The Kapampangan Surnames


By Dr. Rodrigo M. Sicat

Glossary of Kapampangan Indigenous Surnames

Herewith are some of the numerous Kapampangan surnames culled and selected from various sources.

Intuitively and romantically, each surname is given a meaning that is proximate to its nature and etymology. The assignments of the meanings are mostly guided by the dictionary of Fr. Diego Bergano, from the epistemological and intuitive mastery of elderly Kapampangans about the language, from the feedbacks of Kapampangan scholars and academicians, and of the author’s romantic and meta–linguistic analysis of the surnames.

Sample illustrative sentences in the Kapampangan and English forms are given to allow the reader a clearer grasp on the subject at hand. The illustrations showcase the richness of Kapampangan language. The samples are combined form and style of the various Kapampangan dialects of the Kapampangan dominions. Generally, the orthography is classical and contemporary in organization.

Faithful to the surnames, the author made no alteration or adulteration


Ing amanung “abacan” miyaliwa ya kabaldugan king amanung Kapampangan

The word “abacan” (meal) has different meanings in the Kapampangan language.

ABAD. V. Inculcated

Ing lugud ding matua keya maka abad king isip na.

His parents’ love for him is inculcated in his mind.

ABAYAN. V. To join

Abayan me potang bengi.

You join him tonight.

ABE. N. Friend

Ing e tuki eke abe.

He who comes not is not my friend.

ABE. V. Joined

I Landu meki abe yang mendilu.

Roland joined them swim.

ABUAN. V. Ashed

Abuan mu la ding itu bayu mu la piritu.

Ash the catfish before you fry them.

ACMA. V. To match

Ing sasabia’na maca acma king dapat na.

What he speaks match to his actions.

AGAD. Adv. Quickly

Kagad-agad, likuan na ku.

Quickly, he left me.

AGAD. N. Chafing

Ding agad na mang gatal la.

His chafing are getting itchy.

AGUL. Akin to DAGUL. Adj. Big

Ing tauan-tauan a geua nang Mr. Timbol atneng ka dagul.

The scarecrow made by Mr. Timbol is very large.

AGUL. Akin to DAGUL. N. Vastness

Ing dagul ning gabun da e ra abut ding mata na.

The vastness of their land cannot be reached by his sight.

AGUL. Akin to DAGUL. V. Grown

Ding payung – payungang tenam na me dagul na la.

The mushrooms that he planted have grown already.

ALALAN. N. Election

Ing alalan kaya malaus king tutuking banua?

Will the election push through next year?

ALAMO. Diminutive of LAMU. N. A bamboo wharf

Lamu yank makaba ing gagato king sapa.

A large bamboo wharf is floating in the river.

ALIWALAS. N. Extensiveness

Ing aliwalas ning banua meka tula karing kegana-gana.

The extensiveness of the sky gave joy to everyone.

ALIMURUNG. Phrase of ALI MURUNG. Will not withdraw

Ding Kapampangan ali la murung king annu mang labanan.

The Kapampangans will not withdraw from any combat.

ANAD. V. Instructed

I Mr. Macapinlac inanad na la ding keyang anac king mayap.

Mr. Macapinlac instructed his children towards righteousness.

ANDAN. Akin to TANDAN. V. Remember

Bakit ala na kang atatandan king bague nanu man?

Why haven’t you remember anything at all?

ANGAD. N. Aspiration

Ing angad ding mensa bie masagana.

The aspiration of everyone is prosperity in life.

ANGLI. V. Simmer

Ibangli me ing babi king kuali.

Simmer the pork on the frying fan.

ANLOAGUE. Akin to ANLUAGI. N. Carpenter

Ing anluagi mayap ya ugali.

The carpenter is good mannered.

APALIT. N. Narra tree

Ala yang kapalit ing siasa’ning dutung apalit.

There is no substitute for the agility of narra tree.

AYAD. Akin to SAYAD. V. Touching the ground

Ing piniping imalan sasayad keng gabun.

The laundried clothes are touching the ground.

AYSON. Akin to AYUSAN. V. Arrange

Ayusan mu la ding imalang binie da keka.

Arrange the clothes given to you.

AYUYAO. Akin to YUYU. V. Sway (in a cradle)

Ayuyu mu ku mu nung e na ku kukuku.

