trades) king balen Baculud, iya ping kanakung pipagobran, metung yang office memorandum ing kanakung disan at ausan ing prusisu kung pamamunta keta king Office of the President. Iting panabilin, malagua ku yang lingunan, at akung marapal mekikit king kekaming presidenti. Pablasang king trade school bayu-bayu ku pa mu kanita, ing presidenti dakal ya pengutang kanaku. Kaya nang pekibaluan itang dikil king kakankung gagawan karin king Guidance Office, at mu naman, kareta pang aliwang kanakung kagiyuan king pamanyaliksik at pamanuru. Maluat itang kekaming pamisabi at aku na yang gelamanuan kaibat nitang masanting at malalam kekaming pipagkuwentuan. Memun kung masaya lupa, migpasalamat king pamuntuk ning kekaming escuela, at ume nakung mibalik pasibayu ketang kanakung opisina. Antimong alang nanu, kanakung sindu ing likuan a gagawan ku at aku pang sikasuan itang obrang aliwa pa.

Kalulukluk ku pamu karetang gamit yadia ku, itang kekaming janitor mayli na yang inabut kanaku, itang pirmadung administrative order nitang kekaming College President. Aku na yang tutulduan antimong bayung technical staff ning escuela king Center for Interinstitutional Research and Policy Studies (CIRPS) ding State Colleges and Universities in Region III. Iting aguman, iya ing peka think tank ding sablang state colleges and universities keti Kalibutnang Luzon, king pami-puni karing miyaliwang alituntunan ding mamuntukan kareting mesabing pipagaralan.

Bisa kung sanang murung, dapot ala kung akarapat uling iti utus na ya ning kanakung presidenti. Mabilis kung mibalik ketang kayang opisina at malugud kung migpasalamat kanitang tiwala a pigkalub na kanaku. Bayu kami mikawani, kaya na yang inabut kanaku itang bayu pang memorandum, nung nukarin, akung tumagun ketang seminar-workshop at CIRPS technical staff meeting, maganap king farm school (Pampanga Agricultural College) king balen Magalang keng October 23-25, 1986. 

Kanita eku malili papunta king farm school, akung mekisabi king kekaming Presidenti, yang akung maki yagnan karela o kaya, karing kekaming kayabe pang aliwa. Akung mekisabi kaniti uling iting escuela eke binang kabisadu.

Dinatang itang aldo ning kekaming pamaglako at pablasang Kapampangan kaming pare-pareyu atna kaming kasayang mipamiru. Pasadu alas otsu nitang abak, king farm school ning Magalang, masalese kaming miras. Akung lawe-lawe at matunud magumasid karing sabla uling nung ali kanita, aku pamung miras kaniting lugal atna kalwalas bina. Ala kung kakilala karing tau, nune mu detang kayagnan kung menibat Baculud. Manibayu ku man, ing sabla kanaku ngan panigaralan. Aku lang akilala detang miyaliwang technical staff ning CIRPS at detang miyaliwang Presidenti ning Region III. Malugud dakung tinggap detang kanakung kayabe king grupu, at aku mu namang pepakilala da karing presidenti ning Central Luzon. Kanita mismu, aku nang titu ra nung nanu ing kanakung maging obra. Kanita mu rin, simulan kung masaya ing obrang mitutuk kanaku, at e migluat, detang kanakung kakilala, ilang miragdaga’na.

 Metung karing obrang mipaniwala kanaku, iya itang akung maging facilitator ketang lecture a magagampan ketang penandit ita. Kaniting mararapat a gagampan, detang makasulat dang kutang ding participants kanaku lang titipunan at yayabut ketang moderator, kanita, itang tagapagsalita ilang pakibata’na.

 Kaibat nitang mumunang workshop, ding sabla ume lang mengan paugtuan. Akung menintun karetang abe ku Baculud, kanita, akung makyagnan mangan karela. Masaya at matula kaming mipamalita. Anang mengutang kanaku nitang kekaming abe metung:  Rod, ninung kakilala mu Tarlac College of Technology? Ala kung balu, akung kaya mekibat. Pasibayu, aku pang mengutang kanitang abe ku: Nuya karin ing Tarlac College of Technology? Atiyu ya Tarlac! anang mekibat kanaku. Bakit balu daka? Bakit pangutang da ka lagyu at nung talasawa ka kanu? Eku balu, akung karela sinabi. Nukarin ya wari ing Tarlac? akung mengutang pasibayu.

Kabang matula kaming mikukutnanan detang kayabe ku, ume danakung dinakit detang kayabe ku CIRPS, kanita, kekami la pang pisabyan detang kekaming miyaliwa pang gampanan kinabukasan. Kaibat meyari nitang kekaming pulung, kanaku lang belikan pasibayu detang kanakung likuan kayabe Baculud. Ala na kung disan metung man karela, ita pala, minuna na la kanaku, ban magpainawa na ketang kekaming tuknangan dormitoryu. Eku balu nung nanung daptan ku, eku balu nung makananung miras ku ketang dormitoryung misna dayu. Itang lugal kanaku da yang tiru, dapot nung munta kung dili-dili, mekad mawala ku at malili kung siguradu.

Mayap namu naman, atin saken kule asul itang tinulid kanaku. Ilang mengutang at migkusang lub, nung karela buri kung makyagnan uling ilang papunta mu naman ketang lugal a kanakung panintunan. Kasake at kalukluk ku, kitnan daku nung nanu ing kanakung lagyu at nuya karin itang escuelang kanaku penibatan. Kapampangan mu naman ing karelang salita, dapot itang karelang tonu, makatibis ketang matarling kung gege. Kanaku lang matulang pakiramdaman, uling detang karelang lupa, masaya lang kawangis nitang kanaku. Mangutang lang miyaliwa, at aku namang makibat matula. Kabang kukutnan daku, isipan ku nung bakit alang patna itang karelang buring abalu kanaku at pagtakan ku mu naman, nung bakit ala lang gigigit ampong mipangandut potang kanaku lang pakibatan detang sari-sari dang ikukutang. King kanakung kapilubluban, akung matulang mamiru king kanakung sarili: Ay, marayil uling menasa lang babai at siguru, kakasantingan la kanaku! 

 King tula ra, aku lang apapagumasdan detang mipipingkilan dang siku, at makanian mu naman, detang mata rang kindat-kindat atnang kapamiru. Karetang karelang pamilayun karing mapamiru dang pamaglalawe, ating lulub king kanakung isip, marayil, makapatungkul ketang dalagang matayimik makasiping kanaku. Dapot king wanan ku makalukluk ya iting abe dang dalaga, eku ya man apapansinan, uling detang kayang kayabe, makagiyam lang pakisabian. Pablasang ing dalan kekaming bibeben malipugpug ya, itang malagu nang lupa nitang dalaga, kaya nayang tatakpan ketang panyu nang malutu at pane makalawe ketang marayu. Eya bubulad, uling siguru, mikakunu ya kanaku, at ala yang kabalu-balu tungkul kanaku. Pablasang detang kayabe na purus lang mapamiru, iyang pelakuan da king siping ku, dapot peluklukan naman keta mismung kayarapan ku. Sinagakgak lang lalu pa ketang kayang pamintu, at kanakung pagtakan nung bakit ing siyo da atnang katni king tula. King karelang kimut, mamyalungan ku isip, at king kanakung ukul, balamu, iyang ibabage da kanaku. Ketang masapsap dang buring malyari, ikaming piyarap da, at detang kekaming mata ikua rang mikit, kinislap at misabi.

Aku yang linawe at aku namang linawe. Makatiman ku lupa at mangalutu ya itang kaya. Maratnang lawan-lawan ku ya dapot duku-duku ya. Akung magpakilala kaya dapot mikakunung makibat ya. Aku lang sipat-sipatan detang mabilug nang mata dapot ketang salamin nang malutu-lutu, deti kaya lang tatakpan malaguang-malagua. Itang kule nitang kayang balat, kaku ya mu namang pigumasdan, ay! kabage nitang kayang kule ketang imalan nang berde! akung sinabi king kanakung sarili.

 Kabang lalalam itang kanakung lawe, akung apapansinan itang malalam nang pangisnawa. Eku kukurap king pamaglalawe kaya, uling eku la buring matda sala detang mamanga kung mata kaya. Kanitang penandit, ala yang laman ing kanakung panimanman, nune, itang lalu ya pang asilayan. Uling bandi na ya niting kakung pamaglalawe, ena balu ning dalaga nung magpildis o malis ya ketang lugal pilulukluka’na. Ena naman balu, nung itang susulud nang baru, kaya na yang panabitan o pulisan o kuskusan o samasan, kanita, aku nang tuknang lalawe pa kaya. Marayil, uling eku ya patugutnan lalawan, iya nang isipan, ing aku nang yugse lual ning saken, kanita, akung mawala ketang karapa’na. Dapot, nung nanu itang kayang panga-inipan, iya namang ikakawili nitang mayayama kung sarili. Kabang luluat, tutung ali ke awari ing kibul ning pusu ku. Tatatap yang alang patna, pupukdul yang alang nanu. Bakit kaya ing pusu ku makanyan yang mamanga, balamu, iyang mamumulang at masisira!  Bakit kaya eke arienda ing kabug ning kakung pusu? Malsinta ya pin kaya kening dalagang ngeni na pamu a katagpo at ing lagyu naman ena pa balo?

 Kaburi ku yang ipilpil iting maliswas kung pusu, dapot, nanu ke mang itimpi, lalu yatang mikakapali. Buri keng itali, dapot, lalu yang magpatabili. Buri keng dukutan, dapot, lalu yang sasalikut. Buri keng dakma, dapot, lalu yang maglumpasag. Buri keng sakalan, dapot, lalu yang lulundag. Akung mangutang kening kakung sarili: Bakit eku balung ipalino nung bakit ing kanakung pusu aku na yang ililindu? Bakit ing kanakung pakiramdam tuliru yang tuliru?  

Kabang iting dalaga, kanaku ya pang pagumasdan, lalu ku ya pang angaan, lalu pang paninapan. Detang pitiris-tiris nang bitis, kaku lang lalawan, kaku lang batya-batyawan… kasanting da at kakaba, aliwa lang aliwa, uling king bie ku yata, kanita ku pa minangang minanga. Tutu kung mawiwili… tutu kung mayayama… tutu kung miyuyu king lawe ku kaya… Marayil, mua at masusora ya kanaku uling detang kanakung mata atna lang kapamuska. Dapot iya nang makasibaktung kanaku, kaya ku pa lalung mamanga uli nitang buak nang makaba. Akung sinabi king kanakung sarili: Ay, kabage nang kabage ketang buak nang makaluge! Uling akung makalawe ketang buak nang makaluge, kaya ya iting kinaul at sepunggul, at iti kaya yang pinusud. Pasibayu, akung sinabi king kanakung sarili: Kalalu na pang mibage ketang malagu nang lupa… lalu yang metingkad…lalu yang melagu…! Metung ya waring kandidata ketang ligligan detang musa… alang malyaring sumambut  kaya king tikas at dagul na…!

 Kaburi keng akaket! Kaburi keng lalawan! Kaburi keng pag-umasdan! Kaburi ku yang talanan! Kaburi ku yang apisan! Kaburi ku yang uman! Marayil, nung malyari mu, iti kanakung depatan inggiang ikadalum o ikasukul ku man! Dapot ita eku gewa uling kanita, metung kung tulala at mulala!

 Kasukal ku lub, kamua kung kamua, uling ketang lugal kekaming pupuntalan, kekami nang disan. Mimasmas ku isip, mibali’ku diwa, ketang ing dalaga kung mumutya, kabira-bira… iyang mitambad kayarapan ku!, Tiniman ya kanaku, at aku mu namang tiniman kaya king mipmung yubu’t yumu. Ay! karagul a bage, kasanting ning pakiramdam ko, uling pusu ku lalu yang miyuyu…lalu yang kinarug…lalu yang linuksu! Kalagu na ning dalagang kanaku mekabigani! akung sasabi king kanakung sarili.

Mikawani kami pintalan, dapot, ing kanakung sarili lalu ku yang ali a wari, pauli niting pusu kung megani. Iti lalu yang minanga, lalu yang milsinta, at maninap king ing sana, itang dalaga, akit ku yang pasibayu! 

 Miras ku ketang tuknangan a kanakung panintunan. Akung masayang selubung detang kanakung kayabe at tiru itang maging tudturan ku. Karela lang mengutang kanaku nung aku lang balu detang kayagnan ku, at ali ing pekibat ku. Nandin karatang mung abak, ila ping mangutang tungkul keka, arang sinabi kanaku. Tau la Tarlac College of Technology karin king Tarlac, digtung da pang pasibayu. Nanu ya kaya lagyu itang abe dang dalaga? akung mengutang karela. Aba, tuturu yang Mathematics ita at Lolita Victorio ing lagyu na, at Lolit ing yaus mi keya, anang mekibat nitang metung kayabe ku. Kabiasna’na, mag-doctorate yang Statistics king U.P., maganaka na, kaluguran ku ya, anang mekibat nita pang metung. Paglolon me! paglolon me! buri mi ya keka! arang matingid aduan kanaku. Oy, Rodrigo! Eka mumuli keta kekatamu trade nung ala kang apalyari! arang mangulit kanaku detang babai. Mayli at pibabalugbug ku la mu uling balu ku, makadua mu, karin king trade school muli na kaming pasibayu.

 Makanyan man, i Lolit buri ku nayang akit pasibayu. Akung matula at masaya uling kakilalang-kakilala deya ding abe ku.

Kaybat nitang kekaming gamit mitangkap na, ikami nang mibalik seminar room, at bandang ala dos ning gatpanapun inyang pasibayu misundu itang seminar-workshop a gagawan mi. Abala ku king assignment a mitutuk kanaku at abala la ngan ding dakal makayabe kaniting seminar a mesabi. Silip-silipan kuya itang dalaga Tarlac dapot ali ku ya apagumasdan uling king dakal ding tau at abala lang mipanigaral karetang assignment makatutuk karela.

Karas nitang ala singku, mikawa-kawani na la ding tau at ume nang muling pasibayu karing karelang kuartu. Alang saken kanita, inya ding menasa kailangan maglakad la. Ikit kuya i Lolit kayagnan ding abe na at aku lang likuan detang kayabe kayagnan ku. Akung tinuki king karelang pamaglakad at kunwaring migpakilalang pasibayu ing ninu aku. Kanaku matula la at iyang inagape kanaku itang karelang dalaga. Makaba at miyaliwa itang karelang kuwentu. Mayli la mung mayli uli yatang pibabage at manintun lang talagang dalan, kanita, ikaming adua akua ming misabi. Iti kanakung ikakalugud at masapno nang ikakatula ning kanakung pusu uling kanakung paninap mididinan sese ampong lino. Ali miglambat, miras kaming matula ketang kekaming tuknangan at ikami nang migpainawa.

Kaibat nitang alus aduang oras, miglakad kaming pasibayu ban mapun na ketang kantina. Pasibayu, kinawani ku karing abe ku Baculud at ketang dalaga ning Tarlac karin ku migdatun at mekiyagnan. Tunggal ditak kaku yang akikilala’t ababalu at aku makanyan mu naman keya. Kayari nitang kekaming pamamangan apunan, miglakad kaming pasibayu kaibat nitang makuyad ming painawa. Madalumdum na kanita, at detang posting kekaming lalabasan, ala lang aslag uling kanita, alang kuryenti. Iting pamikatagun, lalung minye puge king kanakung pusu, inya kanita, detang kanakung kuwentu kaniting dalaga, lalu lang melabung at minyampaga. Bagya bagya, i Lolit mayli naya kanaku at ditak-ditak, aku nang manakit kilim ketang keyang lupa. Kalakalale, aku nayang apapatunud at detang mangalati nang timan kanaku, akakait ku na lang lalare ampong nenene.

Pasibayu, miras kaming matula ketang kekaming tuknangan. Akung memun karing kayabe nang Lolit, nung karela yang a panuala kanaku, kanita, ikami pang mipag-istorya. Marayil, uling mayan ing lub da kanaku, karela eku man mikaduan amanu. Karela yang penabilin mayap at ara pang memusit kanaku: E me paburen ing dalaga mi uling yapin ing kekang maging asawang painturu! Sesen muyang masalelse uling bage kayung bage!   Kekami yang kaluguran, inya keka yang ingatan!  Mayumu kung tinangu, patune, daptan kung dalise itang likuan dang panabilin kanaku. Matula kung matula karing bayung kakilala ku menibatan Tarlac uling palage la lub kanaku at king timtim ku, ing karelang dalagang kanakung tagimpan, balamu, buri da ya mu naman kanaku.

Aku yang inagkat lukluk ketang eran sementu itang dalagang kanakung pemun pakipagkwentuan. Kaganaka nang agkatan uling agad-agad, kayang pemintuan itang keya inawad ku. Linukluk ya dapot ing dayu na kanaku atin yatang aduang metru. King lub ku, mayli at masaya ku, uling mamyalungan king isip ku a nung makananu dumatun ya king siping ku.

 Ding batwin masanting la kanitang bengi at ing banwa malwalas at matunud ya. Ing bulan kilap-kilap ya king sala nang matina at ing kapadurutnan misisinagan ketang aslag nang misna tula. Uli ning Pasku malapit na, ing tiyup nitang angin mamyalungan na king dimla. Pablasang makatalpa’kami tukura’ning Bunduk Alaya, ing ambung dudulung manibat king banua, gagapang at gagale na king dimla. Ing sunis ding kuliglig sitsitsitsit at kulakulait, babie nayun king panimanman, babie santing king pakiramdaman, atnang kabage karing tulauk ding tuku ampong kulayo. Ing banglu ding sampaga, alimuyak waring manamuyut at kanaku mangamanu: Rodrigo, kekang samasan mamunting amanu, kanita, keka yang  apapalsinta ing masamyung Lolita…

Memuklat kung istorya, at e miglambat, memuklat ya namang kuwentu. Kanaku lang pipinpinan detang mabanglu nang amanu, at iya, titimtiman na la detang kanaku. Istorya na ing keyang pamagaral, kukuwentu ku mu naman ing kanaku. Eksplika nang pamanauru nang Mathematics, Counseling naman itang kukuwentu ku kaya. King balang sabian na, akung tatangu keya at king balang sasabian ku, ing tangu na anti mu rin ketang kanaku. Ala kaming pisasalangsangan, ala kaming pisasagsagan.

 Kabang pupulayi ya karing kuwentu na, tunggal ditak, akung dudusug ketang lele na. Dapot, eku binang makiramdam karetang kayang istorya, itang maragul kung tagimpan, iya itang akung mileleng milele ketang kayang pangisnawa. Uling e na ku binang balu, atnayang kalyap potang misisiping ku keya. Dapot, nung dusug na ya namang marayu, ketang galo na, kalakalale, tutuki kung pasibayu. Marayil, ikua nang sinawa ketang kanakung tiyaga, at ketang kanaku nayang kalele, akung manene ka ya sinabi: Eka tatakut, emu ku darayuan. Mayap kung kasabi. Maniwala ka king kanakung amanu, at ali mu isipan ing aku, malikut at marok kung tau… Dinuku at mipakayli ya, at ita, lubus mekasaya king salu ku. Manibat kanita, king siping ku, metunud ya, at meluat nang meluat ing kekaming kuwentu. 

Kaya ku la tiru detang kilap-kilap at masayang batwin at bulan karin babo banua. Kabang kaya lang pagumasdan, akung kaya mengutang: Balu muya itang kantang Vincent? Aku yang daramdaman pero eke masyadung balu letra, anang mekibat kanaku. Bisa ka istorya ke keka, akung sinabi kaya. Meyli at tinangu ya, at ume yang mekiramdam ketang makalunus nang bie Vincent Van Gogh. Tayimik na ing sabla liban na mu kekaming adua. King keluatan, ing balat detang kekaming gamat, tunggal ditak akakua da nang misasagana at miuuma. Itang kayang lupa, kalakalale akakait ku yang lalu pang sasala, at detang kayang pisngi at labi, kikinang na lang king lare at tula. Kaniting magani kung kabilyan, lalu yang malulumud king saya iting pusu kung manabiba. Marayil, alang ninu man ing magsilbing makapagpalino kanaku, a nung bakit iting pusu ku anti ya waring makatsubibu. Makayama iting pakiramdam! Makayuyut ing kanakung daramdaman! Mandilu ya king ligaya ing magtampiso kung pusu! Sari ya king kayan iting kanakung inawa! Biga ku waring makasangkayo babo dikut king taldawa! Ambun ku waring sanap-sanap king sepu ding amor seku! Kasanting ku pakiramdam! Kalagu ku panimanman! Ing pulayi ning oras, iti ali miya apansinan… ali miya apansinan… uling ing balang penandit atnang saya kekeng adua… at e mi apansinan…ganingaldo na pala!