You can only sway me if I cough no more.

BABALO. Diminutive of BALU. V. Know

Ing mebalu binang anak ya pamu.

The widow/widower is still too young.

BABALO. Diminutive of BALU. V. Know

E ku balu nung bakit pilsintan da ka!

I do not know why I have loved you!


Ing keganagana dapat pamintuan la ban canita alang misasala

Everything must be obeyed so that no one will commit mistakes.

BACAY. V. Carrying

Nanu mo kaya ing pibake-bake na ning malagung Analiza.

What is it that pretty Analiza is carrying?

BAGANG. N. Molar

Ing bagang ipa’na lalput na ya.

His molar is starting to pop out.

BAGSIC. N. Ferocity

Itang bagsic ning asu uyang migpatunud kang Tibu.

It was the canine’s ferocity that tamed Stephen.

BALABA. N. Prune

Ding saging belaba na atnong kabungang kabunga.

The banana trees he pruned down were aplenty with fruits.

BALABAL. N. Scarf, Shawl

Ing balabal a susulud na kikinang yang alang patna.

The scarf she is wearing shines endlessly.

BALAJADIA. Phrase of BALANG ADIA. Every preparation

Ing baling adia a daraptan ku macatula king Miglalang


Every preparation that I make delights my Creator.

BALATBAT. N. Assault

Ing balatbat ning tatso makatakut at makasigpo.

The assault of a rooster is scary and frightening.

BALATBAT. V. Assault/attack

Ing pabu belatbat ne ing dadalan a tau.

The turkey attacked the passer-by.

BALAYO. Akin to BALE. N. House

Ing bale yung matua penga’ne ning lahar.

Your ancestral house was ruined by lahar.


Ing maka balingit nang lupa malagu yang anting diosa.

Her open face is as beautiful as goddess’.

BALUYUT. N. Huge space basket with round opening

Ding buluyut nang apu ku kapmu lang paleng malutu.

My grandfather’s huge baskets are filled with brown rice.

BANAL. Adj. Divine

Ing pamamatawad karing mikasala banal a dapat king Mayupaya

Forgiving the sinners is a divine work to the Lord God.

BANSIL, BANGSIL. Akin to BANGSALI. Adj. Incongruent

Ing dapat na bangsali king sasabia’na.

His deed is incongruent to his word.


Nucu rugo! O bat ing lingo mung isip makabanting ne naman?

Oh, by golly! Why is your stuporous mind slanted again?

BANTING. Adj. Slanting

Ing banting nang sapi-sapi tutuklu ya karing kurienti.

His slanting kite is tripping on the electrice wirings.

BANTUG. Adj. Renowned

Ding bantug a Kapampangan kasebian la king karelang lutung maniaman.

The renowned Kapampangans are famous for their fine cuisine.

BANTUG. V. Publish

Ding lagiu ding bayung talasawa maka bantug la king munisipiu.

The names of the new couples are publicized at the municipal hall.

BANZALI. Akin to BANGSALI. Adj. Incongruent

Masakit na nang ikawani ing bangsali nang ugali.

He could hardly deviate from his incongruent psyche.

BAQUE. Akin to BAKE. V. Bring

Nanu kaya ing pibake-bake nang Pepe?

What is it that Joseph brings?

BAQUE. Akin to BAKE. N. A light basket

Ing bake nang apu atin yang abe ginilu.

Grandmother’s basket contains some coco-gel juice.

BAQUING, BAKING. Diminuitive of BAQUE. V. Bring/ carry along

Ing imala’nang Lolita a keying pibaque-baque seli na pa Menila.

The clothes of Lolita that she carries along were bought from Manila.

BARIN. Phrase of BAN RING. Adv. So that

Ding kamaganak tamu pagsarian la, ban ring sabla matulang tumagun la.

Our relatives must be personally visited, so that all will gladly come.

BASA. Akin to MABASA. Adj. Convivial/ sociable.

Ing wali nang Perla e ya mabasa.

The younger sister of Pearl is not sociable.

BASA. Akin to MABASA. Adj. Wet

Alang e mabasa karela nung aldo San Juan.

Nobody is not wet on St. John the Baptist’s Day.

BASA. V. Read

Ing mulala e ya makabasa.

An illiterate cannot read.

BASI. N. Nipa wine

Lambanug ing kawari ning alak a basi.

Coconut wine is the likness of nipa wine.

BATAC. V. Stretch

Ding sablayang maka kalikat mabatac la pangayatyat.

The twined clothlines are sturdily stretched.

BATO. N. Stone

Ing pusu nang koya ku masia yang anting batu.

My brother’s heart is as hard as stone.

BAU. N. Aroma

Ing bau ning taju susulapo manibat king fiesta ning bariu.

The aroma of the viand spells from the village’s fiesta.

BAUL. N. Chest

Ding lagiu ding ibpa da makakulku’la king baul a’mana da.

Their parents’ names are engraved on the chest, which they have inherited.


Ing bayo na manuknangan ya Australia.

His brother in-law is living in Australia

BIE. N. Life

Ing bie ala yang kabaldugan nung mabie kang anting mete.

Life is meaningless if you are living like dead.

BIAG. N. Prisoner

Acu, bijag nacu ning Apung Guinu.

I am a prisoner of the Lord God.

BIAG. V. Capture

Ding sundalu a bijag da la ding mangulu.

The soldiers captured the trouble makers.

BILDAN. V. Answer

Ing dalagang pakisabian ku e nacu bildan.

The lady I was talking with did not answer me.

BILINGAN. V. To turn upside down

Bilingan mung malagua ing paleng kapalut palut pa.

You turn upside down the fresh-scythed rice.

BINUYA, VINUYA. V. Cultivated

Ing ortelanu binuya na ing gabun a calulu.

The farmer cultivated the dreary land.


Batuin yang masala ing makaslag taldawa.

A star brightly shines in the meadows.

BOGNOT. V. To get annoyed

Mag bugnut ya uling ding kualta na mewala la.

She is annoyed because her money was lost.


I Luz misusulud yang imalang bulus-bulus.

Luz is wearing an awful outfit.


Bulus a masalusu ing dinugpa karela.

A rapid torrent struck on them.


Binulus ne ing biseru.

He freed the calf.

BONDOC. N. Mountain

Ing Bondoc Arayat malagu ya’t mayatyat.

Mt. Arayat is lofty and stately.

BUCU. N. Coconut Tree

Pinupu de ing tanaman a bucu.

They cut the coconut tree.

BUCU. N. Bud

Ing inagtal na, bucu yang sampaguita.

What he took was a sampaguita bud.

BUCU. N. Node

Magsilbi yang angusan ing bucu ning atbu.

The sugarcane’s node can be chewed.

BUAN. Akin to BULAN. N. Month

Agusto ing bula’ ning kepanganak ku.

August is the month of my birth date.


Ding sampagang sampaguita mibubucadcad la nung ing silim dating na.

The sampaguita flowers begin to bloom as twilight sets in.

BUCUD. Adv. Only/Unique

Ding malugud kung indu bucud la mu pangatau.

My loving parents are unique persons.

BULACSAO. Akin to BULAGSAC. Adj. Careless

Ing bulagsac a’nak atnia naming kasitak.

The careless child is very talkative too.

BULANADI. Akin to BULANDAL. Adj. Forlorn

Ing bulandal kung caluguran makalunus yang tutu.

My forlorn friend is immensely pathetic.

BULANADI. Diminutive of BULAN. N. Moon

Cabilugan ning bulan ngeni.

It is full moon today.

BULAON. N. Molave

Ding ipil ampon bulaon mative lang dutung.

Ipil-ipil and molave are durable wood.

BUMANLAG. V. To have slightly squint eye

Ding mata mu bumanlag la nung pane kang lalawe keya.

Your eyes will slightly squint if you frequently look at her.

BUNDALIAN. Akin to BANDALAN, BANDAL. V. To intimidate

Bandalan me ba’nang abalu nung nanu ing makarine.

Intimidate him, so that he will know what is humiliating.

BUNGAD. Adj. Croaky

Ing bungad a suala na kakalugkug at makatula.

His croaky voice sounds jolting and funny.

BUNGAD. V. Peep out

Ali ka bubungad pota akua mung mibaligtad.

Do not peep out or you might trip.

BUNGAD. N. Façade, front

Ing bungad ning bale da kule yang kalawang.

The façade of their house is colored rust.

BUNGAY, BUNGUE. N. A criss-cross walk

I Pepe menabu ya tete uli ning bunge-bungeng lakad na.