Kabuklat ning abak, aku nang ginayak. Linual kung masaya, malwalas ku lupa. Ing kakung aske at ing malare kung kule, lalu yatang mibage keniting sisigpo at inspiradu kung pusu. Kabungad ku ketang pasbul, tambing-tambing, i Lolit na iyang pagdulapan ding mata ku. Ikit keyang makalukluk, mamangan, kayantabe detang masaya nang kaluguran. Matula keng linawe, masaya na ku namang linawe. Masaya keng pinepe, matula ya na mang minepe. Meyli ku keya, at kananku, tiniman yang atnang kayumu.

Makarine mang ukulan kening kanakung sarili, bakit balamu, mibangun yatang pasibayu, itang panamdam kung malsinta ketang kanakung kayanakan. Akung pang sasabi kening lub ku: Balamu, mamutikas at sasapo pasibayu iting kanakung pakiramdam. Isip ku, kening idad kung beinti nuebi at itang kaya beinti otsu, iting panamdam, ena makabage kening kekaming estadu. Iting malilyari lubus makatula, dapot kaniting pamikatagun, balamu bisa kung maniwala, ing panamdam pamalsinta king idad eya kikilala! Nanu ing daptan ku? Nanu ing gawan ku kening panamdaman kung e aintindyan?

Katlu at katataulian mi nang aldo niting kekaming seminar-workshop keti farm school king balen Magalang. Kaybat nitang kekaming almusal detang kaluguran ku Baculud, ikami nang melaus king seminar room. Bayu megumpisa itang mismung seminar, atin pa mung programang makuyad ing megampan, ban ding sabla, ilang magsaya at mikikilala. Bayu ya menyara itang tagapagsalita, inaus naya ing lagyu nang Miss Lolita Victorio, kanita, magparamdam yang metung a kanta. Minta ya arap at migkanta yang acapella pemagatan If This is Love Darling. Kabang magkanta ya, papalakpakan da yang atnang katni uli nitang bosis nang masanting at matarling. Rod pakibatan me ing kanta nang Lolit, arang misusubung ding kayabe ku Baculud.  Ketang karelang sinabi, migkule kung anting ange, uling king kanakung bie, deng kanta eku la balung igege. E na ka daratang keta kekatamu nung eka talakad at magkanta! arang matingid manyawad kanaku. Italakad me ing bandera ning Baculud! Patunayan mung ika tau ka Baba! ara pang mangulit kanaku.

Migparugu-rugu ku karela uling king tutu mu talagang eku biasang magkanta. Dapot, ara mung mekibat kanaku: Eka mangupeti…eka tatalyu…! Bayu ya mayari itang kakanta nang Lolit, tinalakad ya itang metung a kekaming kayabe, at kabud, keyang telanan itang mikroponu, pepakilala ing lagyu ku, at aku kanung pakibatan itang kanta nang Miss Victorio. Bista man, eku bisa, penulak daku detang abe ku, angga ketang dela daku ketang mabababg entebladu. Papalakpak la ding tau at ala nakung agawa, nune itang mamintu ku angga mung makapakananu. Kamarinayan a maragul nung ali magkanta ku, inya inggiang bosis ku sintunadu, kaku yang peramdam itang kantang Hindi Kita Malilimutan.  Kaburi, kasaya ring tau at king wari ku, atin lang balu ding malda kaniting tinubung lub ku kang Lolit apapalsintan ku. Kanyaman niting kanakung pakiramdam, at ala kung malit-malitan, lalu pa yatang mitawu at milablab iting tinubu kening kanakung pangatau.

 Kaybat nitang paugtuan, meyari at misara na ing atlung aldo seminar-workshop a kekaming gimpanan keni balen Magalang. Kalupa detang sabla, marapal kung tingkapan itang keganaganang gamit ku, kanita, makisake kung pasibayu karetang kayabe ku. Karetang kayabe ku Baculud, akung meki mayap lub pamu karela, kanita, akung makisabi at mamun kang Lolit a kanakung apapalsintan tutu. Kaibat nitang kekaming makuyad pamisabi, aku nang memun keya, at metung amanung maula ing pebakal ku keya. Akung masuging sinabi kaya: Potang mikit katang pasibayu, agkatan da kang kasal ta na. Iti, king buri mu at ali… Meyli yamu kanaku, dapot melutu yang alang nanu itang keyang lupa.

 Mikawani kami kaibat nita, at ala na kung balu nung kapilan mikit kaming pasibayu. Karatang nitang malalam nang bengi, masusi kung ukulan nung nanu ing kanakung daptan karetang amanu kung likuan kanitang dalagang kanakung akilala. Makananung mapalyari, makananung mipaltutu… uling lubus ali kami malalam pang mika-imbalu…e pa panaun…epa sapat ing kekaming pamikilala… akung sasabi kening lub kung mikakunu. King isip ku, iti buri ku nang kalinguan… uling ala namang kapuntalan…ala namang paintungulan. Iti buri ku nang ipilpil…buri ku nang kalinguan…buri ku nang ikutkut. Iti eku na buri pang isipan uling balu ku, kaniti, ala kung akarapat… ala kung apalyari. Dapot iti, nung kapilan ku iwawale, lalu na naku mang ilalako inawa niting kanakung sarili.

Kaybat nitang paruminggu, ati namang sulat ing kanakung tinggap. Iti pirmadu naya nitang CIRPS Executive Director at aduan ing malaguang pamanagun ning kekaming College President at aku mu naman, a maganap November 12, 1986 king Tarlac College of Technology, Tarlac, Tarlac. King tula ku, king College President Office migsarya ku, at akung mengutang nung makananu king Tarlac miras ku. Eku kanu migaganaka uling itang lugal karela yang kabisadung kabisadu.

 Metung aldo bayu datang itang kekaming pamunta king Tarlac, binuklat ku king kanakung college president at ketang kayang asawa, itang  lama’ning lub at isip ku. King wari ku, ilang mikakunung tangu ketang pamakyasawang isipan ku, uling ela piu ketang kaulia’nitang kanakung planu. Antimong kanakung matua, peisip da ing sabla kanaku, lalu na itang kayang maging bunga. Kanaku lang pakiramdaman, dapot, ketang penandit ita, bulag ya ing sabla kung pangatau.

Tutu ing sasabian ding aliwa, ing pusu nung malsinta ya, abubulag naya ing isip ning tau. Anti ya man kayapan ing isip, ing pusu abulag na ya iti, tuki at tuki ya ketang kayang buri. Ana pin nitang kasebyan, O lugud misna king upaya, potang keka yang sekupan ing pusu ning ninu mang tau, ing sabla keka ngang paimburisan matuki mu sana itang buri mung malyari.

Makanyan man, detang miyasawa, ilang mengakung saup ketang kanakung planu at nanu man ing malyari, pabustan ali daku.

Pablasang detang miyasawa maluat lang tinuru king Tarlac College of Technology at karin Tarlac manuknangan la, aku rang tiki ketang karelang saken, inya akung miras malagua ketang escuela, nung nukarin itang pulung magagawa. Akung magumasid king makapadurut kanaku uling nung e kanita, king balen Tarlac miras ku. Karing tau alus ala kung kakilala, puera namu, karetang dati ku nang balu. Kaluklu’ku ketang conference room, i Lolit na iyang panintunan ku. Nukarin ku man marap, alang Lolit ing akakit ku. Kalyap detang mata ko, maliswas ya itang pusu ku. Ing kanakung mabilug pangatau, manintun ya mung metung a tau, at iti, aliwa nune i Lolit a sinta ku!

 Ketang kekaming pulung misna ku king kainip. Lingo ku panimanman, sulasulapo ing kakung diwa. Pata yang isip ku, balamu, linto ku yatang lingo at tungo! Aku lang daramdaman detang sablang misasabi, dapot detang karelang maulang pisasabyan, kanaku ala ngang kabaldugan. Karetang kekaming pipulungan, nanu man, ala kung atandanan. Ketang maulang penandit a ita, metung ya mung bage ing buri kung malyari. Iti ya ing akit ku na i Lolit king ora mismu! Kakaba nitang oras, kakaba nitang pisasabyan, at nung magsilbi mu, itang oras kaku yang pamatakan, kanita, itang pulung midina’nang kawakasan!

 Salamat a dakal at ing pulung meyari na. Kabang ding sabla, king paugtuan masaya la, iting wawa ku naman mete ya panlasa. Kanyaman ing pamangan, lutu pa namang Kapampangan. Ala kung teginan, ala ku mang tikman, uling itang isip kung mamyalungan, i Lolit mu ing buri kung akit!

 Kaniting buri kung malyari alang ninu mang makibalu. Kapatad man o pengari, alang ninu mang mimisip keting luluban kung peligrosu. Kaniting penandit, ala kung kasaup, ala kung kamaganak. Aku mung magdili-dili, maliban mu pin king kanakung presidenti. Nanu man ing malyari kanaku, kaniti ala mang makabalu. Nanu man ing malyari, iti tanggapan kung manyaman. Nanu man ing kalwalan, iti kanakung tanggapan. Dapot, siguradu ku kaniting buri kung malyari… ala kung pikakunuan… alang nanung matsurang sasagi kanaku, alang nanung inisip ing aku mipariwara ku. Aku mang magdili-dili, dapot, akung maragul maniwala king kanakung sarili, ing Apung Guinu makasiping ya kanaku.

 Kaibat nitang paugtuan, ena ku likuan nitang kanakung presidenti. Kaya na lang peyaus detang sabla nang kaluguran. Kaya na lang kesabi detang makatua king escuela. Karela, akung na yang pepakilala. Matula nang pebalu’t sinabi karela, nung nanu ing palsintan kung malyari. Balu deya i Lolit nung nanu ing kayang ugali, balu deya pangatau, inya ila anti na lang pengari. Kanaku, ati’na lang dimdam dapot ita karangan mu. Kayakit da kanaku, miyasamas dakung tinimtim, at mayap namu naman, meging mayan la lub kanaku. Pablasang kanaku lang karaya anti mong Kapampangan, meging malugud la kanaku, at ilang migparaya ketang karela adwan ku.

I Lolit ausan yang malagua at pidungut lang adua ban ilang misabi, arang masayang sinabi. Memintu ya itang karelang tiburan, at ditak mung penandit, aku nang inagkat da, ketang bale ning escuela. Kinislap ku lupa ketang ikit ku naya in Lolit. Buri keng talanan…buri keng kaulan… dapot king tula ku, eku balu nung nanu ing kanakung daptan. Ing lupa nang Lolit kanaku yang pakasipatan…kanaku yang pakalarawan. King kanakung wari, iya man, ena na naman balu nung nanung keyang daptan. Wari ku, king masaya kung sarili, maluat ku na yang kakaburi, maluat ku na yang bandi, a eku ikit kilub nitang limampulung banua!  Ketang kayang luklukan, atneng kataimikan. E kikimut, malalam ya isipan. King wari ku, bisa yang tumulu lua, bisa yang mako uling pota mipasubu ya kening kadungut nang atna  ka-agresibu.

 Likuan da kami at misabi kaming adua. Dinatang ku ban tupad ketang likuan kung amanu keka, akung segiwa kaya. Ala yang bulad, ala yang nanu mang pekibat. E migluat anang manene mekibat: Eku tenam king lub ku itang kekang sinabi, balu ku mamiru kamu. Akung malugud sinabi ka ya: Dinatang ku uling laus ku lub at pusu, Dapot anang mikakunung migsalita: Emu mu ku lubus kakilala at balu. Emu ku kakilala.  Era ka pin mayap balu… era ka man mayap kakilala, dapot kanaku, pebalu naka ning Apung Guinu, at ika nakang tiru kanaku. Biyaya na ka kanaku at ika kanaku, akung malugud sinabi kaya. I Lolit mangalutu ya lupa, atnang sinabing pasibayu: Maglolo ka pamu kanaku, ban akilala mu kung tutu at nung ninu aku. Akung pasibayung mekibat ka ya:  Tukyan daka buri, dapot tukyan mu ku naman sana buri. Kasal ta na. Kasal ka ta pamu, ban kanita, itang buri mung suyuan daka, gawan kung mayumung-mayumu. Mipakayli ya kanaku, at lalu ya pang mengalutu. Lawan mu ing idad tamung adua, akung kaya pepaganaka. Beinti otsu ka, beinti nuebi ku. King wari ku, e makabage na, ing mipaglolo kata pang adua, uling ding tau, pagsistiyan daka ta pa, pauli ning idad tamung mamun na king kalendaryu, akung pang migpakayli kaya. Lawen mu ku mata…lawen mu ku lupa… deti manyabi lang tutu keka… aku pang maglolo kaya. Lawan mu la ding matua, lawan mu la ding kaluguran mu, metung at metung, alang ninu mang sasalangsang karela, akung manyawad pakibat kaya. Kaluguran daka at palsintan dakang alang sala, ika ing buri kung maging asawa, maging indu ning kakung familia… akung malugud susuyu kaya. Ali daka pabustan… ali daka paburen…ali daka pakyakan…at kapilan man, pakaluguran dakang pakaluguran…akung tutung mangaku kaya. Ala yang pakibat, ali ya bubulad. Makaduku ya lupa, bisa yang kumyak. Bisa yang miwas, bisa yang mako, dapot, ketang lukluka’na, kaku yang ginapus karetang gamat kung keya magparalampu.

Marayil, makiramdam at magumasid la kanitang penandit, detang kaluguran at malugud kaya. King sablang tula ku, akung ikuang mipakakama, ketang ing metung nang kayabe escuela, magdala yang marriage contract ayusan da na pala!. Eku balu nung magsaya at magdiwang naku. Ing pekamasanting a balu ku kanitang penandit, iya itang kasiping ku na yang kasiping, ing sinta kung painturu ku nang ayasawa!

Karing tau, matula kung matula. Inggia man era ku binang balu, maliswas at kikimut la, ketang upayang mikasal na kami maganap kanu king balen Victoria. Ding saken ning escuela geyak da la, at ding sabla mamirapal na la, uling ing silim daratang na. Ala kung balu nung nukarin dala daku, eku mu naman balu nung nanung malyari kanaku. Kabang ing kekaming saken pupulayi ya, inisip ku king kanakung sarili, ing metung ku waring gala gagato at tutuki king agus ning danum nitang malalam sapa.

 Miras kami ketang bale Victoria a bandi nitang metung ming kayabe. Akung mangapamulala king kanakung disan uling ing sabla makasadia na ngan king kasal a magawa. Ing secretaryu nitang minisipyu, kayang miyasamas mamakinilyan itang kontrata nitang kekaming kasal. Ding aliwa, atyu la kusina at maglutu lang miyali-aliwa. King kanakung saya, bisang tumulu ing kanakung lua! Ketang penandit kanita, bista man ala lu siping ku detang kanakung matua, ding sabla kikimut la para kanaku, gaganap king mipmung tula para kanaku. Pengari la waring kanaku bidbud ning Apung Guinu, a gagampan ketang sablang kailangan ku. Kalugud na ning Apung Guinu, at Kayang sidya ing dalan kanaku, kanita, ing kanakung malagung tagimpan makapamakiasawa, gana-ganang mipaltutu!

E megluat, dinatang na ya itang alcaldi ning munisipyu. Kaya yang linawe ing kontrata at lepita’na kaming pareyu. Kitangan na kami king kekaming pamikalugud, king kekaming kayadwanan bisang kasal, at pengamanuan ketang malagung pami yabe antimong miyasawa. Kaybat ning seremonya, kaya na lang pekiduang detang kekaming singsing, dapot, meyli kaming agnan-agnan, uling kareti, ala mu mang makasadia. Lubus nang aintindian ing kekaming kabilian, inya, ing itang lagyu na, keya nayang pinirma ketang kontrata ating petsang November 12, 1986. Nganang sinabi kekami: Ngeni miyasawa nakayu! Linawe naku at nganang minutus: Ngening ikayung adua, ikayu nang miyasawa, uman mu naya ing kekang asawa tanda ning lugud mu kaya.  Malugud kung memintu at telanan gamat ing kanakung asawa, at akung kaya mekisabi: Mrs. Sicat, malyari dakang uman. Linawe nakung misnang sala, at kaku yang inuma. Detang pago na kaku lang telanan, linapit ku kaya itang kanakung pangisnawa, at akung digpa labi karetang keya. Iti kaku pang inulit, at kaku yang kinaul. Katula ding manakit, kasaya ding sabla… at ngarang sasambitla detang aliwa: Kasanting ne…ngeni ku pamu menakit king anti kanyang pamiyasawa. E la man lubus mikilala, dapot ing karelang pamikalugud, daig na pa itang mipaglolo lang aduang pulung banua…!

Matula la, masaya la ding sabla kaniting pamikatagun. Masaya la kekaming miyasawa, lalu kanaku, uli ning katuparan nitang panalangin kung makapakyasawa. Pengaul da kami at malugud manalangin king Apung Guinu, itang ikulub na kekami ing Keyang bendisyung mayumu.

Kaybat nitang kapasalamatan, mibali’kami Tarlac ban yatad kaming miyasawa ketang bale ning kanakung asawa. Nung nukarin makatungnang ya, kaniti ala kung kabalu-balu, uling kapilan man, eku pa miras keta karela. Mu naman, eku la balu detang maging katuwangan ku, uling misan man, eku la pa ikit king mabilug a bie ku. Kapilan man, ala pang pamikatagun ing ikit ku la, at ila, makanian mu naman kanaku. Munaman, ala kung balu karing maging bayo ku. Ala kung balu king ugali ra, ala lang kabalu-balu mu naman kanaku. Akung mangutang kening kanakung sarili: nanu kaya ing kanakung kaulyan karing taung salagpian ku? Tanggapan da ku kaya o ikawani king kanakung asawa? Nanu kaya nung era ku buri? Nanu ing gawan ku nung arang itabi daku? Makanian man, panalangin ku king Apung Guinu, ing sana, maging mayan la lub kanaku, ali la salangsang kaniting kekaming pamiyasawa niting kaluguran kung asawa.

 Ding pamilya ning kanakung asawa aku lang akilala. Pablasang i Lolit pangane ya karing kapatad na, alang pepakit malulam lupa karela. Marayil, magtaka lamu nung makananung minuli yang talasawa iting karelang kapatad, uling ala lang kabalu-balu kaniting asawang tikya’na. Akung pagumasdan itang kimut nitang babai kung , nung nanu itang kayang daptan. Akung magumasid ketang balang sasabya’na, nung nanu ing gawa’na. Kanaku yang dimput itang malyap a gamat na, akung siniklaud, at linikluk alang bulad.

 Detang matua kekami mamantabe, ilang ka ya mekisabi. Eya bubulad, mangisnawang atnang kalalam. Maliswas ya ketang lukluka’na, ena balu nung nanu ing dapta’na. Marayil, bisa yang kumyak, bisa yang gulisak. Mekad, buri nakung itabi uling ena ku balu. Siguru, isipa’na, nung nanu ku pangatau, uling balamu, singo kung payung-payungan bigla na mu linto. Marayil, ikukutang na king kayang sarili nung bakit mipakanyan ya sukad ing anak a pakamala’na.  Marayil, masukal ing lub na, mua yang mua uli ning gewa ming adua. Marayil, ing sukal nang lub buri nang ibugnus, dapot, iti ena agawa uling detang matuang makayantabe kekami, kaya ali la aliwa. Deting kekaming kayabe mangatua, ilang kaya minye patutu, king i Lolit, eya misala king kayang pamakyasawa. Deting matua a kilala at balu nang tutu, minye la pang mayap a garantya, king ing asawa ning anak na, maganaka at mayap ya.

 E miglambat, memu’na la detang kekami minantabe. Migpasalamat ku karela at akung pengaul at pengalamanu. Aku namung dili at akung mimiiisip nung nanu ing tutuking malyari. Tunggal-tunggal karela, aku rang kukutnan, keta marayil, abalu da nung nanu ing kanakung pangatau. Makibat kung kalakalale, at akung magpatune, ing aku mayap kung tau, at munaman, maging mayap asawa king kapatad da. Tayimik ya mu ing katuangan kung babai, at king wari ku, ing isip na mamyalungan yang sari-sari. Kanaku yang panintunan itang katuangan kung lalaki, dapot iti ala yu kanita. Kaybat nitang mapilan penandit, sinabi ya itang kanakung katuangan at ikami na kanung magpainawa 

Akung tinuki king kanakung asawa, at kayang tiru itang tudtura’na. Tayimik ing sabla at ali kami bubulad adua. Kanaku yang lepitan, at kanaku yang pekisabyan. Kanaku yang pengutnan kaniting kekaming desisyun. Ala yang pekibat, ali ya man binulad. Mebasa ya mata a ginapang karetang keyang lupa. Kanakung pinulis iti, kanita, mapawi itang lumbe na. Kaku yang inaru, kaku yang sinuyu. Amanu kung mayumu, ilang kayang meging panulu. Pasibayu, akung kaya mengaku: Kaluguran da ka! Pakaluguran da kang sari yumu’t sanke king mabilug kung pangisnawa! 