Peter fell down the bridge because of his criss-cross walk.

BUTIU, BOTIO. Akin to BATIO. N. Stare

Bat kaya ing batio na kanaku atnang karatna?

Why is his stare to me so stationary?

BUTIU, BOTIO. Akin to BATIO. V. Look

E ka babatio karela pota basibasan da ka.

Do not stare at them or they will stone you.

CABAL. V. To cut the leaves using scythe

Ing bayung cabal a pale mamutaktak nang butikas king marangle.

The newly cut rice plants bear plenty of flowers in the field.

CABAL. Akin to CABALAN. Adj. Callous

Ing cabalan a’nak na king tumbukan ali tataliu ya.

His callous child never retreats in any fistfights.

CABAL. N. Dirt

Ing cabal king takde na menangsu’t buburak ya.

The dirt on his collar is filthy and soily.

CABALEN. N. Townmate

Ding cabalen kung Kapampangan matas la lub dapot malugud la.

My Kapampangan townmates are proud, yet, affectionate.

CABALU. Adj. Knowledgeably

Ing manako atneng cabalung maglaram.

The burglar tells lies knowledgeably.

CABASAL. N. A fertile soil

Mangaragu’l lang pakwan ding apupupul king cabasal-basal a gabun.

Giant watermelons are harvested in fertile soil.


Ing kekaming biltangan atneng cabatung dalan.

The path we trailed is a rocky alleyway.


Ing dinuang na kanaku cabias ya mung atbu.

He handed to me a node of sugarcane only.

CABIAS. N. Akin to ABIAS. Rice

Nanu ing cabiasan na?

What type of rice is it?

CABIGTING. N. A heavy bunch

I Ricky manambayukan yang cabigting wake mani.

Ricky is carrying a heavy bunch of peanut.


Ding miapsang sisi cabilangan lamu.

The eggs that hatched are only few.


Bilangan mu la.

You count them.

CABILBIL. Diminutive of BILBIL. N. Bulges

Ing bibili nang darang Sebya mamalita.

The bulges of Aunt Celia show.


Peinawa’t metudtud ya cabiling ning pale palangya’ na.

He rested and slept aftewr turning down the rice grains.

CABIUS. V. To slip

Ing soga ning biseru micabius ya ketang tulus na.

The roipe of the calf slipped from its stake.

CABLING. Akin to Abli. V. Earn/ sell

Ing maglacu meca’bling kapurit ya mu.

The vendor has earned/sold very meafer only.

CABUG. N. A loud sound/thug

Kabud a bud mekaramdam kang maragul a cabug.

Suddenly, I have heard a loud sound/thug.

CABUSAO. Diminutive of CABUS. V. Redeem

Guinu, icabus mu kami karing sablang marok.

Lord, redeem us from all evil.

CADIANG. Akin to ADIA. Phrase. Very prepared

Ding sundalo atna lang ca adia king nanu mang gulu.

The soldiers are very prepared for whatever eventuality.

CABIONG. Akin to BIUNG. V. Hissing

Siniklaud la’t menalangin cabiung na nung angin.

They knelt and prayed as the wind started hissing.

CACALDA. Phrase of CARACAL DA. Adj. Plentiful

Ding ikua dang asan caracal da.

The fish they caught are plentiful.

CAGUIAT. Adj. Immediately

Ing salol na milukas ya caguiat a ukiat na king tanamang manga.

His trouser dropped as he immediately climbed the mango tree.


Ing tiup ning Pasku binang makagalunggung.

The breeze of Christmas is especially chilling.

CAGUNGAO. Diminutive of GANGO. Adj. Intoxicating

Ding makagungo alak baua’la karing mangalating anak.

Intoxicating liquors are prohibited among minor children.

CAINGAT. Adj. Careful

I Analiza misna ya caingat ketang imalang peparam da kaya.

Analizaq was very careful with the dress lent to her.

CAISIP. V. Think a like

Ing asung sese ku caisip yang tau.

My pet dog’s thinks like man.

CALAGUAS. Diminutive of CALGUA. Adj. Easy

Ing dalan calagua’t katakbangan ya mu nung memaltang ya dalan Santiagu.

The road was just easy and short if he only trailed the St. James route.

CALAGUI. Akin to CALAGIU. N. Namesake

Ing wali kung Gina calagiu yang artista.

My younger sister Gina has an actress namesake.

CALALANG. V. Create / born

Ing tau misapuak ya calalang na ning yatu.

Man was born as the earth was created.

CALALU. Adj. Extreme

Ing anak nang Huli atneng calalu’t katsura ugali.

Julie’s son has extreme and unpleasant manners.

CALANSA. Adj. Fishy/ stinky

Ing tagilo linutu na bina la calansa.

The fermented fish she cooked is too fishy/ stinky.

CALAPAN. V. Treasure

Ing cayapan calapan, iugse ing deuakan.

Treasure the good, curse the evil.


Ing damulag a lalaki ausan yang calaquian.

A male carabao is called a bull.

CALARA. Adj. Peppery

Ing bualanglang a nilutu na misna ya calara.

The guava soup she cooked is so peppery.

CALSANZ. Akin to CALASAN. V. Detach

Ing karpinteru cacalasa’na la ding matuang yeru.

The carpenter is detaching the old galvanized iron.

CALAUNAN. Akin to LAUN. Adj. Old

King calauna’ning ulas ikua na nang menasnas.

Age has made the blanket tattered.

CALBANG. Diminutive of CALBAG. N. Gas pain.

Ing aske ku maputla yang siguradu nung calbag ku aplita’ naku.

I will surely look pale once struck by gas pain..


Ding marinu matula la calayag da.

The sailors were delighted as they sailed.

CALILUNG. Adj. Dizzy

Atna kung calilung-caliliu kaibat ku king Baguio.

I was awfully dizzy after coming from Baguio.


Ing caling ning lansena mebating ya.

The food storage’s lock is lost.

CALINGO. Adj. Stuporous/ confused

Ing taung teterak atneng calingo utak.

The dancing man has a stuporous/ confused mind.


Ing sabla calinguan ku na ngan dapot ing lugud ku kang Lolitang sinta ku iti eku   agaua.

All shall I forget, but my love for my darling Lolita I can not do.

CALMA. N. Calmness

Ing calma na mamalitang tinud ya.

His calmness foretells that he won.

CALUB. Adj. Once in

Calb na king sular da disa’na la ding matua ku.

Once in their yard, she found my parents.

CAMILING. N. Type of Tree

Makapanggatal ya ing dutung camiling.

The camiling tree causes itchiness.

CAMUA. Adj. Angry

Camua ku keya.

I am angry at her.

CANASA. Adj. Earnest

Ing kapagnasan nang kabiasnan atnang canasa’t kalalam.

His aspiration for education is earnest and profound.

CANLAS. V. Found

Ding micanlas king labuad Kapampangan memalen lang misnang tenakan.

Those who founded the Kapampangan dominion were people of wisdom.

CANO, CANONO.Adj. Fortunate

Ing kabiaia’nang koya atnang canono ngeni.

My brother’s enterprise is very fortunate now.

CAPARAS. Adj. Spicy

Ing baka caldereta atnang caparas a lasa.

The beef caldereta has a very spicy savor.


Ing maestra atneng capili inia metua yang dalaga.

The teacher was very choosy, thus, she grew a spinster.

CAPATI. N. A chupa

Nabengi, capati mung abias ing keyang seli.

Last night, she bought only a chupa of rice.

CAPULI, CAPULE. Akin to PULI. V. To inherit

I ana’kung Jaime pemulia’na ing mayap kung ugali.

My son, James, has inherited my positive traits.

CAPULONG. N. One with whom one meets

Detang capulung na napun dinatang lang gatpanapun.

The persons he met came yesterday afternoon.

CAPULONG. V. Hold meeting

Mikawa-kawani la capulung na karela.

They parted ways after meeting them.

CAPUNO. Diminutive of PUNO. N. Leader

Ing punu ning balen kasebian ya Minalin.

The town leader is popular in Minalin.

CARAGUE. Akin to CARAQUE. N. A tiny share

Ing punu ning balen kasebian ya Minalin.

The town leader is popular in Minalin.


Ing kwa kung Tagpi carangan ya mu pilai.

Spot, my puppy, took just a little

CASABAL. Adj. Deeply concerned

Ding siping bale atna lang casabal ketang anak ning mangubie.