 Ketang benging ita, biglang dinatang ing lisangan. Uli niti, ing uran mibulus misna king kasikan! Ala kang damdaman nune itang byung detang malabung kawayan. Kasanting pakiramdaman detang karelang mipapaspasan bulong. Kasanting pakiramdaman detang lalangitngit dang impun. King eku balu, ing uran mesikan pang lalu. Merimla itang angin, mipatudtud kung atnang santing. Kalingat ku ditak saglit, akung tinalakad at migumasid. Pagtakan ku at nung bakit inggiang angin marimla na, itang bugsu nitang uran mibulus pang pasibayu. Kalabas nitang uran, milako pasibayu itang singo nitang lisangan. Uli niti, akung mipasno pakiramdam at akung mipatudtud eku balu.  

Kayabak kagising ku, makatando na ya itang aldo. Panintunan ku ya ing abe ku, ita pala ya nang maglutu. Tinipa ku’t lepitan ya ban saupan king gagawa’na. Ginulut yang katuangan ku, a nandin kasabi na pa. Lingu’nang pipia’na alang bulad kukusut na. Sukal nang lub aintindyan ku, inanakit na kakung alalasa. Mengan kaming alang bulad, ing pamangan ku anti waring ating panulu.

Kaibat nitang kekaming almusal, ikaming memun miyasawa ban muli Pampanga. Ikaming muli keta kekami, kanita, kaya na lang akilala detang kanakung partidus balen Kababan. Itang kanakung katuangan, ala ya pa muring bulad, ala yang tangu, ala yang kasaya-saya lupa. Ginaya’kami’t memun kaya, at pasibayu, anti waring ala yang dimdam, anting alang ikit, itang malumbe kung katuangan. Meko kaming alang bulad at ume nang melaus. Ita kanung kalako mi, ing malungkut kung bayung pengari, menangis yang alang nanu. Itang imalan pipiya’na, king gabun penugse na. Ala yang asalese uling itang lub na ala yu ketang gagawa’na.

Menabat kaming saken at melaus na. Kalukluk mi kaniti, kaku yang telanan ing gamat ning abe ku, patune, tutu yang maula kanaku. Kaku yang kinaul ban maluluglug ing sabla nang pikakunuan. Ketang kanakung pago, kaku yang sinandal at mipatudtud king salu ku. Kabang kaku yang aguran, miglakad ya ing kakung diwa at kanakung isipan nung nanu ing kayulian niting kakung aluban. Akung mangutang king kanakung sarili: Nanu kaya ing dasan at sabian detang pengari’t kamagana’ku. Aku mu naming isipan, itang kanakung kabilyan karing painturu kung kapatad ngeni kanaku papagaral.  Nanu kaya ing daptan ku ban kanita king karelang pamagaral  e  mituknang la? Nanu kaya ing karelang kaulyan ngening aku nang talasawa? Nanu kaya ing gawan ku nung sakali, iting kanakung ayasawa, maging maimut ya karing obligasyun a likuan ku karela? akung mangutang kanitang isip kung mamyalungan.

 Balu ku king kapilanman, era ku dininan obligasyun detang kalulu kung matua, ban tambayukan itang karelang responsibilidad karing kapatad ku. Dapot kilub ding pusu ra, balu ku nung nanu ing yawad ra kanaku, lalu itang indu kung babai. Pengaku ku king kanakung sarili, king nanu man ing malyari, eku magpabusta kapilan man karela.  Deti mamyalungan la king kanakung sarili, at akung taimtim menalangin: Nawa iting kanakung ayasawa, keyang tanggapan iting kabilyan kung kalulu. Sana, maganaka ya’t mapanupaya, maragul a pusu, at mapanatindi king sabla…

Kalabas itang metung oras at kapitna, king baryu mi Baba miras kaming manawa. Katipa mi ketang saken, masaya kuyang kakalwan ing abe ku. Balang kekami manakit, ilang mangapatalanga at mangapakamakama. Ding sabla mangapamulala la kanaku, uling sinaguli ku mung mewala, aku nang magdalang asawa era man kakilala at kabalu-balu. Ating metung matuang babai kanakung kakilalang-kakilala ing linapit atnang memiru’t sinabi: Oy Rodrigo, mamulang! nukarin me labuad akalap ing kekang pisitara? Guinu ko! Bakit pekadagul dagul meng anti kanyan? Agiyu meng pamatbat yan at mekad galang ikang penasiwas na kanyan!  Kaku yang kinaul itang matuang babaing kapamiru ku at akung mekibat kaya: Iya ing asawa ku at Lolit ing lagyu na. Ali kami migpusitara uling kinasal na kami Tarlac. Nanu malagu ya ing abe ko? Nanu bage kame? Apagmaragul kya dara? Anang mapamiru pang sinabi: Taksyapu mo! E wari misasabi ka ta pamu kapilan pa at ala naka mang anti kanyan istorya kanako? Bakit kabira-bira aliwa yang abe mu ngeni?  Nanung gewa mung yan, itung? O itang balu ku, makananu ya kanyan? Akung mekibat kaya: Talagang ing suerti anti kanyan. Emu man panintunan, kabud na mu daratang… Kaya, akung minulit pasibayu keya: Nanu malagu yang abe ko? Wa naman! anang matulang mekibat kanaku. 

Itang kaluguran kung matua matula ya kanaku uling ume nakung mekapakyasawa. Ikami nang mumun kaya, at uling pare-pareyu kaming matula, ing kekaming pamaniklaud, kanita mi pamu aganaka. Itang kayang pitalan-talan sigarilyung markang ungut, keya yang sinubung pasibayu, aku nang pinikpik pago at anang memirung pasibayu: Rodrigo, ito, karagul ning arakap mo! Siguradu kang agyu me ing asawang darala mo?  Kaybat ku yang kinaul pago itang kapamiru kung matua, linakad na kami ning abe ku, pauli keta kekami.

 King kekaming pamanuli, balang bale kekaming lalabasan, kekami la pa mung ampitan. Matula la king abe ku, dapot ali da ya man masyadu pang balu. Matula ku karela, uling metung mu ing karelang kukutang kanaku: Rodrigo, ninu yang maragul abe mu? Obat e mi ya kakilala? Migpusitara kayo? Balu nang inang mu yan?  Kalupa nitang pakibat ku karetang aliwa, akung karela magdeklara: Mekyasawa na ku! Kinasal na kaming huez king Tarlac. Pablasang balu dang mapamiru ku, ada pang matulang sasabing paulit-ulit kanaku: Kamulangan mo! Eka mamiro. Makananu kang kinasal nung ika mung dili mu?  Makananung milyari ita. Bakit ali mi ya balu ing asawa mu? Bakit nung e ngeni, emu ya pepabalu kekami? Akung makibat karela: Suwerti ke ing abe ku. Eku la balung pakibatan deng kutang yu. Ala kung balung pakibat uling ala kung balu. At ara pang mangutang e maybug manwala: Ay Diyos ko, atin waring pamakyasawang anti kanyan! Itang metung bigla nang aganaka: Wa pin pala, menga’nako kanyan? Eko danupan? Nanu ing buri yung kanan?  E mi na la buring abalan pa, inya ikaming memun at sinulung na.

Karas mi ketang bale nang apu ku, lalu lang migtaka at mengapamulala. Minuna mi yang lepitan itang apu kung babai, at anang mengutang: Nanung milyari? Memusitara ka kano? Yang milyari balu nang inang mo? Inabut miya ing gamat na at ikaming meniklaud kaya. Kinasal na kami at darakitan da ka yu ban kanita magsulisitud tamu king aldo makadua, akung mekibat kang apu ku. Anang sinabi kanaku: Makanyan pala, bakit kailangan tamu pang magsulisitud, kinasal na kayu pala? Akung migpalino pa: Kanita miras kayu karin at kanita, akilala yu la ding pamilya ning abe ku.

 Itang apu kung lalaki makiramdam ya pala kekami, aku na yang inaus at pepalapitan kaya. Itang gamat na kekami yang kingua at siniklaud ka ya. Uli detang kayang mata lula na la, ali na ne akakit ing kanakung asawa. I Lolit pepalapita’naya kaya, at kayang kipkap ing lupa ning apu nang bayu. Anang sinabi kanaku: O Rodrigo, makananu meng arakap ing asawa mu? King wari ku, karagul na yatang babae! Obat eku balu ing ating ka palang kaburi Tarlac. Pasalamat ka’t aburya’na ka. Kang apu ku, akung sinabi: Apo, eka migkamali. Maragul ya ping tutu. Binie ne kanaku ning Apung Guinu, inggiang eke mipaglolo at masyadung mikabalu… Nanu ya itsura? ana pang sinigunda. Arang agnan-agnan mekibat detang makapadurut kaya: Malagu ya at lupa yang abugada.  Alus kasindagul neng Rodrigo, o mekad siguru, matas ya pang ditak ka ya.

 Ding aliwa minyasat la kabang mipag-istorya kaming masaya. Detang sablang makabalita, karas da, metung mu ing ikukutang da: I Rodrigo mikyasawa ne kano? Tutu ya ping maragul itang keyang ayasawa? Anta yu na la? Potang i Lolit iyang akit da, atna lang katulang katula at alang patugut ing ayli ra. Aba! tutu pin pala. Dagul napin pala ning asawa nang Rodrigo! arang masiglang magsalita.

Marayil, ing mangye dang pamagsalita ding tau, pagtaka’ning abe ku. Karing magale at matarling bosis ding tau, iyang manibayung-manibayu, uling nung e kanita king Lubao miras ya. Nung misan pangutnan da ya dapot mayli yamu uli sigurung detang aliwang salita gagamitan da, ela malino ketang balu na. Maralas mangutang ya pa kanaku, kanita, karing pakibat na eya mitalabu.

 Keta kekami, aku na yang inagkat ing abe ku, ban kanita, ka ya na lang akilala detang pengari nang bayu. Dapot e na kami buring mako pa mu nitang apu kung babai, aku nang ginayak at ume na kaming memun karela. Uling pepanyasat ya karetang kakung dara, ka ya nang penabilin ing eke kanu mamabak, nung e daratang itang pamangang payatad na. 

 Melaus na kami pauli karing kanakung pengari. King dane mi, mabilis mibalita ing mikyasawa naku. Balang kekaming daralanan, anak at matua, masaya la ngan lupa. I Sir mikyasawa na ya! Mikyasawa na ya! arang magsaya’t manabiba. Balang bale labasan mi, papalakpak at pepepe la. Abe ko, mikyasawa na ka pin pala! Tutu pala ing babalita ra at maragul ya pin pala ing arakap mung asawa, arang sasabi deta kekami akakasalubong.

Karas karin king bale mi, ikami rang selubung detang matulang kanakung pengari. Karela nang dimdam itang balita, balu da nang mikyasawa naku. Meniklaud kami karela at kinaul na yang inang ku ing abe kung asawa. Masaya la at ala kung dimdam nanu mang amanu karela. Detang kapatad kung atiyu kanita, kanaku lang pepakilala kaya. Matula da yang tinggap, at masaya lang mipagkuwentu. Tunggal-tunggal lang daratang detang kekaming kamaganak, siping bale ampon kakilala, at ilang sasalubung at magpakilala king kanakung asawa.

Detang likuan ming menese karin bale nang apu ku, ila nang dinatang at daralan itang karelang a lutu. Matula kaming minabak, masaya kaming pare-pareyu. Marakal ing pamangan uling detang kekami pupunta, magdala la mu namang pamangan miyaliwa-liwa.

 Kinabukasan, itang apu kung babai ketang tatang ku, a manuknangan pamu king pangulu, malagua yang dinulung king kekaming baryu, kabud kaya nang abalu, ing atin yang bayung apu. Marayu ya pa, susunga na yang mamaus, susyo kang tatang ku, at kaya nang ikukutang nung ing apu nang Rodrigo mekyasawa na ya kanu. Atna kaming katula kaya uling nanu ya pidala-dala. Meniklaud kami kaya at kayakit na king abe ku, kaya na yang penuma at kang Lolit tala-talanga ya. Katas na pin pala ning asawa nang Rodrigo, anang matulang mamanga. Masasawang ku kaya. Karagul na pin pala ing asagmit ning apu ku! ana pang masayang sasabi. Linual na king bayung itang darala na at pemilit mangan ing kanakung asawa.

Itang pangane kung kapatad manuknangan king Menila, iya mu namang minuli king baryu kayabe itang kayang asawa. Nung makanu itang tula detang aliwa, itang kaya anti mu naman kanita.

Detang aliwa kung disipulus a kanakung meging kaluguran, ilang dinatang mu naman at ilang sisigpo king tula pauli niting kanakung pamakyasawa. Matula ku karela, uling ila anti waring kapatad at wali ku na la.

Itang aldo Dumingu, ikaming sinimba at alang e makalawe king kanakung abe. Kaibat nitang misa, alang e gagalamu kanaku uling aku nang talasawa. Maluat kung tuturu baryu, inya ding tau mayap dakung balu, at king kekaming pisamban aktibu kung aktibu.

Bayu kami minuli keta kekami, patingapun kaming meniklaud karetang kekaming kamaganak aliwa pa. Balang kekaming darasan, atin lang yapag pamangan a labis nang ikakatula niting kakung asawa. Lubus nang isipan ing makayaliwang ugali ding taung kayang darasan, at munaman, ing leparan detang kanakung kamaganak. Pagtaka’na mu naman, at nung bakit balang bale kekaming ampitan, papadalan da yang nanu-nanu. Iti kanakung pepalino kaya, nung bakit ding Kapampangan Kababan anti kanita ing karelang panugali.

Itang benging dungut-dungut kaming mamangan ding pamilya ku, akung sinabi karela ing kekaming pamunta king Tarlac, kanita, itang kekaming kasal king pisamban, iyang kekaming pisabyan. Kekaming pisabi nung ninu ding tuki ampon nanu ing dala mi.

 Kabang mamangan kami, anang aganakang mengutang nitang babai kung wali: Koya, nuya mibait i ating? Nanu mo ing aus mu kaya ngening asawa mu naya? Nanu ing buri-buri nang kakanan? Nanu ing buri nang kule? Ninu reng buri nang magkanta? Nanung kanta ing buri-buri na?Nukarin ya megaral? Nanu ing aldo ning keyang beitan? Nanu la lagyu ding kekang katuangan? Pilan lang mikakapatad, nanung lagyu ra? Nanu ing lugal da Tarlac?

 Kabang mangutang ya itang kanakung wali, akung mimisip malalam nung nanu ing pakibat ku kaya. Aku yang lalawan i Lolit at akung mipapakayli king kanakung sarili. Ikaming adua, pusit-pusit ing kekaming ayli, uling king mipmung kamatutuanan, ala kung balung ipakibat…ala kung kamalayan… at ala kung kabalu-balu karetang ikukutang na nitang kakung wali.

Akung minamin karela:  Eku biyasang manula, inya ikayu nang manupaya. Ikayu na ing bala uling ala kung balu-balu karetang buri yung abalu. Arang agnan-agnan sinabi kanaku: Ay koya, obat makanyan kang mikyasawa, makatula kang tutu, ala ka kabalu-balu king kekang asawa!

 Malakas kaming meyli at karela kung sinabi: Talagang ala kung kabalu-balu, dapot, i ating yung Lolit iyang masanting nang regalu ning Apung Guinu kanaku, malagung regalu kapilan man, eku baren king mabilug bie ku…

 Manibat kanita, aldo-aldo… bengi-bengi… ala kung gewa nune tupad karetang kanakung pengaku king kanakung asawa. Alang penandit ing eke paglolon… susuyuan…luluguran… inya pin yata, king balang banua manganak ya!

Aduang pulung banua na ing milabas, at ing kanakung lugud keya, lalu pang lalam…lalu pang sasakdal…lalu pang babanal…lalu pang maging sagradu.

Nung makananu kung minuling talasawa, iyang kalam maluat kung penalangin king Apung Guinu. Milyari ya iting malagu kung pamakyasawa, pauli ning lugud ku Keya at lugud Na kanaku.











Neng Rodrigo M. Sicat


Mikit la misan aldo ding mikaluguran Tagalug ampon Kapampangan

Ketang lugal atin manyaman pipag-istoryan ausan dang “Eat All You Can”

Uling kasebyan lang alang “H” deting amanuan dang kapampangan

Apalsinta’nang ing kayang kaluguran testingan ne king kayang keynan


Ala yang kamala-malayan ing kaluguran ng Kapampangan keting kayang isipan

Anya, ing buri nang a-testing kening kayang ka-“brother” kaya na yang inumpisan

Makanyan man, bayu ya mengutang ing Tagalug, anang sinabi king keyang sarili

Tingnan ku nga kung papaano ka mag-pronounce  ng “h” sa itatanong ko sa  iyo


Anang megumpisa at ana king pamanagalug na

O bro, ano ba ang bahay sa English sa mga kapampangan?

Aba, balamu mu mo buri na kung pakirakpan, ana ning kukutnan

Ana namang mekibat: anong klaseng bahay ang gusto mo “malaki o maliit?”


Kapag malaki “mansion” at kapag maliit “dwelling o kaya shelter”

Ing mangutang Tagalug mengamus yang buntuk atnang sinabi

Bakit hindi “house” ang sinagot niya, “di ba ‘yon ang  tamang sagot, ana king sarili

Tingnan ku nga ulit kung hindi lilitaw ang pagka-walang “h” nito, ana!


O bro, hindi ba kapag dry season, dinidiligan ang mga halaman

Gamit ang mahabang pandugtong upang maging daluyan ito ng tubig patungo sa mga halaman

Ano ba sa English ang tawag dito ng mga Kapampangan?

Ay, iyon ba? Ang tawag doon ay “plastic tube” o kaya, “water sprinkler”, ana ning kukutnan


Ngek! ana king lub ning mangutang, bakit hindi “hose” ang kanyang kasagutan

Bro, ana na namang ating buring ikutang

“Hindi ba ang tawag sa daan sa baryo ay barangay road, sa probinsya “provincial road”

Ano naman ang tawag sa English sa national road?

E di “Expressway”, anang mekibat mayli ning kitnanan


Ngek! Ana na naman ginamus buntuk ning Tagalug

At anang sasabi king kayang sarili: hindi ba “highway” dapat ang sagot niya,

Magtatanong pa ako ng isa para mahuli ko ang pagka-wala ng “h” niya

O bro, ano ba ang tawag sa English sa paboritong pagkaing karne ng pamilya

Na ang lasa ay manamis namis at tuwing Pasko at New Year ay naka-serve sa mesa?


Ah, masarap iyon di ba, anang mekibat ning Kapampangan

Hindi ba bino-boil pa ‘yon sa pineapple juice at 7 up ne, ana

“Di ba pinapalaman pa ‘yon sa sandwich na pan ne”, ana pa!

Ang tawag doon ay “sweetened pork thigh”, ana kaya!


Ngek! hindi ba “ham” ang tawag doon, anang mipakama ning Tagalug

Ah, old name pa ang binanggit mo, new nomenclature ‘yon, ana ning Kapampangan

Ano naman sa English ang “butas” na pinagtataguan ng mga daga at ahas

E di “burrow” kapag small at “tunnel” kapag big   


Eh, ang inang manok naman, e di “mother chicken”

Eh, ang kabayo naman, e di “stallion” kapag lalaki at “mare” kapag female

Eh, ang bayani, e di “patriot” o kaya kapag sublime “nationalist”

Eh, ang buhok, e di….”wig” o kaya kung gusto mo “toupee”


Ana ning Tagalug king lub na

Bakit angyang makananu, eke atuag a dila ini

Ana na naman ning Kapampangan keng darakap kaya

Bala mu mo siguru ne?

Angyang nanu mu, emu ku agisan perminanti!



Bakit ala lang “H” ding dila tamung Kapampanmgan?



Alang letter “H” keng matuang Sanskrit. Manga-intuliran ing matua neng matua ing salita tamu kawangis ning salitang Ilokano mu naman. Keng isip ku, ing Tagalug indu ne ing Kapampangan at iti menga-ilon yang makapal “h” menibat keng kulturang Intsik.



Migit matua ing kulturang Austronesian a minunang mitanam king kamalayan tamu kesa kareng Intsik mekipangalakal kekatamu. Ing kamalayang Kapampangan misapwak ya king impluwensya ning Austronesial linkages.