The neighbourhood is too concerned over the orphaned child.

CASALLA. Akin to CASALA. Adj. Impaired

Atin kung anak a casala panamdam.

I have achild who is hearing impaired.

CASANTING. Adj. Beautiful

Ing gawa nang Miding atnang casanting.

Mercy’s handiwork is beautiful.


Ing pangage nang anak iya ing keying casaupanan marangle.

His eldest son is his farm aider.

CATACUTAN. V. To be object of fright

Ing bale lele sapa catacutan de ding sabla.

The house beside the river frightens everyone.

CATALAN. V. Got hold

Catalan ku keng eran, saka ku menabu.

As soon as I got hold of the stairs, I fell.

CATALIG. Diminutive of TALI. N. Bunch

Sinali yang cataling kamangian.

She bought a bunch of string beans.

CATAPANG. Adj. Ferocious

Ing ubingan atneng catapang.

The snake is very ferocious.

CATU. N. Companion

I apu ku ing catu bale ku.

Grandmother is my house’s companion.

CAU. Akin to CAUA. N. Vat

I Siana tinun yang metung caua.

Josephine cooked vat of rice.

CAUGUIRAN. Diminutive of CAUIG. Adv. Similarly

Ing asta na ccauig-auig makualta.

His poised action is similar to the affluent.

CAWILI. Akin to CAWILI-WILI. Adj. Entertaining

I Dolphy atneng cawili-wili

Dolphy is very entertaining.

CAWILI. Akin to CAWILI-WILI. N. A plant

Manakit ku pang tanamang cawili-wili ngeni.

I still find “cawili-wili” plants nowadays.

CUBACUB. Diminutive of CUBCUB. V. To besiege

Ding mapanako me cubcub la iniang Sabadu ning maleldo.

The robbers were besieged on Black Saturday.


Cunan me ing tagnan.

Get the chopping board.


Cuananan meng amanu dikil ketang ipu-ipu.

Take her story about the twister.

CURAN. N. Clay pot. Diminutive of CURA

Ing sabo babi linutu na king curan a malati.

The pork soup was cooked on a small clay pot.

CUYUGAN. Diminutive of CUYUG. N. Legion of snakes

Ding kamaganak na anti la uaring cuyug.

His relatives are like legion of snakes.

DABU. Akin to DABUL. N. Burst

Ing dabulbul ning danum atnang ssalusu’t dagul.

The burst of the torrent is swift and high.


Dacayanan yu lang lunus ding magpalimus.

Share alms to the beggars.

DAGAT. N. Ocean

Ing Pilipinas macapadurut yang dagat.

The Philippines is surrounded by oceans.

DAGDAG. N. Supplement

Ing dagdag a binie da meka tula karing matua na.

The supplement they gave has pleased their parents.

DALE. Akin to DALI. V. Punish

Madali ka kanaku nung ali ka mamintu.

You will be punished if you will not obey.

DALIGDIG. Diminutive of DALIG. N. Wall

Yuyudyuran deng masime ing daling ning bale.

They are meticulously scrabbing the wall of the house.

DALISAY. Adj. Pure

Ing lugud ku king asawa ku dalise’t masanque.

My love for my wife is pure and sincere.

DALUS. Adj. Reckless

E ka padalus-dalus kareng galo mu.

Do not be reckless with your actions.

DALUSUNG. V. Sudden attack

King kakadalusung na ketang asu, ding buldi’t butit na mekinis la.

As he goes attacking the dog, his thigh and butt were gripped.


Ing dalusung ning manuk a gaindu maka galgal salu.

The hen’s attack is heart breaking.

DAMPIL. V. Prepare

I dampil meng masalese ing marangle.

You prepare the farm thoroughly.

DANAN. Akin to ATDANAN. V. Bring something

Ding sabla dapat lang atdanan mayap a balita.

Everyone must be brought with good news.

DANAN.  Akin to TANDAN. V. Remember

Atatandanan mu pa ba iniang malati ka ta pa?

Do you still remember when we were still young?

DANGANAN. Diminutive of DANGAN. N. Respect

Ing taung alang pakundangan ala yang kamarinayan.

A man who has no respect is shameless.

DAQUE. Akin to DAKE. N. Share

Ding dagis pengan da ing dake nang mais.

The rodents ate his share of corn harvest.

DARE. Diminutive of ARE. N. Hay

Ing are ugse-ugse karing gule.

The hay is scattered on the vegetables.


Ausan mu ku nung dating ya I apu mu.

Call me if your grandmother comes.

DATU. N. Noble man

E me apagliwalu ing datu.

You can never deceit a noble man.

DATUN. Adj. Peaceful

Ketang banda mi misnang datum lalung lalu na neng gatpanapun.

Our place is so peaceful especially in the afternoon.

DAYAO. Diminutive of DAYU. N. Distance

Ing dayu ku kang Pedru atlu mung metru.

My distance to Peter is only three meters.

DAYAO. Diminutive of DAYU. V. To exclude

Pepa dayu ne kang Marta ing lagiu na.

He asked Matha to exclude his name.

DAYRIT. Diminutive of DAYI. N. Descendant

Ding kekaming dayi matapang lang anting putakti.

Our descendants are fierceful as the wasps.

DEANG. Akin to DETANG. Article the

Detang melaus nang malagung dalaga calugura’na lang Portia.

The lovely ladies who had left were Portia’s friends.

DIMARUCUT. Phrase of ALI A DUCUT. V. Cannot draw out

Ali cu a ducut ing e canacu.

I cannot draw out what is not mine.

DIMATULAC. Phrase of ALI A TULAC. V. Cannot push

Ali ke a tulac ing anac king pitac.

I cannot push the kid to the mud.

DIMITUI. Diminutive of DIMIT. Adj. Plentous

Ing pakauasang inampang da dimit a dimit at sobra-sobra.

The refreshment they served was plenty and excessive.


Madimla ngeni.

It is cold today.

DIWA. N. Essence

Ing diwa ning amanu atiu king parnasu.

The essence of the words is in the verse.

DIZON. Akin to DISON, DISAN. V. Found

I Linu a kapatad ku disan keng susulat amlat a bayu.

I found Lino, my brother, writing a new history book.

DUAT. N. Black plum tree

Ing balat duat mayap yang panulu.

Black plum’s bark is a good medicine.

DUE. Akin to DUI. N. A fish spine

Ing gurami matilus ya dui.

Gourami has thorny spine.

DULA. Akin to DULANG. N. A low dining table

Tara na’t lumapit tamu king dulang ning Guinu.

Come let us join the table of the Lord.

DULA. Akin to DULANG. V. Roll

Ding dulang-dulang a batu kapilan man e la mangulapu.

The rolling stones will never catch any moss.

DUMAPAL. Adj. Hurriedly

Dumapal kang muli dapot e ka pupulai.

You hurriedly come home but never race.

DUNGO. Adv. Timid, naïve

Ing kaburi nang Tina pungguk ampon dungo ya.

Tina’s fiancé is small and naïve.

DUNGO. Akin to DUNGAO. V. Look out

E ka dudungo king pasamanu uling kapmu yang gogo.

Never look out of the window because it is very starchy.


Dungdung kang Biblia king upayang mabiasa ka.

Read the Bible in order for you to earn wisdom.

DUYA. Diminutive of DUYAN. N. Hammock

Ing balayang Kapampangan duya’ne ning tepangan.

Pampanga Province is the hammock of gallantry.

ERANA. Diminutive of ERAN. N. Ladder

I Lorina seli ne ing eran a gewa na.

Lory bought the ladder he made.

GADDI. Akin to ADDIA. V. Prevent.

Guinu, addia mu la king pamikasala.

Lord, prevent them from sins.

GAGUI. Akin to AGUI. N. Web

Ing babagua malagu neng teji ing keying agui.

The spider has beautifully woven its web.

GALAMAY. Akin to GALAME. N. Members

Ding galame ning Aguman pane lang ortelanu.

The members of the Union are mostly farmers.

GALANG. N. Respect

Ing pami galang pupupulan ya, aduan, ali ya.

Respect is acquired; it is not requested.


Iniang malati ku, ing galang-galang atneng kaniaman kanaku.

When I was young, the “galang-galang” bread is delicious to me.


Tuknang kang gagalanggang uling keka ala namang makiramdam.

Stop sobbing because nobody will mind you though.

GALINGAN. Adj. Smart

Galingan mu abe ban kang mituki Macabebe.