A Son’s Reply To His Parent’s Wish

A Son’s Reply to His Parents’ Wish

By Rodrigo M. Sicat 

Dearest mother and father,

I am very glad and thankful 
That your letter reached me with great delight
With my wife and your grandchildren
We preciously opened it with excitement

As we started reading it
Our hearts stilled in tranquility
Our eyes swelled with deep somber
Our minds clouded with either innocence or guilt

Without them going through the whole letter
They were touched and left me alone to read it all personal
I too was stiffed and unmoved, reclined my back to the chair
And began to read it again with empathy and longing

I read and kept reading it several times
After a while, it gently brought back
The affectionate memories of my childhood
That reminded me of your kindness and yearnings

Mother, how can I forget hiding under the bed during summer?
I remember how you excruciatingly ran and restrained my irascibility
And then hauled me off the dark dusty area,
Bath my stinking odor and soily skin which I refused because of my fear of getting fever

As I grew up, I can never forget my enjoyment over the cold rainy days
Ah, the water stepping down the gutter excited me to play and soak in laughter
Peeping through the window, you angrily yelled at me with my brothers for our hardheadedness
And scolded us that we get ill or even rushed by rippling torrents

When I got sick, you are always there to take care of me and stay until I am asleep
When I cried in pain, you are always there to cradle me in your bosom, saying it is okay
In my helplessness, you brooded with your arms to regain my warmth and strength
In my powerlessness, you comforted with your wisdom to restore my vigor and ardor

You sewed my clothes unwearyingly when I was in the elementary school
You washed and ironed out my uniforms uncomplainingly during my high school
I saw you cry and weep in secret when you failed to send me to study in college
I knew the pains of your hearts because you were too sorry over our poverty

Mother, despite that, I saw your sternness in your determination
You consoled my tears to pursue my dream to earn a college degree
You pushed me hard to be shoved the hardest to keep me moving and kicking
We worked together in dreams to reach the impossible dream

You taught me how to strive and survive to muster the best of my nature
You taught me to fly and soar to discover the beauty of the world
You taught me to be agile and flexible to share my gains to others
You taught me to be little and empty to dwell in the city of the Almighty

Father, how can I forget your painstaking efforts to provide my needs?
You did not give us much, but you did your best in your most humble way
I know how you made yourself an occasional worker in many ways:
A farmer, fisherman, carpenter, mason, vendor, an overseas contract worker and more

You helped me appreciate the menial chores that you did dutifully
But never encouraged me to muster them because of their difficulty
Instead, you inspired me to study diligently and sacrificingly
To make my future family live in convenience without intricacy

I seriously took your words with reverence and solemnity
I wholeheartedly cherished them with pledge and gallantry
Which is why, even when tossed into the ground, I stood toughly
In order to vanquish the desolations with infinity

You taught me survival and autonomy
And to chart my destiny independently
I crossed the challenging journeys without honey
And bravely fought the battles with laurels wittingly

Mother, I feel your kindness whenever I see elders around me
Saying “hello” to them is like saying “hello” to you too
Sharing to them my gladness is sharing the same to you
Seeing my wife keeping the house chores is like seeing your youth also

Father, every night as I lay in bed
I am always thinking of you and mother
I understand your worries and wishes
I always keep praying for your peace and safety

How I wish I can do your wishes as frequently so
But the circumstance of time does not allow me too
Remember when we were little kids all seated in the low dining table
Leading us to prayers, each one of you then, patiently attended us with loving care    

I always remember your counsel to entreat my family dutifully
Which is why, I deal your wisdom with great responsibility
I work hard not only for you to be proud of me but also for my family
As you oftentimes said: “We find our success if you succeeded in your family only.”

Father, mother – there is nothing that I do not treasure about your greatness
I loved every moment that you spent for my happiness
There is nothing that were lost about the past memories
Because we share them too to your grandchildren with fondness

God knows the kindness and sublimity of your hearts
He will soothe your wishes and dreams
He will comfort your yearnings and pinings
He will embrace you closer to His loving arms

To God, I shall pray this for you:

Lord, you know all our parents’ sacrifices
That molded us today in Your fold
I thank You for choosing them as our parents
I thank You for making them as good grandparents too

Lord our Father
How can I thank them for what we are today
How can I repay the holiness of their hearts
How can I forget that without them, I won’t be here

Lord my God
It is only You who can reward the race they run for me
Adorn them with Your crown of glory
That they fittingly deserve until eternity

In my constant absence with them, O Lord
Embrace Your caring arms to cradle their fragile bodies
Warm them with Your armor of amour
To be protected from harm and jeopardy

As they taught me to love You dearly Lord
I love them in greater as I love You the Most
This I pray in the sweetest Name of Jesus Christ our Lord and Savior

Compassionately yours,

Me and my siblings

Post Script

I had your letter read by my brothers and sisters via email
They will join us in coming home this Christmas
To spend great vacation with you until New Year
Your grandchildren with their children will come home too
Because they are enormously excited to listen to your great stories also

I love you, mother and father

God bless you always

King Kanakung Pamagtua

King Kanakung Pamagtua
(Sulat nang Inang at Tatang)
By Rodrigo M. Sicat

King kanakung pamagtua, aintindian mu ku sana
At aku mu kung ipanupaya

Potang ding kanakung mata, ila na lang malulula
Kareng pinggan aku nang makabalbal na
O kaya aku nang atutuag ing sabo babo lamesa
Emu ku sana kakamuan pauli ding gamat kung mabule na

Matua na ku ana’ko, inya, bina na kung mapanamdaman
Atna kung kalunus kening kanakung sarili
Lalu na rugu potang aku mung bubungilan
Kakamwan at gugulisakan

Potang mayna na la ring kanakung balugbug
Eku na lubus atitingiran ing kekang sasabyan
Sana, emu sasabyan kanaku ing misna ku king keklakan
Nung magsilbi sana, keka namung ulitan
Kanita, itang buri buring pabalu kanu itang aytindian

Anak, panaupaya mu ku
Uling taganang matua na ku
Potang mayna na la ring intud ku
Pagtyagan mu sanang saupan kanita mitikdo ku

Kalupa na wari ketang akung antabayanan ka
Ketang pamagpatalan mu
Tatalnan da kang kalakalale
A meging mula ning pamaglakad mu

Panupaya mu ku sana nung madalas kung maging makulit
Uling ing sasabyan ku waring plaka na mung paulit- ulit
Pakiramdaman mu na ku mu
Eku sana maging pikatulan keka
Eka sasawa, pakiramdaman mu na ku mu
Kareng anggang sasabyan ku keka

Anak, atatandanan mo ketang malati ka pa?
Potang bisa kang lobo, paulit ulit mu iting sasabyan kanaku
Papatingapun ka king kakakulit anggang iti eme apasali kanaku
Itang sabla mung kakulitan, kanaku la ngan pagtiyagan
Uli nitang lugud ku keka atnang sakdal at kayumu

Panupaya mu na sana ing kanakung bau
Babau na kung matua, gabun na ing bau ku
Emu na ku sana pipilitang mandilu
Uling keng dimla mayna na ya ing katawan ku

Malagua nayang misakitan ustung iti yang mikarimlan
Detang sakit ku pang aliwa
Kabud a bud lunto la naman
Anak, sana kapilan man, nung masakit ku
Emu ku sana pandiryan

Atatandanan mu pa ba kanitang anak ka pa?
Pagtyagan da kang panagalan
Ketang lalam nitang kekang pitutudturan
Eka bisang pairakap
Eka bisang mandilu uling pota misakitan ka

Panupaya mu sana nung madalas magbugnut ku
Uling siguru dadalan niti ning panga-katwa ku.
Potang tumua ka, abalu mu rin ini
Abalu mu ing masakit panamdaman ku

Potang atin kang ditak panaun, mipag-istorya ka ta sana
Angya rugung saguli mu
Kanita mawala bagya iting lungkut ku

Mainip ku king bale
Patingapun kung magdili-dili
Ala ku mang akasabi
Maliban mu karetang kakung muni-muni

Balu ku ing dakal ka gagawan king obra mu
Dapot buri ku sanang iparamdam keka
Ing atna kung kawang-kawang akapag-istorya ka
Angyang balu kung eka man interesadu
Kareng kukwentu ku keka
Akakait da ka mu, mipapasno ku

Anak, atatandanan mu pa ketang malati ka?
Pagtyagan da kang pakiramdaman at paki-intindyan
Karetang pautal-utal at paputut-putut mung kwento
Lalu na tungkul ketang teddy bear a pyalungan mu

At nung sakaling datang na itang pamikatagun
Sakaling misakitan at mirate na ku king kapanamdaman
Ali mu ku sana pagsawan keng kalulu kung kabilyan
Sesen mu ku sana ampong lingunan
Kanita rugu e ku lunto kalulunusan

Panupaya mu naman sana
Nung king kanakung pipagkeran
Mangapali o magdinat na ku naman
Pagtyagan mu ku sanang lingapan
Angga man sana king tauling penandit ning bie ku
Tutal, anak, karangan nya mu iting bie ku

Potang datang na ing aldo ning kanakung pamaglako
Talanan mu ku sana gamat
Pasiknangan mu ing lub ku
Kanita ayarapan ku
Ing kanakung kamatayan

At eka migaganaka, anak
Bayu ku la ipakat ding kanakung mata
Ipanalangin ku king Mayupaya
Ing ipala na kang manawa
Uling meging malugud ka
Karing kekang inda at tata.


Indigenous Name: TARLAC GRASS

Spanish Name: Hierba Tarlaquena

Scientific Name: Themeda arundinacea (Roxb.) Ridl.

Kapampangan Name: Dikut Tarlac

Aboriginal Name: Tallak

Ilocano Name: Tanglar; Tarlar

Popular Name: Matarlac; Malatarlac

Family: Gramineae

Location Discovered: Bamban, Tarlac

Date Found: November 21, 2002

Other Places Located: Capas, Tarlac City, San Jose, Mayantoc, Camiling, Santa Ignacia, Camiling, San Clemente

Researcher: Dr. Rodrigo M. Sicat

Asst. Researchers: Rodel T. Botio/Delfin J. Sibal



Stem. Selectively grows in colonies in usually moist to dry clay loam soils along high hills and flat hinterlands; annual (“annual” means once a year); as the plants burn or die during dry season (as a result of kaingin or eventual death), new shoots are enormously replaced at the onset of the rainy season. The grass shoots (plant or clone) grow from the center outward, develop new lateral shoots (tillers), and form into a ring of healthy plants. A ring produces 100-150 tillers. A young tiller is light green and becomes heavily green as its maturity stage progress. Each tiller has 8-10 pairs of sideward stems from base to apex. The sheaths of the stems are hallow or herbaceous and are sequentially woven and arranged in ascending order.  The lower side sheaths of the base stems are light purple, hairy, shiny, smooth, and with parallel veins. Any of these tillers produces a sugarcane-like culm, which holds the spike. The cane-like stalk reaches 8-13 ft. tall (root base stem to spike’s apex). A grass colony bears 30-35 spikes.  A spike has 12-18 nodes (joints), and every node is 0.75 cm.-4.0 cm. diameter. Internodes are 15 cm.-35 cm. apart. Fresh (green) nodes are succulent, sugarcane (sucrose aroma), and chewable. Old stalks become hard and woody.

Leaves. The blade (lamina) of the grass is linear, long, slender, sharp, and coarse. The sheath that enfolds the culms of the nodes is membrous or hairy. Each leaf has a long midrib that holds both the blade and sheath. The veins are parallel. The leaves reach a height of 170 cm.-225 cm. (from base to tip).  Each mature plantlet produces 16-40 sheaths of leaves. A leaf measures 1.5 cm. (base), 1.6 cm. (middle), and 0.3 cm. (tip).

During the plant’s peak of maturity, the leaves form a circular crown that makes the grass appear buoyant, showy, and majestic.

Roots. The tarlac grass is fibrous. Each tiller develops an independent fibrous root system, which makes the grass colony stand firm and flexible. Roots can penetrate porous clay loam soils and develop roots as long as 30 cm.-50 cm.

The young seeds of the grass develop primary or seminal roots.

Fruiting structures. The inflorescence of the grass is developed on the spike of the plant. The spike (from base stalk to tip) measures 8-13 feet. The spike contains spikelets that bear the florets (flowers). Each spike has 5-7 spikelets, which attach the flowers to the stem. The young flowers are light yellow green, smooth, and shiny. Eventually, the flowers become maple to deep brown when fully matured. The seeds are not macroscopic. Seed dispersal is either done through the wind, birds, insects, and man. Flowering period commences August and subsides in December.

When all the spikes of a solitary tarlac grass colony are in full bloom, the plant appears attractive and welcoming. From a distance, the grass florescence’s is noticeably peculiar and smart.

Uses. The leaves of the grass may be used as roofing materials in rustic places; flowers and spikes for handicrafts; and the roots are reportedly used for herbal or medicinal purposes (kidney treatment). Only very young stems and leaves of the grass are used for forage purposes (for cows and goats).



 Tarlac is a landlocked provincein Luzon with Tarlac City as its capital. It is considered as the first melting pot in Central Luzon if not in the entire archipelago.

 As such, the province enormously thrives with varieties of cultures, which is why, the culture is predominantly a chemistry of Kapampangan, Ilokano, Pangasinense and Tagalog. The blend is largely due to its history and geographical borderlines.   

 It is a province colored with merry people and languages. As border languages speakers, the usage of the verbal and written language today may seem not to be as puritan as that of the pioneering settlers, yet, are instinctively spoken by the contemporary Tarlakenos.

 Corollary, classical culture vis-à-vis mores, norms, knowledge, customs and traditions are still evident. The following are cultural examples that are germane among the people these days:  

Kapampangan Proverbs (Kasebyan) 

  1. Eka mamaronga nung eka bisang mituran (Do not cast stone if you do not want to be stroke).  
  2. Mamie ka ban midinan ka (Give and you will receive). 
  3. Eka mamie dalan ban eka midalanan (Do not give way to avoid being rail raided).  
  4. Emu kakalingwan babakle lawe ketang ibatan mu (Do not forget to look back to where you came from). 
  5. Migit mayap ing danupan kesa king lubas; ing maranup makalual ya ing lubas ali ya (It is better to be starved than naked; the starved can openly come out but never the naked). 
  6. Ing mangilag king pate, iyang matapang tune (He who refuses a fight is the one truly brave). 
  7. Ing e makibalu king kasakitan eya dapat manayang kanawan (He who has not experienced hardship should not expect comfort). 
  8. Ing pamangan ulwan na ing danup, ing pamagaral ulwan na ing kamangangan (Food cures hunger, education ails ignorance). 
  9. Tapat la ding sugat na ning kakaluguran, dapot ding uma ning casalang ilang kalabisan (The advises of a faithful friend might be painful but the kisses of an enemy are fanciful). 
  10.  Ing metung a mana malyari yang akamtan pirapal king kamumulan dapot ing wakas na niti e mipanwanan (Inheritance can be deceitfully earned but it will not last in the end).  
  11. Matas at mataluktuk masaldak ya pangabaldug (The higher the climb the harder the fall). 
  12. Eka lalapit king api nung eka bisang mapali (Do not come near the fire if you do not want to get burned). 
  13. Keng maranup alang tinape a masias (There is no bad bread for a hungry person). 
  14. Ing asung balabaluktut butul man eya makapulut (A dog that is lazy can not even catch a tiny bone). 
  15. Panayan mu karing anak mu ing depatan mu karing indu tata mu (Discover from your children the deeds you have done to your parents).  
  16. Ing dutung makilala ya karing kayang bunga (A tree is known through its fruits). 
  17. Ing dalagang magaslo anti yang asin king silyo (A bashful woman is like a salt on a cup). 
  18. Masikan ya lub, maina ya lub (He has the gut but not the wit).  
  19. Ing babaing palpigigigit bisa yang pakalbit (A woman who fondly giggles desire to be fondled).  
  20. Ing apalya mapait ya man, panulu ya ketang bisang mipaldan (A gourd although bitter is medicine to one who wants to be cured). 
  21. Ing lundag ning gaindung kambing, ing biseru anti mu rin (The leap of the doe matches that of the kid). 
  22. Tangung basti bang agad mikawani (Half hearted nod to depart early). 
  23. Nanan me pa ing garama nung mete ne ing kabayu (Of what use is the grass if the horse is already dead).
  24. Ing latang masigla ala yang laman (An empty can is noisy). 
  25. Ing tau atin yang pagasa kabang mabie ya (Man has hope so long as he lives). 
  26. Ing taung maki marine, sumpa ing amanu na (The word of an honorable man is a solemn vow).
  27. Eme aturwanan katuliran ing taung alang kaisipan (One cannot teach wisdom to a fool).  
  28. Ing manintun atnang kabusitan eya manakit nanu man(He who searches desperately can not search any finding at all). 
  29. Pabustan muyang munta ing anak ketang buri na ban akit  mu ing malagung paintungulan na (Send a boy where he wants to go and you will see his best pace).  
  30. Ing misakab karing bitis na tikdo yang pasibayu, ing mitalabu king asbuk na mitikdo ali naya (He who falls by his feet shall rise again; he who falls by his mouth shall not rise). 
  31. Ding amanung manibatan king pusu abasa king aske ning lupa (The words that come from the heart can be read on the looks of the face).  
  32. Ing pamangalinguan iyang panulu king kapagkasakitan (Forgetting is the cure for suffering). 
  33. Alang danum alang alun (There is no water without waves). 
  34. Ing bage ali agyung daptan e dapat abutan gawan (A thing which can not be accomplished should never be undertaken). 
  35. Nung malayug ing talakad tamu iti pauli ning makatalakad tamu karing dakal a pago ding nunu tamu (If we stand tall it is because we stand on the shoulders of many ancestors). 
  36. Ing batung dugang-dugang ali ya milumutan (A rolling stone gathers no moss).  
  37. Mata king mata; ipan king ipan (An eye for an eye; a tooth for a tooth). 
  38. Ing Apung Guinu sasaup ya karing taung sasaup karetang sarili da (God helps those who help themselves).
  39. Ing matudtud at migigising maranun babie sikanan at kabiasnan king tau (Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy and wise). 
  40. Ing mayap a kaluguran a panaligan ya king pamangailangan (A friend in need is a friend indeed).  

Kapampangan Superstitious Beliefs (Ariya) 

  1. Manese kang pusa atlu kule ban datang ing suerte (Raise a three colored cat to allow fortune to come). 
  2. Ing dalagang babai eya dapat magpasyuk ustung bengi ban kanita eya paglolon duwendi (A maiden must avoid whistling during the night to refrain from being wooed by dwarfs). 
  3. Ali ka mamalis bengi uling lumwal ing grasya (Do not sweep the floor at night time becausefortune will come out). 
  4. Magpasantabi ka nung king masukal dadalan ka uling pota atin aturan ka (Observe courtesy when passing through thick shades for you might hurt dwelling spirits). 
  5. Ing dalagang kakanta kabang maglutu ya, makapakiasawa yang mebalung matua (A maiden who fondly sings while cooking will marry a widower).  
  6. Ing babaing mabuktut mengan kambal sagin, mapalyaring ding anak na maging kambal la mu rin (A pregnant woman who has eaten twin banana fruits will possibly bear twin babies too). 
  7. E pitutulid pasbul bale ban ing grasya e miwale (Avoid the house’s doors to face together to avoid the blessings to come out). 
  8. Bawal misukub banwa kareng mikapatad makiasawa bang ali la mipanakwil king suerting dapat karela (It is prohibited among siblings to get marry on the same year so that they will not quarrel over the blessings each one will have).   
  9. Nung mag adwa ka lub king kekang pupuntalan, ali naka malalaus bang ing disgrasya a iwasan (If you are having a second thought about your travel, do not proceed any longer to refrain from any possible accident). 
  10. Nung ing menabung kubyertus tinidur ya, ing datang a bisita lalaki ya (If the dining ware that fell is a fork, a male visitor is coming). 
  11. Eka magpasyuk ustung bengi uling ding ubingan dating la kilub bale (Do not whistle at night, snakes will be attracted inside the house). 
  12.  Nung datang lang dakal ding tagak matas ing albug a datang misna king katas (If herons come aplenty, a huge flood will come surely). 

Kapampangan Riddles (Bugtong) 

1. Metung ya ing piluban, atlu la reng pilwalan (Isa lamang ang pasukan, tatlo ang labasan.  Answer: Baru/Shirt 

2. Kabinutil yang pale, sekupan ne ing buong bale (Isang butil lamang palay, sinakop niya ang buong bahay). Answer: Bumbilya/Bulb 

3. Nung kapilan ke pete, kinaba ya pa bie (Kung kailan ko ito pinatay, lalong humaba ang buhay).  Answer: Kandila/Candle 

4. Nung eme pukpukan, eya mangan (Kung hindi mo siya pupukpukin, hindi ito kakain).  Answer: Paku/Nail 

5. Payung ng Kaka, eya mababasa (Payong ni Kaka, hindi nababasa). Answer: Bulung Gandus/Taro Leaf 

6. Aduang bolang sinulad, anggang banwa miraras  (Dalawang bolang sinulid, hanggang langit nakakarating).  Answer: Mata/Eyes 

7. Adwa lang mikaluguran, tagalan nong tagalan (Dalawa silang magkaibigan, habulan sila nang habulan).  Answer: Bitis/Feet 

8. Oyan na, oyan na, karing bulag akakit ya (Ayan na, ayan na, sa mga bulag ito ay nagpapakikita ).  Answer: Angin/Wind 

9. Apat a katau, metung la kupya (Apat na tao, iisa ang kupya).  Answer: Bale/House 

10. Lalakad ya alang guguyud, mamulai yang alang bitis (Lumalakad siyang walang humihila, tumatakbo siyang walang paa).                        Answer: Bangka/Boat 

11. Malaut ya pa ing sibat, makanganga ne ing sugat (Ang sibat ay malayu pa, ang sugat ay nakanganga na).  Answer: Asbuk/Mouth  

Ilokano Proverbs (Pagsasao) 

  1. Awan ti umuna a babawi (Repentance always comes last). 
  2. Nu nagtaray diay kabalyo, urayem ta agsublin tu (If a horse run, wait for it and surely it shall return).   
  3. Ti tao nga awan anus na, awan ti grasya nga maawat na (An impatient person will receive no blessings). 
  4. Ti nasireb nga ubing, naanus nga agadal (A bright boy studies well). 
  5. Ti ubing a tuling, mabaot ti ubet na (A stubborn child is spank in the butt). 
  6. Iti tao nga naulimek nakalimeng ti kired na (A silent person is a dangerous man). 
  7. Ti tao nga saan  na ammo tumalyaw naggapwan na saan makadanun diay papanan na. (He who is ungrateful will never have a great future). 
  8. Ti nadayaw nga sungbat, makapukaw ti unget (Courteous words bring anger down). 
  9. Iti bunga nga pinilit nga maluum nu kanem ket nasugpet (A half-ripe fruit is bitter to eat). 
  10. Ti tao nga napili, maka pili tu ti takki (He who is choosy chose the ugly). 
  11. No adda iti inlemmeng, addan to iti kauten (If you save something, you will earn something in the future). 
  12. Iti tao nga napartak, abak na pay iti nagaget (A prompt person is better than an industrious one).  
  13. Agmula ka tatta, tapno addan to iti apitem (If you plant something now, you will reap something tomorrow).
  14. Ti agsakbay, agsaguday (Early bird catches the worm). 
  15. Ti nariseb nga tao ababa ti sau na (The wise seldom talks). 
  16. Ti tao nga awan anus na, awan ti masakbayan na (He who is not a patient will not succeed). 
  17. Ti balasang nga awan ti sursurona kasla sabong nga awan banglu na (An uneducated maiden is like a flower without fragrance). 
  18. Awan kas iti sursuro a sannikua, ta dayta awan ti makatakaw kenka (Knowledge is wealth which cannot be stolen). 
  19. No nalaka ti pannakasapulan na, nalaka met ti pinnakapukaw na (What easily acquired is easily lost). 
  20. Ti tao nga masarita, awan ti ania nga magapuananan na (A man who talks too much accomplishes little). 
  21. Ti napudpudno nga gayem, maisalakan naka anyaman nga oras(A true friend is known in time of needs). 
  22. No awan ti anus, awan ti lamot (If there is no patience, there will be no food). 
  23. No adda sabsabong, aribungbungan ti kulibangbang (Where there are flowers, there are butterflies). 
  24. Agrekreklamoak gapo awan sapatos ko aginggana nakasabat tak ti tao nga awan saka na(I kept complaining that I have no shoes until I’ve met a man without his feet). 
  25. Nu ti  tao ket pinadawatam ti ikan, asaham absublin tu; suruam nga agkalap ket sikan tu met ti padawatan na(Give man a fish, he will come back to you; teach him how to fish, he will bring another one for you). 
  26. Nu kasano ti ngato ti tayab mu, kasta met iti pannakatennag mu(He who flies high will have a terrible fall).  
  27. Sakbay mo kitaen ti rugit ti sabali nga tao, kitaem nga umona diay rugit ta rupam(Before you examine the dirt of others, examine the dirt of your face first). 
  28. Agingana basit ti ules aganus ka nga agkukot, Tuno ummatiddog ken umakaba saka kan tu agunnat (Learn to persevere while the blanket is short, enjoy the comfort when it finally turns great). 
  29. Ti pintas ket agkupas, ngem ti nasayaat nga ugali ket agbayag(Beauty fades, good traits last). 
  30. Ti nadagsen nga ubra ket lumag-an, nu pagtitinulongan(Difficult work becomes easier when it is done altogether). 

Ilokano Riddles (Burburte) 

1.  Adda ditan adda ditan! Saan mu pay laeng makitkita. (Hayan na! Hayan na! Di mu pa   nakikita).  Answer: Angin/Wind   

2. Adda tinged na, adda ti bibig ken bagi na ngem awan ti ima ken saka na (May leeg, may bibig at katawan pero walang kamay at paa)       Answer: Bute/Bottle      

3.  Maysa nga sanga adda ti pito nga abot na (Isang sanga may butas na pito).   Answer: Ulo/Head 

4. Bulong ti kappa-kappa nu agsikig agpapada (Dahon ng kappa-kappa kapag humilig magkapareho). Answer: Lapayag/Ear

5.  Balay ni San Vicente napunno ti brilyante (Bahay ni San Vicente puno ng brilyante).  Answer: Granada/Grenade

6. Tektek kuna ni Saltek napouran nen kuna ni sunggo (Tektek sabi ni saldak nasunog sabi ng unggoy). Answer: Kasapigo/Match 

  1. Tinudok ko ni digo ragtaray ni tinuno (Tinusok ko ang sabaw tumakbo ang inihaw).   Answer: Agbabangka/Banca Paddler 
  2. Inikkak iti sugat isu nagsangitak (Nilagyan ko ng sugat dahilan ng aking pag-iyak).  Answer: Sibuyas/Onion 
  3. Tinagbat ko diay puon nagdara diay murdong (Tinaga ko sa puno dumugo sa dulo).   Answer: Ballpen 
  4. Maysa nga prinsesa nakatugaw idiay tasa (Isang prinsesa nakaupo sa tasa).  Answer: Kasoy/Cashew 
  5. Maysa nga kulding, biag ti kasukat na (Sa isang kalabit buhay ang kapalit).   Answer: Paltog/Gun 
  6. Adda gayem ko, kadwak nga kankanayon (May kaibigan ako palaging kasama ko).  Answer: Saka/Foot 
  7. Duwa nga nangisit nga bola, adayo iti pakaabotan na (Dalawang itim na bola nararating ay malayo).  Answer: Mata/Eyes 
  8. Ginuyod ko diay baging  nagkansiyon ni sunggo (Hinila ko ang lubid kumanta ang matsin).   Answer: Kumpana/Bell 
  9. Naglimmeng ni Pedro nakarwar diay ulo  (Nagtago si Pedro nakalitaw ang ulo).   Answer: Lansa/Nail    
  10. Langit ti ngato, langit ti baba, baybay ti nagbaetan da(Langit sa itaas, langit sa ibaa, tubig sa gitna).  Answer: Niyog /Coconut   
  11. Anya ti pinarsua  iti Apo a belensuec ti pinagturog na? (Anong bagay ang nilikha ng Diyos na nakatuwad kung matulog?).                        Answer Paniki/Bat  
  12. Magmagna ni inam sangsangitam (Habang ang ina ay naglalakad, ang anak ay umiiyak).   Answer: Burias/Piglet 
  13. Baston ni Igorot dika maparot (Ang tungkod ng Igorot na hindi maaring mabunot).  Answer Buto/Penis 
  14. Nag kapa di met padi, nag korona di met ari (May kapa hindi pari, may korona hindi hari).  Answer: Manok/Cock 
  15. Uppat iti adige na, maysa iti baot na, dua iti paypay na, dua iti boning na (Apat ang poste, isa ang pamalo, dalawa ang pamaypay, dalawa ang itak).  Answer: Baong/Carabao 
  16. Anya ti parsua ni Apo nga adda uppat a saka na, maysa ipus na ken maysa ti ulo na ngem awan ti imana (May isang nilikha ang Diyos na may apat na paa, isang buntot at isang ulo; subalit ito ay walang mga kamay).   Answer: Caballo/Horse 
  17. Adda maysa nga lakay awit-awit na ti ipus na (May isang lalaking matanda na ang buntot ay palaging dala).  Answer: Bao/Tail 
  18. Adda tallo a balasang nga naki gimong, naka berde diay immuna, naka puraw diay maikadwa, naka labbaga diay mai katallo, ngem idi rumwar da, pada pada da nga naka labbaga(May tatlong dalaga na nagsimba, ang damit ng isa ay berde, ang isa ay puti, ang isa ay pula; nung sila ay lumabas ng sabay-sabay, ang kanilang mga damit ay pula).    Answer: Mamabuyo/Betel 
  19. Papel a berde sinoratak ti purao ket inted ko idiay sangaili ngem dina met insubli (I wrote a green paper with white, I gave it to my visitor and this she did not return).   Answer: Gawed/Betel leaf 
  20. Anya ti imparsua ni Apo nga nagsusoon ti karne ngem awan met ima na(Ano ang nilalang ng Diyos na dala-dala ay karne , ngunit walang mga kamay).   Answer: Tapingar/Cock 
  21. Nu sumangpet nak diay balay yu, tumuppuak kayo(Kapag ako ay pumapasok sa iyong bahay, ikaw ay papalayong lumulundag).       Answer: Manok/Fowl 
  22. Ania ti pinarsua ni Apo nga pasurngi ti pinnagna na?(Ano ang ginawa ng Diyos na kung lumakad ay pabalik?). Answer: Baloto/Boat  
  23. Adda impatakder ko a kawayan no agbolog intan (Ako ay may kawayang binuo, kapag ito ay tumayo tayo ay aalis na ng palayo).      Answer Parao/Prao 
  24. Ania ti pinarsua ni Apo a masikog ti likudan na?(Ano ang nilalang ng Diyos na nakaumbok sa likod?).  Answer: Botoy/Calf of the leg 
  25. Nagna ni Tarzan napisi ti dalan(Dumaan si Tarzan nabiyak ang daan).   Answer: Zipper 
  26. Maysa ng kuribot napunpunno ti kaliskis(Isang bariles punong puno ng kaliskis).  Answer: Sili/Pepper 
  27. Sumrekak diay balay yu ngem pinayat payatan nak ni apung mo(Pumasok ako sa bahay ninyo tinapak tapakan ako ng lola mo).      Answer: Pamunas/Door Mat 
  28. Nu nakatugaw ket nangato nu nakatakder ket nababa(Mataas kapag nakaupo mababa kapag nakatayo).   Answer: Aso/Dog 
  29. Saan met ari saan met nga kapitan ngem  nakatugaw ti nangatu tugaw (Hindi hari, hindi kapitan subalit nakaupo sa mataas na upuan).      Answer: Sanggo/Monkey
  30. Uppat ti saka na ngem saan met makapagna (Apat ang paa hindi naman makalakad). Answer: Lamisaan/Table 
  31. Saan ku nga kanya ngem saan mu met a kanya ngem sanikua ti amin nga tao (Hindi sa akin, hindi rin sa iyo, pag-aari ng lahat ng tao).      Answer: Lubong/Earth 
  32. Umuna nga usukem sakbay mu nga kauten (Nauuna munang nilulusot bago ito dinudukot).   Answer: Kawes/Dress 
  33. Bassit nga baket nalaing nga agiket (Matandang maliit magaling maghabi).  Answer: Lawlawa/Spider 
  34. Nu umulog agin inayad, nu umuli napartak (Kung bumaba ay hinay-hinay kung umakyat kay tulin-tulin).   Answer: Butig/Mucus 

Ilokano Superstitious Beliefs (Pammati

  1. Saan ka agwalis iti sumepngit ta pumanaw iti sanikua (Never sweep the floor during night time or you will lose your fortune). 
  2. Nu agkansiyon ka ti sangu dalikan makaasawa ka ti balu (If you sing before the stove while cooking you will marry a widower).  
  3. Nu agbiahe ka ket makasabat ka ti nangisit a pusa ti agdan, saan ka agturongen ta madisgrasya ka (Discontinue your intention to travel if you crossed a black cat along the stair for an accident might impede you). 
  4. No adda nangisit a kulibangbang nga manglawlaw kenka adda matay a kabagyam (If a black butterfly keeps hopping around, a close relative will die). 
  5. Saan ka agtugtugaw iti agdan no adda masikug ta marigatan nga aganak (Never sit along the door, especially if someone is pregnant, to avoid difficulty in giving birth to her baby). 
  6. Nu agkasar ka saan mu ipadas diay trahe de bodam tapno maituloy ti kasar mo; nu isukat mo madi matuloy (If you are to be wedded, never wear your wedding gown to go on with it; if you wore it, it will not go on). 
  7. Nu mangmangan kayo ket natinnag idiay kutsara adda bisita nga lalaki; nu tinidor  ket lalaki (If a spoon fell while you are eating, a female visitor will come; if fork-a male). 
  8. Saan nga dapat agkasar ti sikob ti tawen (It is not appropriate to get married on the same year).  

Pangasinense Proverbs 

  1. Say ason marangol nakmel (Barking dogs seldom bite). 
  2. Napepet so sabangan ag natotoban so sangiy tao (Rumors have wings). 
  3. No iner so nanlapuan mo diman met so kapelagan mo (The place where you came from is where you will fall). 
  4. No say ilog et maungol atapew (Silent water runs deep). 
  5. No agka manlastog agka aniatog (If you will not boast you will burst). 
  6. Say toon paugip ugip aga makadokdok kayamanen ya napelag(He who always sleeps will never take any even if it rains with gold). 
  7. Say abong mo et simento say manaayan et kuago mas gabay kuni abong ya kubo no say manayan et too (It is better to live in a cube house where you will stay with humans than to live in a palace where you will stay with owls).  

Pangasinense Riddles (Bonike) 

  1. Sakey so turotoro diaray kepay kepay a patiray mansobsoblay (One pointing, two moving, four changing).  Answer Dueg/Carabao 
  2. Nangkorona agimiet ari, nankapa agmuet pari (He has the king’s crown but not king, he has the priest’s cape but not priest).                  Answer: Manok/Cock 
  3. Mapatar ya dalin tinobong garing (Plain earth has grown ivory).  Answer: Ngipuen/Teeth 
  4. Abong ni Don Juan agnolokaoan (Don Juan’s house you cannot open). Answer: Aguco/Sun 
  5. Sakey ya reyna akayurong ed tasa (A princess seated on a cup).   Answer: Malulo/Kasoy 
  6. Angalaak ya took ya balbaleg nen siak (I took in a slave much greater than I). Answer: Sumbredo/Cap 
  7. Nitan la nitan awit toy anbalbalanga (Here it comes! Here it comes! A red thing it brings).  Answer: Palong ng Manak/Rooster’s Comb 
  8. Kawayang bayug ag nayug gayog (A bamboo that never sways).  Answer: Pungol/Mound 
  9. Kinalabit kay obong batik si Tibong (I mounted the bullet that prompted Steve to run).  Answer: Paltog/Gun 

Tagalog Proverbs (Salawikain) 

  1. Higit na mabuti ang tumira sa bahay na kubo kung ang nakatira ay tao kaysa tumira sa bahay na bato ang nakatira ay kuwago (It is better to live in a cube hut where humans dwell than to live in a palace where owls are inhabited). 
  2. Ako ang nagbayo, ako ang nagsaing; saka nang maluto, iba ang kumain (It’s me who prepared and cooked; and when it’s done, it was another who ate it).  
  3. Anak a palayawin, ina ang patatangisin (Spoil a child, he will make her parent to suffer).  
  4. Ang ating kakanin sa sariling pawis manggagaling (What we eat should come from our own perseverance). 
  5. Bawat biyahe ay sisimulan sa unang hakbang, ganoon din ang daan tungo sa kabanalan (Every journey starts from the first step, and so, the pathway towards holiness). 
  6. Ang bawat gubat ay may nakatagong ahas (Every forest has a hidden snake). 
  7. Ang buhay ko’y dukha, subalit matamis; langit, lupa’t dagat ay aking kapatid, at sa buong mundo ay walang kagalit (My life is poor, yet so sweet; heaven, earth and the seas are my siblings, and in the whole world I posed no enemies). 
  8. Ang kabutihan na ugali ay lalong higit sa salapi (Good character is greater than penny). 
  9. Ang kahoy habang malambot ay madaling mahubog, kung lumaki at tumayog mahirap na ang paghutok (The wood while soft is easier to shape; it hardly bends as it grows and towers). 
  10. Ang kaligayahan ay nararagdagan habang sa ibang tao ay pinakakamtan (Happiness becomes greater as it is shared to others). 
  11. Ang kapalaran hindi man hanapin, sa taong masikha’y dumarating (Fortune is not elusive to an enduring person).  
  12. Ang katapat ng langit ay pusali (Joy is the opposite of despair).  
  13. Ang kawal na handa sa labanan, ang kanyang sandata dala palagian (A soldier who is ready to fight carries his arm all the time). 
  14. Ang dalagang maganda batiin mo’t nakatawa; ang dalagang pangit batiin mo’t nagagalit (A lovely maiden smiles when greeted and the ugly lady gets mad once blessed).
  15. Ang hindi marunong lumingon sa pinanggalingan hindi makakarating sa paroroonan (He who is ungrateful to his past will never have a bright future). 
  16. Ang dila ng tao’y kakaibang itak, habang ginagamit, lalung tumatalas (Man’s tongue is a unique knife, it gets sharper as it is used more). 
  17. Ang dungis ng iba bago mo batiin, ang dungis mu muna ang iyong pahirin (Examine the dirt of your face first before examining those of others). 
  18. Ang gumising ng maaga nagkakamit ng malaking grasya (Early risers catches enormous blessings). 
  19. Ang hipong natutulog ay dinadala ng agos (A sleeping shrimp is flown by ripple). 
  20. Ang ikinagaganda ng buhay mo nasa tao ring tumitingin sa’yo (The beauty of one’s self is discovered by the perception of others). 


History of Tarlac Towns

Author: Dr. Rodrigo M. Sicat
Web Design: Engr. Mark Jason V. Sicat


Early settlers of the town came from the Ilocano-speaking population of Camiling whose ancestral stocks were from Paoay, Ilocos Norte. Originally, Anao was one of the barrios of Paniqui when the latter was still a town of Pangasinan. It was established as a town on March 1, 1870, earlier than its neighboring towns of Moncada, San Manuel, and Ramos. Don Fruto Pastor, one of its early settlers, founded Anao. He became the Capitan Municipal in the same year. Don Antonio succeeded him in 1872.

Since then, the political structure of the town has evolved as it is today.

Anao is the smallest municipality in the province. It is located in the northeastern part of Tarlac; it is bounded on the north by San Manuel, in the east by Nampicuan (Nueva Ecija), on the south by Ramos and on the west by Paniqui and Moncada.

A predominantly Ilocano-speaking village, Anao has a population of 10,045 people in 2,086 households (NSO, 2000).

Basically, the town is an agricultural village that produces rice, corn, vegetable, and sugarcane crops.

Anao is a serene village known for ilang-ilang (Cananga odorata (Lamk.) Hook.) production. Ilang-ilang blossoms produce oil extract that is used for making perfumes. The demand for ilang-ilang production is great, both here and abroad, which is why it has contributed to the economy of the town.





Bamban is located at the southernmost part of Tarlac Province. On the north, it is bounded by the municipality of Capas, Tarlac, and on the south, by the municipality of Mabalacat, Pampanga. The Parua River, popularly known as Bamban River, separates Bamban from Mabalacat. Toward the east lies the municipality of Concepcion, Tarlac. On the western side, the terrain is rugged due to rolling hills and mountains bordering the municipality of Botolan, Zambales. The wide tract of flat lands on the eastern side is suited to agriculture.  This is where many of Bamban’s are engaged in farming. 

Historical records states that the early inhabitants of the settlement, which was to become Pueblo de Bamban, were the Aetas or Negritos and Zambals. Later, other settlers came from Pampanga and other neighboring provinces. Those settlers found the place with plants of mabamboa or bambania growing abundantly along the riverbanks.  The place was called cabambanan or mabamban but later on it was simply called bamban.

At present, the Kapampangans composed approximately 90% of Bamban’s population. The remaining 10% composed of Ilocanos, Tagalogs, Pangasinenses and Zambals. Roman Catholicism is the dominant religion which is about 85% while the rest are Iglesia ni Cristo, Methodists, Baptists and other evangelical groups. The presence of those religious sects attests that its people are religious. Farming is the main occupation of the residents who live at the eastern part of the town. Among the professionals, the teachers are the greatest in number, drivers of passenger jeepneys and tricycles ranked second. The rest offers personal services such as the carpenters, barbers, beautician, masons and other construction workers.

Bamban is endowed by the Divine Providence with rolling hills and gorgeous mountains of San Vicente, Sto. Nino and San Nicolas. The Sacobia Lake in barangay Sto Nino was a result of the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991. Another interesting spot to see is the waterfalls at Sitio Malasa. Some Japanese tunnels still exist on the mountains of barangay San Nicolas. There are also man-made wonders in Bamban that include the Wonderland Resort at barangay Anupul, the grottos of our Lady of Lourdes in barangaysLourdesand sitio Magurul Gurul, and the concrete suspension bridge at the southernmost part of Bamban.


Life in Bamban before the outbreak of the war was simple. Majority of the people lived in small houses made of bamboos, nipa or cogon, sawali and other local materials available in the community. There were few big houses owned by wealthy hacinderos and professionals, yet, their number is few. Today, most of these ancestral houses no longer exist, including the house of Don Jesus Feliciano – a wealthy landlord, located few meters from the railroad station at barangay San Nicolas. The old house of Atty. Benjamin Gacioco located across the old sugar central was also dismantled right after the Liberation Period. Another one that no longer exists is the house of Dr. Potricio S. Santos, grandfather of Vilma, a multi –awarded actress turned politician.

During those periods, calesas, calising and carts were the usual type of transportation. Very few had family cars like the Felicianos, Santos and Gosiocos. Other rich families owned calising, which were drawn by horses. Now, Bamban is found with tricycles and passenger jeepneys, instead, of the calesas and calising.

Long before the war, the rural folks in this community practiced bayanihan. Farmers helped one another in preparing their rice fields during planting and harvesting seasons. To make their work easier and faster, the community folks practiced the sugo. But because of the invention of modern machineries such as the threshing machines, tractors, and bulldozers, the practice among the farmers is rarely observed nowadays.

The farmers in Bamban traditionally practiced the lasac dalungdong after a bountiful harvest. This is a way of showing their gratitude to God for the blessing they received at harvest time. Barrio folks come to partake sumptuous food made available for everyone. Today, the lasac dalungdung festivity held in rice fields or farms is gone; instead, parties are held in resorts or restaurants.

Another traditional practice in Bamban is the Santa Cruzan held in May. The tradition is the procession of beautiful maidens and gentlemen during the evening that parade along the streets of the town beginning May 15 until the end of the month. Naturally, the burden of inviting beautiful ladies from the neighboring barrios or towns plus, the preparation of supper would entail much expense on the part of the host; thus, is perhaps the reason why the Santa Cruzan has become scarce this day.

Again before the war, lively music during parties, anniversaries and other special occasions had to be provided by rondalla players. But now, videokes and other electronic musical devices are being used instead. This is one reason why there are few surviving rondalla players these days in Bamban.


With the coming of the Japanese Imperial Army in Bamban, many of its civilian residents suffered untold hardships and brutalities. The Japanese army occupied the sugar central as their garrison or detention camp. Innocent civilians were brutally tortured on mere suspicion of being members of the guerilla movement.

To propagate Japanese language and culture, schools were opened. The teaching of Nippongo as a subject was compulsory and the children were forced to study it. During this regime, the Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas (Society for Service to the New Philippines), popularly known as KALIBAPI, was utilized by the Japanese invaders to gain the cooperation and goodwill of the civilians. But despite this Japanese propaganda, many cabalens joined the guerrilla USAFFE or Hukbalahap (Hukbong Bayan Laban Sa Hapon). Several resistance units were organized me and one of them was USAFFE guerilla under Capt. Bruce, an American soldier. Squadron #45 of the Hukbalahap movement was under Apung Nasiong Gamboa alias Commander Luna.


Perhaps, Bamban was the only town in Central Luzon, which suffered most when the American forces came to liberate the Philippines. The whole poblacion of the municipality was devastated when US fighter planes bombed the houses, the school buildings and the public market. There were no civilian casualties because the residents had evacuated to the far-flung barrios.

Not long after, the people returned to the poblacion to rehabilitate the community. They had to rebuild their dwelling places out of salvage materials. Peaceful living must continue after the war. 


Soon after the war, some remarkable changes took place in the town. Political set up was reorganized and schools were reopened. Big houses made of strong materials were erected in the pablacions and few “barong-barong” constructed out of salvaged materials remained for a few more years.

Five (5) additional barrios were added to the ten (10) existing barrios of the town. The newly created barrios were Lourdes, San Pedro, Sto Nino, San Rafael and San Vicente. The highest official of the barrio was no longer addressed tiniente but capitan.

During pre-war days and up to early Liberation Period, there were no high schools in Bamban. In 1949, Atty. Igmedio Bolus created the Bamban Institute, which however, did not operate long. In 1957, another private high school, the Holy Infant Jesus Academy, established by a certain Mr. Gaviola came into operation. Later on, the administration was transferred to the Dominican Sisters. The institution was subsequently renamed Sto.Nino Academy up to the present time.

In 1966, a public high school came into existence. It was named San Roque Experimental High School. Two years later, it was renamed San Roque Rural High School. It is known now as San Roque High School.    


When the late Pres. Marcos proclaimed Martial Law, notable changes took place in Bamban. In the political arena for instance, there was a sudden change in leadership in the Municipal Government when the incumbent Mayor was detained in Camp Crame, Quezon City. His vice-mayor, a former employee of Clark Air Force Base, took over the reins of government. He served well his constituents despite the difficulties of Martial Law. In 1978, the incumbent mayor was replaced by a political choice of the political party in power. However, the designated mayor died after serving less than two years in office. Hence, his vice-mayor, also a party choice, succeeded him.


When Mt. Pinatubo erupted in 1991, the physical environment, population and livelihood of the people changed as an aftermath of the calamity. Ash falls and lahar devastated many houses, schools, farms, bridges and roads. Three barangays, namely: San Pedro, Malonzo and Bangcu were totally covered with lahar. Portions of barangays Lourdes, Banaba, La Paz, Dela Cruz and Culabasa were also covered by lahar. As a result of the calamity, two resettlement areas, Dapdap and Mainang Resettlement Centers, were made to help the displaced residents of the town. In Dapdap Resettlement alone, more than 3,000 families were resettled. Other victims of Mt. Pinatubo eruption stayed in the villages of Rolling Hills, Sampaloc, Panaisan, Pandan, Pag-asa, Magurol-gurol and Mano.

In Dapdap Resettlement area, permanent buildings for public elementary and secondary schools were constructed to accommodate children of school age. These schools are still in operation. In Mainang Resettlement Center, the government also constructed public elementary school buildings.

Many people lost jobs when the Americans abandoned Clark Air Base. Hundreds of rice and sugarcane fields became unproductive because they were covered with lahar. Under this situation, many people suffered hardships in their daily living.

After a few years, Clark Air Base was re-opened by the Philippine government that helped the people of Bamban to work for their living. The re-opening included the establishment of local manufacturing industries and duty free shops operated by the Clark Development Corporation (CDC). Similarly, the Clark Airport became the Diosdado Macapagal International Airport. These opportunities helped jobless Bambanenses to be employed; skilled and non-skilled and professionals were given the opportunity to earn a living inside the former military base.

Similarly, farmers became busy in their farms. With this turning of events, normal living ushered in.




Camiling was originally a vast area of cogon growth interspersed with thick-forested area stretching as far as the Zambales mountain ranges. In the beginning, Aetas roamed freely in the wilderness of Camiling. They depended on fruit trees, hunting and fishing for subsistence. Deer and different kinds of birds inhabited the place. A wide river also cut peacefully through the terrain where fishes (dalag and anguilas) abounded.

The Spaniards must have settled first in the basically flat area interspersed with limited rolling hills. Whether it was initially the frontier settlement of the military or the mission house of the friars, it has yet to be ascertained. However, records show that the town called camiling evolved from two casas, later, visitas administered by the Dominicans.

The first, which existed juristically, was San Jose de Camiling. It was located in what is now part of Bautista, Pangasinan and at the time near a barrio called Binaca. The second, called San Miguel de Camiling, was founded on what is now part of Bayambang, Pangasinan, southwest of Paniqui. Unlike San Jose, which was only near Binaca, San Miguel included barrio Binaca itself.

San Jose de Camiling was a casa of the Dominicans in 1686. When Paniqui became a parish in 1718, San Jose de Camiling became a visita of Paniqui. In 1722, the visita was raised into a parish. However, in 1725, it reverted into a visita of Paniqui again for some unknown reason. One source says this earlier Spanish settlement disappeared because of the growing threats from the Aetas. Thus, San Jose de Camiling ceased to appear in the Actas of the Dominican provincial chapters from 1769 onwards. The name Camiling was mentioned again in 1834, referring to a visita of Bayambang founded by Father Juan Alvarez del Manzano, and later converted into a parish by Father Benito Foncuberta in 1841. Based on the ereccion de pueblo, it was in 1838 that Camiling got separated from Bayambang’s administrative authority and was transferred to Paniqui. By 1845, church records referred to it as San Miguel de Camiling, after its patron saint, St. Michael Archangel.

Apparently, this was the second settlement that was founded southwest of Paniqui and Bayambang, which included barrio Binaca. Accounts of Father Manzano reveal that along with inhabitants from Bayambang, families from Ilocos pioneered the inhabitants of San Miguel de Camiling. The Ilocanos (majority came from Sarrat) named the town after its own patron saint in Sarrat – San Miguel the Archangel or San Miguel for short.

It would seem, also, that some turmoil (could be a rebellion) forced the Ilocanos to migrate southward, to Central Luzon, in search of peace and verdant fields to cultivate. These groups of immigrants engaged in agriculture, but the place, especially Binaca, was utilized earlier for its abundant grazing lands, hence, the word binaca which comes from the Spanish vaca meaning “cow.” Before the Dominicans administered a church in the place, it was a grazing ground (corral de vacas).

From 1849, it was under Father Angel Gomez that the community underwent development. A church was built, a tribunal was erected, a four-hectare plaza was laid out, and schools were established. The streets were constructed to form a modern pueblo. By 1870, a cemetery was acquired and a permanent irrigation was built. Father Gomez also had a church constructed with a baroque façade and a Romanesque dome. All these structures mirrored a prosperous town, capable of independent existence. Thus, by 1880, Camiling de San Miguel formally seceded from the town of Paniqui which administered it politically until this year.

A visitor described the town’s church, convento, and dwelling house of the parish priest as the best in this wealthy and prosperous town. The town’s church was not only airy, comfortable and clean, but also the most artistic, being built in the Corinthian style. The convent with its primitive part was made entirely of stone; its middle portion is partly made of stones, bricks, and wood; and its third part, with its spaciousness, was elegant.

From a settlement of 700 souls in 1869, which were mostly farmers, the population of Camiling rose to 18,912 with five Españoles and the rest indigenous composed of Ilocanos, Pangasinenses, Pampangueños, and Tagalogs.

Today, according to the 2000 census, Camiling has a population of 71,598 people in 15,324 households. It is a 1st class municipality whose checkered history is colored with heritage and pride. Rebuilt in the 1880’s after a major earthquake, the century old Roman Catholic Church and Convent have been declared historical sites by the National Historical Commission in 1994. However, the Church was gutted by fire in 1997, That until today, its restoration has remained uncompleted.

Likewise, Camiling is also synonymous to Leonor Rivera who is Maria Clara, Jose Rizal’s fiancée in his novel Noli Me Tangere. Similarly, Camiling prides itself as the hometown of great men of valor and prominence, which include Carlos P. Romulo, former Secretary of the Department of Foreign Affairs and first Asian President of the United Nations General Assembly; Onofre D. Corpuz, former Minister of education, Culture and Sports, and UP President; Cesar A. Bengson, former Supreme Court Justice and Justice of the International Court in the United Nations; Alberto Romulo, former Senator of the Philippines, former Executive Secretary of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo and currently, Secretary of foreign affairs, among others. Camiling’s past remains unforgotten and it is resurging as it was.




Capas was originally a town of Pampanga. It became one of the seven towns covered by the Politico-Military Commandancia in 1858 and became a town of the newly created province of Tarlac in 1873. At that time, Capas consisted of three barrios, namely: Murcia, Moriones, and O’Donnell.

Early residents of the town were mostly Kapampangans coming from the nearby towns of Pampanga. Later, migrants from Ilocos and Zambales also came to live in Capas

The oldest religious mission in the province was established in Capas as early as 1710. The Recollects must have founded it, judging from its patron saint, St. Nicholas of Tolentino, and a friar of the Recollect Order. The Augustinians, in fact, were active in the area since April 27, 1594. 

Local government records indicate that Capas was created in 1712 and is among the oldest towns in the province of Tarlac. Its creation was justified by numerous settlements, which were already established in the riverbanks of Cutcut River since the advent of the 18th century. The settlements belonged to the domain of Pagbatuan and Gudya, the two villages unified by Capitan Mariano Capiendo when he founded the municipality. Due to the floods that frequently inundated the Cutcut riverbanks, the town was relocated to the upper area where it is now permanently established.

Etymologically, Capas derived its name from the vine capas capas, whose edible flowers are used as condiment for pinakbet. Another version indicates that the town took its name from a cotton tree, which is called capas (Ceiba pentandra Linn.) among the Ilocanos, bulak or kapok among the Kapampangans

Capas hosts the United States Naval Military Station until the Americans abandoned it during the powerful Mt. Pinatubo eruption in 1991.

Similarly, it is the terminal point of the infamous Death March during the Second World War. The Capas Concentration Camp was originally established as Camp O’Donnell in 1940. The camp served as the prison site to more than 40,000 Filipino soldiers and 9,000 American soldiers who were prisoners of war of the Japanese invaders. About 30,000 of these prisoners died of diseases and severe starvation. In this concentration camp, the dead soldiers were simultaneously buried in single and shallow graves. The obelisk of the Capas Shrine entombs the names of the unsung heroes of World War II who died fighting for freedom.

Capas is blessed with natural resources that brim with beauty and splendor. It is the gateway to the sensational Mount Pinatubo that buried the town with thick ashes in 1991. Today, the volcano’s river is a must to see by tourists.

As a tourist destination, Capas offers more than anyone knows: fine golf courses, spa centers, hot springs, mountain trekking, indigenous people, military camps, cuisine, street dancing and more.



Concepcion lies on the southeastern tip of the province. Originally, it was part of Magalang, Pampanga until a great flood in 1863, which sent its inhabitants fleeing to safer grounds. The inhabitants went to two directions.  Those who took the southeastern side of San Bartolome went as far as Magalang near the slopes of Mt. Arayat. Another group went to the northeastern side selected the present location and called it barrio Matundok or Matondo. The settlers included the Yumuls, Castros, Dizons, Pinedas, Felicianos, Aquinos, Cortezes, Bermudeses, and many others.

The early settlers in Concepcion cut down trees to build their huts. The place was generally flat that made it suitable for agriculture. Two rivers, the Lucong and Parua, irrigated the area where they planted rice and much later, sugarcane.

They brought with them an image of the Immaculate Concepcion from whom they sought protection in their new home. Later, they named their town Concepcion after the Virgin of the Immaculate Concepcion who, according to the people, is miraculous.

Hallowed with numerous intellectual and heroic sons and daughters, Concepcion is the hometown of Benigno Ninoy Aquino, the greatest Filipino martyr of the modern times, who is married to Corazon C. Aquino, 11th President of thePhilippines.

Concepcion is synonymous to excellent food. It is the bowl of fine cuisine and exotic foodstuffs. Endowed with the Kapampangan tradition of preparing food, Concepcion soars high because of its admirable and first-rate culinary arts.



Historically, the original name of Gerona was paontalon. Old folks claim that Paontalon was probably a Negrito word. This is reinforced by Dominican sources, which recorded the presence of Negritos in the area as early as 1704. The Dominicans reported that they covered a place called Paontalon, whose inhabitants were all Negritos. By 1718, Paontalon was listed as a visita of Paniqui (at that time, a town of the province of Pangasinan).  In 1753, Pontalon was relocated and renamed Barug, a Pangasinan word for “little forest.” Sources do not give any explanation why this was done subsequently; settlers from Ilocos were attracted to Barug, especially those from the towns of Bacarra, Badoc, and Sinait. Gradually, the settlers who grew in numbers occupied the forest.

The Dominicans supervised the visita in Barug, which only had some seventy families. The number rose to 461 in 1787. The Dominicans chose St. Catherine of Alexandria, virgin and martyr as the patron saint of Barug. The parish priest of Paniqui came once a week to say mass in the visita. In 1846, a parish priest was permanently assigned to attend to the spiritual needs of the community. The assignment of a parish priest to Barug coincided with the traditional date of its founding as a civil town. Thus, most town histories record the founding date of Gerona as 1846. However, Jean Mallat, in his travel account, explained that Barug (which he spelled as Baruc) was a town already existing in 1838 with 252 tribute payers and 1, 260 inhabitants. In any case, the name Barug was later changed to Gerona in 1851, after the Spanish hometown of the governor general, Claveria

A document signed by a certain Father Ciano dated June 13, 1877, described the ethnic groups residing inGeronaas speakers of four languages: Pangasinan, Ilocano, Tagalog, and Pampango. Of these, Ilocano was the most   widespread. Similarly, this account still holds true even nowadays. Based on the 1995 census, about 78.09% of the total household population speaks Ilocano, while Tagalog is spoken about 12.59% of the population, followed by the Kapampangans with 8.83%, respectively.

Geronawas officially created as an independent municipality onJuly 14, 1945. Its first appointed gobernadorcillo was Don Anacleto Melegrito.

Basically, it is an agricultural hamlet. This is why its huge flat rice lands are suitable and attractive to native and migratory birds called great heron. Hence, the Spanish word Gerona.

Considered as the halfway to the northern and southern Luzon areas, it is a fast growing town that teemed with thriving and blooming trade and industry. It prides itself with its aesthetic crafts in Christmas lantern making and the cabiaoan tradition of sugar cane production.




Like most other towns, the history of La Paz is recalled somewhat vaguely because it was dominated largely by legends and folklores, tainted with concommitant tragedy and mystery. Early chronicles state that there was once an old pueblo called Cama Juan that was situated along the banks of Chico River bordering theProvince ofTarlac, and Nueva Ecija.

Due to the overflowing of the Chico River, the whole pueblo was flooded. Cama Juan was totally devastated; its dwellings were destroyed; and scores of human lives were lost. Those who survived the flood evacuated and searched for a better place. They resettled on higher grounds not far from Cama Juan. The old site (Cama Juan) is up to this time being referred to as Bayang Iniwan or abandoned town.

Amidst the verdant field of grass and shrubs, the flood survivors began a new life. They called their newfound place, matayumtayum due perhaps, to the presence of abundant indigo vines called tayum (Marsdenia tinctoria R. Brown). The place flourished again through the constant hard work and industry of the people. Hence, the new settlement prospered in time and peace and tranquility reigned among the people. Under the paternal guidance of the older folks, the settlers maintained their seat of government in the said place.

Nearing the tides of the 19th century, General Francisco Soliman Macabulos, who became one of the foremost leaders of the Philippine Revolution, had conceived the idea of selecting the central site of the town at the where it stands at present.

For a long period,La Paz existed in name only for actually and politically; it was a barrio of Tarlac town up to the year 1892. During the same year, it was separated from the town of Tarlac and was created as an independent town. It was re-christenedLa Paz, in honor of the Patron Saint, Nuestra Senora de la Paz y Buen Viaje, with Don Martin Aquino as the first gobernadorcillo.

Later on, due to the heroic exploits of the town’s revolutionary forces,La Paz was made as the first seat of the Local Government of the Province of Tarlac with General Franciosco S. Macabulos as its first Provincial Governor. 

A serene town, La Paz will soon become the next corridor of economic growth and boom. Closely situated between the progressive towns and cities of Tarlac and Nueva Ecija, La Paz intersects itself to the economic growth centers of the Subic-Clark-Tarlac- Expressway (SCTEx). Soon, La Paz boom will definitely be unabated.



The first settlers of Mayantoc before the coming of the Christian migrants were the Negritos of the Abelling tribe.  As the former arrived in great number, the natives were soon forced to move deeper into the forest areas of Zambales Mountain Range.

The Christian settlers, mostly from Ilocos region (notably the towns of Cabugao, Tagudin, Sarrat, Paoay, Sinait and Bacarra), settled in the villages in the southern portion of a then Christian town Camiling, now acknowledged as the mother town ofMayanatoc. The place was then a forested area where enormous rattan palms are found. 

 In 1899, Mayantoc was created as a barrio of Camiling and was inaugurated into a town on January 1, 1917 with Don Francisco Santos y Pascual, the founder of the town, as its first Municipal President.

 In this historical town, General Francisco Macabulos established his military hide out during the revolutionary government.

 Mayantoc is a serene hamlet whose hallow ground is a picturesque of natural calm and serendipity. Geographically landscaped with graceful hills and mountains, its falls and streams are breathtakingly gasping and awesome. Aptly, Mayantoc is called as the Summer Capital of Tarlac. A potential tourism destination, the town’s sightseeing treasures and attractions need to be nurtured and discovered.




In the early years of the 1860s, four families from the barrio of Magaspac, Gerona, surreptitiously left their homes for fear of the Spanish curate, Father Modesto Perez. They settled in Sitio Caarosipan, the northern part of Paniqui. When the place became flooded and their crops were destroyed, they sought higher grounds and resettled in Sitio Payakan. The bounties of the place attracted other people from Pangasinan and Ilocos. These people joined those who were from Magaspac. Its people being hardworking, the sitio grew into a town. Later, it was named San Ramon in honor of their patron, Saint Raymond Nonnatus.

On May 1, 1845, a royal decree was issued by the Ministerio de Ultramar converting San Ramon into a town independent from its mother town, Paniqui and changing its name to Moncada.

Moncada lies in the northern part of Tarlac. It is bounded in the North by the municipality of San Manuel, in the West by Camiling, in the East by Anao, and in the South by Paniqui. It is comprised of 33 agricultural barangays and 4 poblacions with a total area of 8,575 hectares.

A third class municipality, it has a population of 49,607 people in 10,144 households (NSO, 200).

Beyond its traditional tobacco crops, Moncada is fast emerging as an emporium of commerce and trade fairs in the province today. Trade fairs enliven the industrial and technological ingenuities of the Tarlaquenos as craftsmen and entrepreneurs. As a manifestation of economic synergism, Moncada continues to strive forward towards progress and development and beyond time and standards. As an effect, the dignity of every Moncadeno benefits from the fruits of the town’s budding boom and economy.




Paniqui was originally a part of Pangasinan and thus was listed in the Actas Capitulares as the oldest town founded in 1754 by the Spaniards. It became a parroquia (parish) of the Dominicans in 1686. It was raised into a Vicaria (vicariate) with Fr. Jose Sanchez as its first pastor in 1718.

At first, Paniqui was situated west of Tarlac River. Because of the attacks by Negritos, the Spaniards decided to move the town east of the river. But, because of flooding, it was moved several times until it was settled in acocolao, two kilometers from the present town. Sometime in 1720, Paniqui, as claimed by Raymundo and Miguel Paragas of Dagupan, became a sitio of Dagupan. Led by these two brothers, the sitio was called mangang marikit where bats or paniki swarmed at twilight. Today, mangang marikit is a part of Guimba, Nueva Ecija. It was in sitio acocolao where Sultan Alimudin was baptized in 1750.

The two rivers passing through the town from Nueva Ecija more than likely enriched the plains of Paniqui, enabling the people to raise coconuts, mangoes, and oranges such as cajeles and naranjitas. They also produced abundant rice. Thick forests covered the northern part of the town. They had molave, narra, canala, yakal, and other hardwood, which are good materials for construction and furniture making. Paniqui also had plenty of cotton trees, cacao, and coffee.

The original inhabitants of Paniqui were pure Pangasinenses. They lived near the center of the town, an area reached by the sound of church bells. The rest of the settlers were mostly Ilocanos who came during the 1830’s. Father Ramón Sanchez observed in 1869 that the different ethnic groups did not seem to mix with each other, keeping their languages to themselves (i.e., Ilocano, Pangasinan, Pampango, and Tagalog). Spanish was of course, spoken by the friars and officials of the Spanish government.

Paniqui was a sprawling town that covered a wide area during its early years. Some of the villages which were formerly portions of the town included San Roque now Cuyapo, Nueva Ecija; Barong now Gerona, San Jose de Camiling now Camiling, Bani now Ramos, San Ramon now Moncada, and Anao.

Today, industrious and frugal Ilocano settlers, aggressive yet peaceful Kapampangan immigrants, generous Pangasinenses, and liberty loving Tagalogs people the town. It is a thriving and progressive community with a total population of 78,883 (NSO, 2000). Falling within the belt of the melting pot of Central Luzon, every ordinary citizen of the town speaks with fluency the Ilocano, Kapampangan, Tagalog and Pangasinense languages.

Prominently situated along Mc Arthur Hi-way, Paniqui is a trade and commerce emporium. It hosts educational institutions, commercial and rural banks, a sugar mill, progressive public market, bold and devout people and vibrant culture.

As a citadel of history, Paniqui is a testimony of the past and present. Welded with strong determination and persuasion, these Tarlaquenos of Paniqui are working zealously to bring into it the Capitol of  Tarlac government.




It was during the Spanish regime when migrants coming from the Ilocos Region moved southward to look for arable lands. These early settlers were forced to abandon their place of birth because it had a narrow coastal plains and highlands where agriculture is not a promising means of livelihood.

These migrants decided to stay on the northeastern part of a future province later known to be TARLAC. The place at that time was thickly forested and so they took the initiative of clearing the area for agricultural purposes.  Because of kinship, they considered themselves pure Ilocano settlers of the place; hence, they named the place “pura”. Ethno-botanically, however, the name of the place is attributed to an obsolete Ilocano term”purak” (also called pandan lalake or pandan dagat) which enormously thrived in the area during those days because of its proximity to the huge Chico River. The river thrived with mangroves at that time where “purak” abundantly grow.  

Pura began as a barrio of Gerona known as Barrio De Villa. As its settlers grew, a clamor for a township arose. Hence, its leaders filed a petition to the proper authorities to have the settlement converted into town. In 1877, through the initiative and efforts of Fr. Pedro Graneta, Pura won and enjoyed its bid for political status as pueblo or town.

In 1908, Don Felix Melegrito was appointed as the first Presidente Mayor under American regime. In 1941-1944, Gabriel Nebre was the last Mayor before the war while Mayor Pedro Parcasio was the first Mayor after the war 1945-1952 followed by Mayor Nestor Gamit – 1963-1971, Severino Valdez – 1972-1975, 1976-1979, Nestor Gamit 1980-1986, Pioquinto Cortez – 1998-1992, Wilfredo Y. Sawit – 1992-1995, Nicolas Uy – 1995-1998, Mario Maddela – 1998-2001 and  in 2001 was Wilfredo Y. Sawit. The people derived their livelihood from its vast agricultural lands where they raised sugar and rice as major crops.




The Municipality of Ramos is located at the northeastern part of the Province of Tarlac. It is approximately 28.6 kilometers away from Tarlac City. It is geographically bounded by the Municipality of Pura in the south (5.1 kms), Municipality of Paniqui at the northwestern part (7.1 kms), Municipality of Gerona at the southwestern part (10.9 kms), Municipality of Anao in the northern part (10 kms), Municipality of Nampicuan, Nueva Ecija in the northeastern part (10.5 kms) and municipality of Guimba, Nueva Ecija at the southeast (23.1 kms).

Ramos is a barrio of Paniqui until it was converted into a town in 1921. Originally named bani, it was later named after its founder, Don Geminiano Ramos and Don Alfonso Ramos (who was a governor of Tarlac).

Agriculture is the chief source of its economy that includes rice, vegetable, sugarcane and mango production. Fishing is a supplementary source of income for the people of the town.

It has a population of 16,889 (NSO, 2000). The people are mostly Catholic and the town’s Catholic Church, St. Therese of the Child Jesus, is popularly called Wedding Church of the Century. Its Catholic church is simple, yet, enormously beautiful and famous.



San Clemente, formerly a sitio of Camiling is located on the westernmost part of Tarlac. Oblong in shape, it is between themunicipalityof Camilng in Tarlac and themunicipalityof Mangatarem in Pangasinan. Its early settlers were the industrious Ilocano who came from Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur.They settled in sitio San Clementein search of fertile agricultural lands. To be able to farm, they burned and cut down trees.

Based on archival records,San Clemente was created as a town by virtue of a superior decree dated November 14, 1876. It consisted of barrio Macarang, which was taken from the town of Camiling, and barrio Taguipan that was detached from Mangatarem, Pangasinan. The superior decree establishing San Clementeas a town was affirmed by a royal order dated June 10, 1879.

Records indicate that the early settlers of this town, said to be the Dumlao, Trini-dad, Loria, Espiritu, Martin, etc., were mostly of the Ilocano stock who came from the Ilocos Region in a quest for better economic opportunities in the abundantly fertile agricultural lands. These prominent people were indeed endowed with the vision to transform their adopted abode into a wholesome place to live. Thus, local governance has always been viewed at the socio-economic development perspective. The local chief executive position then did not only entail the laborious task of administration but also the shelling-out of sizable pecuniary contributions to pursue a project… up to the extent of donating tracks of land for public utilization. The public plaza, market, municipal building, school buildings, church, etc., were constructed on donated lands.

Structures in the locality reminiscent of the past era of colonization such as church, school buildings, houses, bridges, etc. have gradually given way to the modern day’s engineering designs for relative purposes. The venerable tradition of the Filipino hospitality however, remained alive and in practice – where every visitor is genially accorded the honored guest treatment.

To these days, the descendants of the early families still maintain their residency to perpetuate the legacy of productivity left by their ancestors. Consciously instilled, industry, which characterizes their Ilocano predecessors, is likewise evident. Through the years, the industrious townspeople toiled enough to realize the economic sufficiency everyone claims for. Modesty aside, modern day technological advances for domestic comforts are ubiquitous in majority of the households. The people rely mainly on farming as a source of livelihood; nowadays, local labor resources have gone their way overseas for better and more lucrative opportunities to improve their lot.

The municipality owes its growth mainly to the industry of its townspeople and to the public officials who took the cudgel one after another in the quest for prosperity. The election held in 1915 catapulted the first highest municipal official by the title, Presidente Municipal, the equivalent of Municipal Mayor in today’s structure. The chronology of the mayoralty terms of office is purposely detailed hereunder in order to give tribute and relive the legacy they have in one way or another mustered during their time.




Before San Jose became a town, the barangays comprising the municipality remained in state of lassitude. Socially and economically, no significant signs of progress can ever be seen for many years. Illiteracy was high and health sanitation was very inadequate. These circumstances required the people to unite. Led by then ABC President of Tarlac town, Amado de Leon and Samuel M. Eugenio, then barangay captain of Mababanaba and current Vice-Mayor of San Jose, passed a petition creating themunicipalityofSan Jose, which was submitted to President Corazon C. Aquino. The municipality was to comprise 13 barangays.

As early as 1927, the creation of this western part of Tarlac town into a municipality was already conceived. During the same year, the late Don Benigno Aquino, Sr., together with Rev. Gregorio Aglipay, founder of the Aglipayan Church fêted the approval of the change of name of Cadaanan into Villa Aglipay, in honor of Monsgr. Gregorio Aglipay, and at the same time, declaring it officially as a barrio. On that occasion, Don Benigno Aquino, Sr. vowed for the creation of the community as a municipality in this western part of Tarlac, Tarlac with Villa Aglipay as the municipal site. This however, did not materialize because of the untimely demise of Don Benigno Aquino, Sr.

Later, this dream was to be pursued by Benigno Ninoy Aquino, Jr. As governor of Tarlac, he envisioned the same by making San Jose as the site of the Provincial Capitol and to make Tarlac town, a city. However, for political reasons, this plan was shelved. Events further dampened that vision when Martial Law was declared in 1972. Ninoy Aquino did not live to see the birth of San Jose when he was assassinated on his return trip to the country in 1983.

The petition creating San Jose into a municipality was made possible through the efforts of Hon. Jose G. Macapinlac, Mayor of Tarlac, Hon. Jose Cojuangco, Governor of Tarlac, and Hon. Jose V. Yap, Sr., Congressman, 2nd District of Tarlac. Soon House Bill No. 5619 was filed in Congress for enactment. The House of Representatives and Senate passed Republic Act No. 6842 creating the municipality of Jose on September 1, 1989 and October 3, 1989, respectively. The Act was approved and signed on January 5, 1990 by her Excellency President Corazon C. Aquino. Submitted to the people in a plebiscite, majority of voters ratified the Act, thus, making the municipality of San Jose, the 18th town of the Province of Tarlac. In administering the governance of the town, President Aquino appointed municipal officials led by Jose V. Yap, Jr. as Municipal Mayor, Samuel S. Eugenio as Vice-Mayor and 8 Municipal Councilors.

Today, the rustic hamlet of San Jose is striving to become an agro-industrial town. The local government and non-local government agencies are currently undertaking development plans to make certain its visions are realized. Citizen participation ensures the benefit, growth and sustainability of the town.

Dubbed as the eco-tourism park of the province, it is noted for its graceful mountains, hills, cascades and greeneries. It hosts the well-known Monasterio de Tarlac that enshrines the consecrated relic of the Holy Cross of Jesus Christ.





San Manuel is known to be a forest covered with thick marshes and grasses during the earliest times. It is also covered with dense marshlands, lakes and creeks. Wild animals gamely roamed into the woods and wilderness until the adventurous people from Zambales and Pangasinan discovered the fertile grounds of the area.  Later, migrants from the Ilocos region settled into the lush green fields of the place and started new life. The settlers cleared the lands using their crude implements and started growing rice and corn. The early settlers also engaged in hunting wild deer, pigs, birds and other forest animals to sustain their subsistence.

The town of San Manuel was the biggest village of Moncada and was called San Jose in 1902. In 1909, it was converted as a town, and was name in memory of its founder, Don Manuel de Leon.

When the prosperous village of San Jose was separated from the town of Moncada, the jubilant and proud people of the town grouped themselves together to intensify the progress and development of the municipality.

The municipality of San Manuel is bounded on the north by the province of Pangasinan, the province of Nueva Ecija on the east, municipality of Anao, Tarlac on the south and the town of Moncada, Tarlac on the southwest.  It has a population of 22,747 (NSO, 2005) and its economy is totally dependent on agriculture.

San Manuel as a border town is gradually booming with economy. Its robust agriculture generates agro-industrial enterprises that largely sustain its economy. Small business and industrial establishments begin to show and grow. This indicates boom and confidence. San Manuel has a young economy, yet, it is surging high and beyond.





Historically, the first inhabitants of Santa Ignacia were Negritos, but were driven to the mountainous portion of the province when the first migrants from Ilocos, lead by a man whose family name is Madriaga, occupied the place. The new settlers called the place binaca, an Ilocano word which means plenty of cows. Up to 1845, Binaca (now Nambalan) was a barrio of Camiling. Robbers, from 1845 to 1874, plundered the barrio. This forced a petition for Binaca to become a town, with Don Felipe Cabugsa as its gobernadorcillo, in order that it could have its own police force. 

A superior decree dated May 6, 1874, modified by another decree dated May 22, 1876, called for the creation of barrio Binaca into a civil town, and named it Santa Ignacia. These two decrees were approved by a royal decree dated August 13, 1880.  Occasionally, the parish priest from Camiling performed spiritual service for the town.

Despite being upgraded to the status of a town, the area continued to be the target of attacks by thieves or tulisanes who stole the work animals and personal belongings of the residents. Again in 1888, robbers forced their way into Santa Ignacia, looting all they could get including the timbre del tribunal (official seal).

In 1899, during the administration of Don Manuel Briones, Presidente Municipal, a revolutionary government was established in Santa Ignacia but later, was taken over by the administration of the United States of America.

On January 1, 1914, after the intervention of the Provincial Board of Tarlac and upon the insistent demand of the people that the first Municipal Council of Santa Ignacia was inaugurated composed of Don Isidro Alviar as the Presidente Municipal; Don Eulogio Madriaga as the Vice-Presidente, and Don Santiago Aviguero, Don Pedro Guerrero, Don Silvestre Lacuin, Don Alipio Pascasio and Don Antonio Colimay as Councilors.

Subsequently, the municipality has evolved as a surging commercial town today. 

Then and now, Santa Ignacia’s fertile and rich agricultural lands are its chief livelihood, which is largely based on farming. Its major crops are rice and different fruits and vegetables.

Endowed with the Ilocano tradition of pottery making, the rustic town of Santa Ignacia is well known for the production of high quality earthen pots and other terracotta products.

Beyond agriculture and terracotta, Sta. Ignacia creates itself as an emerging town of intrepid entrepreneurs and hardworking artisans. It produces fine handicrafts, sculpture, smoked fish stuffs, and the famous inangit product.





The city of Tarlac has had a colorful and significant history. Its story may very well be the story of Tarlac province itself, which came into being only in 1873-74, eighty six years after Tarlac town was formally founded in 1788.

Tarlac town may be the earliest native settlement occupied by the Spanish military force, this side of Pampanga.  Based on records, Tarlac was organized into praesido (fort) as early as 1593. It was one among several forts set up to maintain Spanish sovereignty in the area. The fort was located in a sitio called Porac.

By 1686, Tarlac was raised to a Spanish pueblo. That same year, it became an ecclesiastical town but still dependent on Porac for civil administration. Priests from Magalang, Pampanga administered it.

In 1788, Tarlac was raised to a civil town independent of Porac while remaining a town of Pampanga province. Tarlac town regained its civil town status when it became one of the towns of the newly created province of Tarlac in 1873. Thus, its population steadily grew. From 900 souls in 1732, it rose to 2,273 with 1,230 paying tributes. By 1855, Tarlac had 7,920 inhabitants (12 Europeans and 7,908 indigents). They spoke Pampango, Ilocano, Tagalog, Pangasinan, Español, and Zambal. This number increased to 12,340 in 1890.

Since then, the magnitude of its population has enormously increased. The 2000 actual census on population conducted by National Statistics Office, Region III, shows that Tarlac town (now Tarlac City) has a population of 262, 481. Based on the 1995 census conducted by the NSO with in Tarlac City, the Kapampangan language represents 75.22% as spoken by the people, Tagalog (14.58%), Ilocano (8.55%) and other ethnic languages (1.65%), respectively.

Its early settlers came from Bacolor, Pampanga, among them were Don Carlos Miguel and Don Narciso Castaneda, who before 1788, with their families and followers trekked through the forests and hills of Porac and Bamban until they finally reached and settled down in what is today called Tarlac City. They cleared the forest and tilled the fertile soil until a settlement emerged along the riverbank, which flowed across the town.

The community rapidly grew with settlers coming from Zambales, Pampanga, Bataan, Pangasinan, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija and elsewhere. The kapampangan language became the lengua francain the community, as it was part of Pampanga province in those days. The two leaders, Miguel and Castaneda succeeded in carrying out their pioneering venture through benevolent leadership, which elicited the cooperation of their followers. Thus, roads were built; barrios were established without monetary expenditure, only through the common efforts of everyone. It also marked the beginnings of Tarlac as a melting pot ofCentral Luzon, with a mixture of divergent people working decidedly for the common good.

Later, it was unanimously agreed by the growing populace to request the authorities in Manila to convert the community into a town. Don Carlos Miguel prepared the needed resolution and forwarded it to the Spanish authorities. In 1788, a decree was issued by Captain General Don Felix Berenguer de Marquina, proclaiming Tarlac as town under the territorial jurisdiction of Pampanga, whose capital then was Bacolor.

The first gobernadorcillo (later called municipal) was Don Carlos Miguel in 1788. Together with Don Narciso Castaneda, he established the foundation of Tarlac town.  Don Luis Briones in 1789 followed him. It was during his term as the second gobernadorcillo that the Legend of San Sebastian started. It is said that sometime that year, an armed band of tulisanes were stopped from marauding the town by the young boy who turned out to be no less than San Sebastian himself.

Tarlac is represented prominently in the eight rays of the Philippine flag because it was among the first provinces to join the revolution in 1986. The K.K.K of Andres Bonifacio found early adherents among Tarlaquenos, headed by Don Francisco Tanedo, after whom the town’s principal thoroughfare was named. Don Francisco Tanedo was killed in the encounter with the Spanish guardia civil at the outset of the revolution. His early death inflamed the citizenry and his relatives. Followers were bent on capturing the town by any means, but were dissuaded by Don Eusebio Tanedo Iro,who volunteered to see his friend, General Monet (former politico-military) governor of Tarlac and at that time, the highest military official in Pampanga. Denying that the Tarlaquenos at that time were involved in the revolution, Don Eusebio was able to obtain orders from General Monet to stop military operations in Tarlac. However, peace did not reign long in Tarlac because Generals Francisco Macabulos and Jose Alejandrino already started their offensive against the Spanish forces .On June 25, 1898, Spanish soldiers surrendered in Tarlac.

The Miguels, descendants of one the pioneers of the town, Don Carlos Miguel, changed their family name to Tanedo in 1872 upon the promulgation of the Claveria decree on surnames. It is said that the Miguel preferred the masculine version of Castaneda, and Tanedo was also in compliance with the designated starting letter for all Tarlac surnames. It is therefore, not surprising that many Tarlaquenos to this day bear such surnames as   Taala, Taar,  Tabamo, Taban, Tabaquero, Tamayo, Tamondong, to name a few.

President Emilio Aguinaldo proudly proclaimed the Philippine Republic onJanuary 23, 1899in Malolos, Bulacan. Assemblance of an independent government was formed, with a law making body, Malolos Congress, a cabinet headed by Apolinario Mabini (who was foreign affaires minister), a judiciary, and of course, an army led by General Antonio Luna. A state university, the Universidad Literaria de Filipinas, was also opened.

By July 1899, with the tides of war turning against Aguinaldo, Tarlac became the last capital of the short-lived republic which was then on the run. Among the deputies who were in Tarlac to attend sessions of Congress included Fernando Ma. Guerrero of Manila, representing Leyte; Daniel Tirona of Cavite, representing Batanes; Tomas Mascarado of Batangas, representing Sorsogon; Servillano Aquino of Tarlac, representing Samar; and Fransisco Macabulos of Tarlac representing Cebu.

Since 1788, the town has significantly progressed making it the nucleus of Tarlac province. It has encountered countless hardships in the course of its existence. Through the years, Tarlac has survived natural and political crises among others, yet, has proven itself as a fast emerging cosmopolitan in the region.

Proclaimed as a component city onApril 19, 1998 by virtue of Republic Act No. 8593 to be known as the City of Tarlac, Tarlac City is bustling with economy, industry, commerce, tourism, culture, ethnicity and spirituality.

As a cosmopolitan city, it nestles a great future of wealth and prosperity. With the emergence of mega-structures along its periphery, Tarlac City is in the road map of economic boom and miracles. Undoubtedly, its cosmopolitanism makes itself as the next terminal of progress and development.





Victoria was originally called Canarem, after lake canarem. It was a barrio of the town of Tarlac when the latter was still part of Pampanga province. It was renamed La Victoria by governor-general Manuel Gorospe through a decree issued on March 28, 1855, to commemorate the victory of the carlitas, the supporters of Queen Isabela during the Civil War.

The earliest inhabitants of the town came from the Ilocos regions. Between 1849 and 1851, Victoria’s fertile lands lured them. The settlers chose to reside along the lake where fish was abundant. Their first settlement was known as Namitinan, which became barrio San Vicente de Bautista of Tarlac town in 1852.

The other pioneers came from the towns of Sta. Lucia, Ilocos Sur and from Badoc, Ilocos Norte. They built their homes adjacent to each other. In 1852, with the increasing number of population totaling 4, 600, the Spanish authorities designated Don Andres Rigor and don Vicente Taguinaldo to serve as cabezas de barangay.

On November 25, 1854, the residents led by two cabezas de barangay, filed a petition to the government in Manila and demanded that Canarem (still a barrio then) be separated from its mother town, Tarlac, a town in Pampanga at that time. The petitioners argued that they were already paying more than of 200 tributes, and that the Ilocano settlers called for the separation of Canarem from Tarlac, so they did not need to do community work outside their own. Governor General Gorospe approved the petition to separate Canarem and turn it into a new municipality. He, then, signed the decree making Canarem a civil town on March 28, 1855. As stated earlier, it was renamed Victoria, meaning victory to commemorate the victory of the loyal followers of Queen Isabela of Spain over the moors.

Although it became a municipality, ecclesiastically, Victoria remained under the jurisdiction of Tarlac town. Thus, on December 13, 1865, a group of principales led by Don Nicolas Rigor, Dionisio Marcelo, and Gabriel Valdez petitioned the Spanish authorities to establish Victoria as a parochial town ecclesiastically independent from Tarlac. The requirements for the opening of the new parochial town were already completed including the nearly finished convento and the tribunal house. Despite the scarcity of parish priests at that time, Governor General Jose dela Gandara y Navarro (1866-1869) brought up the matter to the consultative body of the Spanish monarch on November 26, 1866.  As a result, the parochial town of Victoria was created on April 27, 1867.

On July 31, 1866, Governor General Fernando de Norzagaray issued a mandate instructing the governors of Pampanga and Pangasinan to establish the boundaries of Victoria and Tarlac.  Seven years earlier, prior to this mandate, Fray Saturnino Pinto, the parish priest of Tarlac, ordered the pulling out of the fixed boundaries. This act was supported by some principales of Tarlac who objected to the creation of the municipality of Victoria for this would decrease the number of parishioners under Fray Pinto. As an offshoot of this incident, the boundaries of Sitio Baguia was also removed by Tarlac’s officials, and placed in Sitio Malawit. This reduced the size of Victoria by some two kilometers in width. It would appear that some elites among the Tarlaqueños during that time were against converting canarem into a town. Further, they found an influential ally in the person of the parish priest, Fray Pinto. It is purported that the parish priest gave the final approval to incorporate the sitios of Bulala, Paltoc, Narsigan, Pulong Ganla, Pulong Palico, and Kalamkan into the town of Tarlac, with the assistance of rich and influential landowners who in the course of time became the owners of those lands.


There were waves of migration, which formed Victoria: the Kapampangans and the Ilocanos. Being Christianized by the Spanish colonizers, Immaculate Concepcion became the town’s patron saint. The passion during Lenten Season is sung in three dialects. For example, in poblacion area, the Kapampangan version is chanted in San Fernando, Tagalog in San Gavino and Ilocano from the rest of the town proper. While Ilocano and Kapampangan are spoken in most of the town, Tagalog is also widely spoken in public places to facilitate universal understanding.

The presence of the three languages in the same town did not produce a pidgin tongue. Each language retained its integral and basic characteristics. While this continues to be the outstanding feature of the town, Victoria is a town of heritage (pueblo de patrimonio) treasured with beautiful history.

Today, Victoria has come a very long way. Now a third class municipality, it unveils its rich cultural heritage as it preserves its century old dwellings and other Spanish architectural designs of various edifices. As they may be partly ravaged by war or have remained intact and grandiose through the years, they capture the memoirs of the good old past.

Victoria may not be a prominent town but it is gradually becoming one. The magnetism it holds is its people’s smiles and simplicity and the hospitality they behold. The creativity of its people is manifested in their industry and resiliency; patience and perseverance as shown in their ability to stride above all trials, are distinguishing traits that they are very well known for.

Although modernization has influenced the progress and development of the town, the rich Victorian culture is sustained. Evidently, Victoria’s cultural heritage is a reminiscence of its traditional prominence and affluence.

Just like any town in the province, fiestas are still popular traditions, which are pompously celebrated by all. Fiestas are time-honored thanksgiving celebrations in honor of the patron saints that the people revere.  Lenten season is observed with holiness and religiousness. Penitents devotedly practice panata by carrying wooden cross and the kalbaryos are also set up along the roadsides where the pasyon or the passion of Christ is sung. Processions are held on the afternoon of Good Friday and the salubong during the early dawn of Easter Sunday.

Come summer season, when flowers are in bloom, young ladies are once again enjoined to wear their gown for the Santa Cruzan as the highlight of May Festival.

Love for arts abound in this town. Talents are found everywhere. Local bands mushroom in almost every corner. Performing artists enthusiastically display their skills and prowess that awe the townspeople to surprises especially during the town fiesta.

Victoria may be a quiet town not imminent, so to speak, but this is an analogue to the humility of the town folks. Victorians would rather act than speak. They are people of performance and achievements rather than pronouncements and empty talks. For once, the sleepy town has finally risen up.

History of the Holy Cross Parish Church in Sta. Cruz, Lubao, Pampanga

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STA. CRUZ is synonymous to Lubao. It is also the ancient political nucleus of the Kapampangan sphere; hence, the birthplace of the Kapampangan empire and civilization.

Historical documents indicate that Sta. Cruz bear the ancient name Balas due to the sandy nature of the village. Aptly, the cradle of Kapampangan civilization was born along the riverbanks of balas (today the sadsaran in Balantacan and Calangain which were former villages of Sta. Cruz) and later on developed as a powerful and prosperous settlement in caongotan (now called Lalam Ungut). Hence, the people of Sta. Cruz with the entire sphere of Kababan (Lubao) and the Kapampangan Kingdom and its Empire had already an advanced system of government and a mixed religion of paganism and Islam even before the arrival of the Spaniards. The civilization was introduced by the ancient Malays (today called Austronesians) to the aborigines (Aytas) through barter system.

Providentially, the best legacy of the Spaniards to the people of Lubao, specifically Sta. Cruz, was Miguel Lopez de Legaspi’s resolution to decree Martin de Goiti, his nephew, to explore and later on, subjugate the inhabitants of the kingdom of Lubao. Datu (or Rajah) Macabulus, the chieftain of the Kingdom of Lubao, after accepting submission to the Spanish conquistadores had forged friendship with Martin de Goiti on September 14, 1571 in behalf of the inhabitants of the village.

As a religious practice, the Spanish conquistadores together with some Augustinian missionaries presented to the village’s chieftain Rajah Macabulus, together with the Council of Elders and the inhabitants of the Kingdom of Lubao, a black wooden Cross of the Crucified Jesus Christ as a gift for their amity, goodwill and fraternity. Muslim by heart, he left his kingdom in Balas, buried the gift somewhere and afterward proceeded to settle in the mountains of Malakamias in Purak (Porac) and later, settled in the village of Tarlak.

Traditionally celebrated as “fiestang malati’ since then, September 14 is becoming a special celebration in Sta. Cruz today because of its historical and religious significance.

After Macabulus left, he was succeeded by Don Agustin Cubacub who received the same traditional gifts from Martin de Goiti when he was baptized as a Christian convert together with his wife Mulao and 4 children Bunduc, Abayo, Licas and Pilis on December 18, 1572. 

Later, the village of Balas was fittingly Christianized “San Bartolome” by the early Agustinian missionaries. San Bartolome is a Christian saint who holds a jungle bolo in his right hand and a chain tied around the neck of a demon in his left.

According to oral accounts, the lost of the Cross caused miserable experiences to the people’s economic life: famine (danup, sakit), floods (albug, bulus), and division (pamisagsagan, pamipatepate).

After the great mudflow and floods in the middle 1700, the image of Jesus Christ was miraculously found by an old man along the thick thrashes (gala) of the Sapang Palay river of barrio San Bartolome. Hence, the finder of the sacred black image became its keeper. Three years later, after another strong flood struck the village, a bevy of young boys (with surnames Lascano, Manganti, and others) were playing along the banks of the same river when they spotted a black Cross drifting on the stream. Unbelievably, the darkened Cross fitted exactly the image that was earlier found by its keeper.

Soon after the keeper of the image had learned about the finding of the Cross, the elders of the community lost no time in fixing it and immediately decided to put up a thatched chapel (santungan or bisitas) made of light materials such as dutung (wood), kwayan (bamboo) and pinaud (nipa) to serve as the sacred image’s sanctuary near the spot where it was discovered.

The miraculous rediscovery of the black crucified image of the Lord Jesus Christ was His homecoming after almost two hundred years of disappearance. Oral accounts indicated that the discovery of the Holy Cross might had happened in the middle years of 1700, some years after the citadela and Fortaleza de Mamalas in Lalam Ungot were covered by terrible mudflows.

The late Apung Ponciano “Pocia” Manganti and Apung Teofilo “Ilo” Vitug, who were both natives of the place, ascertained that these accounts were told and retold by their elders, hence, had proven the ancient truth about the Holy Cross. Henceforth, the village became serene and calm.

From its original site, the chapel was moved into a site near Pagaga (campo santo or the Catholic cemetery) because of intermittent and torrential flooding.  The thatched chapel was destroyed by fire, yet, the Holy Cross was amazingly untouched and untainted by the said raze. This incident might had made the Cross darker in color.

Apparently, the villagers thought of transferring the chapel in Loban Escuela for the second time. Obviously, the wooden and thatched structures of the chapel were also frequently swamped and destroyed by torrents and floods, yet, the image of the Holy Cross always stood miraculously on its altar without receiving any damage.

Finally, the people eventually decided to house the image of the Holy Cross in its permanent site in 1922 after the national highway was built. The site of the chapel was generously donated by Dona Camila Bamba vda. de Bamba and Dona Juana Uyguangco-Manganti. The chapel was initially made of light and thatched materials. Similarly, it was still frequented by floods.

Scores of mystical apparitions and miracles were witnessed by the people of the community. Nowadays, the increasing size (from 2 feet to about one meter today) of the Holy Cross is the most visible manifestation noticed by the elders of the community. Recollections of the elders of spectacular brightness inside the church during impending calamities were told. To most elders, any apparition observed from the holy image serves as a reminder for the people to come to deep devotions and prayers.

Today, the miracles of the Holy Cross have been evidently seen and heard. People come to the Holy Cross to lovingly touch its image and seek His holy miracles to heal the illnesses of their loved ones, for financial blessings, guidance, safe travel, successful endeavors, resolution of problems and difficulties, and other petitions.

Immemorially, the people of Sta. Cruz and Lubao and its devotees lovingly called the sacred image as Apu Santo Cristo de Lubao, or simply, Apu Santo Cristo, or “Apu.”

If the black image of Sto. Nino de Cebu was Ferninand Magellan’s present to Rajah Humabon on April 7, 1521, the black Crucifix of the Apu Sto. Cristo de Lubao was Martin de Goiti’s gift to Datu Macabulus to the “Capangpangans” on Septemebr 14, 1571.

According to Fr. Pedro Galende, the Museum Director of the San Agustin Church Museum in Intramuros, Manila, the wooden image of Apu Sto. Cristo de Lubao originated from Mexico, North America. Its wood is probably from the sacred fir (Abies religiosa) which are traditionally used during religious festivities in Mexico.  

Dr. Lino L. Dizon, a prominent Agustinian historian said that the cross of Apu Sto. Cristo may be one of the four sacred crosses registered in Lubao in the inventory of images made in 1774 when administration of churches in Pampanga was transferred to the clerigos.  

In like manner, other religious images presented by the Spaniards to Filipino natives in other parts of the country who peacefully submitted themselves to the crown of Spain were mostly black in color. As giving of religious images to the converts was an established Spanish tradition, it was also a cultural reminiscence of the Malayan pigment of the inhabitants of the country.  Some of those presented as gift by the Spaniards as a seal of their friendship are: the images of Sto. Nino de Cebu (Sugbu), Sto. Nino de Tondo (Tunduk), Sto. Cristo Nazareno de Quiapo (Maynilad), and Nuestra Senora Buenviaje de Antipolo (Morong) among others. The fine quality of the images, their being hard and smooth black in color, were distinct.  Probably, the black motif of the images was meant to indicate the Spaniards’ sign posts of the pioneering provinces where the seeds of Christianity were first planted and later on propagated to the people. 

Because of its loving mercy, blessings and flowing miracles, the Holy Cross was the people’s savior and santuary, then, and now, and prayerfully, forever.  

The feast day of the image of Apu Santo Cristo de Lubao is annually celebrated on May 3. May 3, 1572 is the date when the Lubao Church (San Agustin) was accepted as a visita of Tondo which at that was a dominion of the huge Kapampangan sphere ruled by Rajah Lakandula.  At that time, the San Agustin Church de Lubao was built along the riverbanks of gato (Sta. Catalina), which is a few distance from Lubao’s political nucleus and the Fortaleza de Mamalas (fortress) in Lalam Ungot (now a sitio of Sta. Cruz).

Celebrated by the converts since time then, it is traditionally marked as a Thanksgiving Day. It is Sta. Cruz’ fiesta celebration, the most popular occasion not only in Sta. Cruz but also in the town because of its vibrant, festive and lavish mood. It was popularly called “fiestang de Leon” whose ancestors probably descended from the pioneering inhabitants of Sta. Cruz who played important part in the spread of Chritianity in the area.

The celebration is culminated with the traditional procession of Apu Santo Cristo which is originally participated by eleven patron saints of the barrios under the Holy Cross Parish.  These barrios are Balantacan, Dela Paz, Remedios, San Jose Gumi,San PabloI and II, San Pedro Palcarangan and Saug, Sta. Maria, Sta. Rita and Sta. Teresa I until some of them were transferred to the newly created Parish of Saint Paul in San Pablo Matua.

The procession is joined by a magnitude and unparallel devotees which traditionally begins at five o’clock in the afternoon and ends at almost midnight.  From the parish church, the processional march commences and moves towards the western direction. Well decorated and lighted carosas of the patron saints coming from the different barrios of the parish are devoutedly carted along the extensive stretch of the McArthur National Highway. Accompanied by five to six brass bands, the devotees and their children carry candles and pray the rosary during the procession. Houses along the processional route display holy images and lighted candles in homage to the holy Cross of the crucified Lord.

When the procession reaches the boundary of Sta. Cruz in barrio San Roque de Arbol, it returns eastward towards the Sta. Cruz Bridge, which is the boundary in the east. From this area, the traditional curaldal begins.  A huge number of devotees, from all ages and walks of life, joyfully and invigoratingly dance with spectacular awe and breath.

The national road is wrapped and filled with huge devotees. The intensity of the curaldal becomes passionate and spirited when the image of Apu Santo Cristo de Lubao is getting close to the church to mark the end of the procession.  As the marching bands play the batalla tunes, the fervent devotees’ lavishly cry in endless unison “Viva! Viva! Viva! Apu Santo Cristo! Viva! Apu Sto. Cristo!”

As the devotees’ curaldal becomes heightened; the marching bands delightedly charm the devotees with their inspiring batalla tunes. The power of the music and the passion of the curaldal are simply phenomenal, remarkable and incredible. The street dance is simply irresistible and unexplainable. Its spirit is so human, yet, so emotionally divine.  As fireworks zoom and boast into the sky, their radiant glitters add power and gaiety to the sounds and sights of the phenomenal curaldal.

The curaldal is an ancient dance ritual commonly celebrated by the aboriginal Aytas of the barrio after plentiful harvests. The tradition was later adapted by the Spanish missionaries to integrate the inhabitants into the realms of the Christian faith.

When the image of Apu Santo Cristo is restored into its altar, the sights and sounds of curaldal recede.  It ends at almost midnight.  Without the feeling of fatigue and qualms, the devotees go home with high spirit, ever ready to prepare again for the next year’s festivity.

As curaldal revelry is beautifully done in Sta. Cruz to honor Apu Sto. Cristo, this tradition is also celebrated in almost all of the barangays in the town of Lubao. The devotees piously dance their patron saints as a thanksgiving to God for the favors received. Generally, it is held in every barrio fiesta.

Since the erection of the church as a parish on May 22, 1951, the following had been resident priests who immensely contributed to the spiritual growth of the parishioners and the improvement of the parish church as well:

Rev. Fr. Wilfrido V. Baltazar               1951-1959

Rev. Fr. Cipriano Gopez                     1959-1960

Rev. Fr. Florencio Tumang                 1960-1973

Msgr. Alfonso Ducut                          1973-1981

Msgr. Eugenio P. Mercado Jr.            1981-1988

Msgr. Antonio M. Bustos                   1988-1995

Msgr.Rustico C. Cuevas                     1995-2001

Msgr. Joel Tubig                                 2001-2007      

Rev. Fr. Diosdado Austria                  2007-present.

It was Fr. Baltazar who led the people in the construction of the church using concrete materials since it was founded on May 22, 1951. Fr. Baltazar started organizing different church organizations such as the Children of Mary, Catholic Women’s Legue, Adoracion Nocturna Filipina, Altar Boys, etc. Subsequently, he started rising funds for the construction of the convent. After the completion and blessing of the convent on May 3, 1952; thereby, announcing the structuring and building of a new parish church with stronger materials.  Hence, the small chapel (bisitas) which was made of light materials was demolished to pave way to the new one in its present site.

Concerned village folks started to iniate fund raising activities to generate resources for its construction. These included the concerted efforts of the following: Antonio Diwa, Francisco Guintu Sr., Fausto Chingcuangco Sr., Simeon Aniciete Sr., Salvador Paule, Ponciano Manganti, Luis De Leon, Francisco “Roy” Paule, and Arch. Anastacio Bernal, and many others. When the church was finally completed through volunteerism, it was inaguarted on May 3, 1955 during the barangay fiesta.

During the term of Rev. Fr. Florencio Tumang, he was assisted by the following priests in leading the parishioners into deeper awareness and realization of the need and importance of evangelization: Fr. Gregorio Binuya (1964), Fr. Francisco Lansang (1965), Fr, Andres Serrano ((1970-1971), Fr. Jose Bengco and Fr. Honesto Ongtioco (1972), and Fr. Joel Tubig (1973).

With their administration of the parish, the Holy Cross Parish Church has grown as it is today.   

The parish is situated at barrio Sta. Cruz in front of the town market. Barrio Sta. Cruz has 21 sitios and each has a chapel (Bona, Biclung. Centro, Control, Dau, De Leon, Lalam Ungut, Looban 1st and 2nd, Licu, Magsaysay, Maligaya, Mangga, Mansanitas, Micacalugud, Osmena, Palcarangan, Osmena, Roxas, San Gregorio, Sapang Palay). 

The parish presently administers the following barrios: Balantacan, Remedios, San Jose Gumi, Sta. Maria, Sta. Rita, and Sta. Teresa 1st and 2nd.  

 At present, the Holy Cross Parish is one of the most stable parish churches in the Archdiocese of Pampanga which is largely attributed to the solidarity and fidelity of the faithfuls in faith to the Lod God Almighty.

With its spiritual historicity, it will grow in greater in the future to better serve the pusposes of God who  destines all things to become.


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