Buddy, be smart, so you can join in Macabebe.

GALURA. Akin to GALO. N. Movement

Ing galo da ring pabu atnang kalume’t kalagu.

The turkey’s movements are so gentle and nice.

GANTANG. V. To get too excited.

Tuknang kang gagarigantang.

Stop getting too excited.

GATDULA. N. Mansion

King gatdula ning Guinu, ding tau sukad lang pare-parehu.

In the mansion of the Lord, all men are judged equally.

GATDULA. N. Affluent man

Mayupaya ya ing taung magatdula.

The affluent man is powerful.

GATUS. V. Pinch

Ing anak a megatus balugbug minuli yang karug-karug.

The boy whose ear was pinched went home nervously.

GUESE. Akin to GUSI. N. Jar

Ding dakal a barang guintu selikut da la karing mangaragul a gusi.

The enormous gold bars were hidden on the large jars.

GUIAM. N. Pleasure

Ing maglalawe karing susulapo bulawe babie guiam kang Jaime.

Viewing the flying eagles provides pleasure to James.

GUIAM. V. Pleasure

I Ibang me guiam yang lipang-lipang.

Ivy was pleasured wandering around.

GUIANG. Adj. Whatsoever

E ku magmarinu angguiang nanu mu!

I will not to be a sailor whatsoever!

GUILAS. Adj. Smart

Ing sabunga’nang Tembung maguilas ya’t masanting.

Tommy’s fighting cock is smart and fine-looking.

GUINA. Akin to GUINU. N. God

Ding pusu ding tau ilang santunga’ning Guinu.

Men’s hearts are the sanctuary of God.


Ing taung guintu pusu mayumu ya king Guinung Indu.

A person with a heart of gold is precious to the Lord God.

GULAPAY. Akin to GULAPE. V. Creep

Ing taung lapastangan gulape yang anting ubingan.

A treacherous person will creep like a snake.

GUMABON. V. Play with soil

Nanu mo ing akua mu nung ika gumabu’na kang gumabun?

What will you get if you keep on playing with soil?

GUMAMIT. V. To use

Gumamit kang pamispisan ban ali ka mapapali.

Use pot holders so that you will not get scalded.

GUNGON. V. Jumble

Tuknangan mu lang gugungan ding selese ku nang tanaman.

You stop jumbling the plants which I have already arranged.

HALILI. V. To substitute

Ninu ing halili keya?

Who will substitute him?

IBAY, IBE. Akin to BEBE. V. Walk

Ing ninu mange pa mekabebe king danum ning lating Kapampangan eya pa tune Kapampangan.

He who has not walked into the waters of Pampanga River is not yet a true Kapampangan.

ICBAN. Akin to LICBANG. V. Cross/traverse

Ding taung susuba licbang da la king mibubulang a tete.

The arriving people crossed the crumbling bridge.

IMPUN. N. Body

Ing impu’ning tau yang temple ning Espiritu Santu.

The human body is the temple of the Holy Spirit.

INGAL. Akin to SINGAL. N. Gasp

Ing singal na alang painaua.

His gasp is relentless.

INTAL. Akin to QUINTAL. V. To brand

Macaquintal karing baka ing apelidu na.

The cows are branded with its surname.

INTON. V. To look

Ninu ing manintun kang Antun?

Who is looking for Anthony?

IPORAC. V. Hide into the tree

Iporac me I Memitu kaibat nang sinaklu.

Hide Remy into the tree after he fetched water.

IQUIN. Dimunitive IQUI. N. Tail

I tagpi malati ya iqiu.

Spotty has a short tail.

ISIP. N. Mind; Thinking

Ing isip nang Alfredo lipo-lipo’t sula-sulapo.

Alred’s mind is absent and wandering

ISIP. N. Tree that bears soar and tiny red fruits.

Ing isip kung teman mamunga’t mamuyatputa ‘ ne naman.

The “isip” tree that I planted is fruiting enormously again.

LABUNG. Adj. Dense

Ding malabung a sagin makanayun la karing bangin.

The dense banana trees five beauty to the hills.

LABUNG. N. Shoot

Deng matas a labung kuayan mamalita lang matas a danum.

The high bamboo shoots foretell enormous torrents.


Ing laca’ning dulang matingiran ya’t matapang.

The chieftain is shrewd and audacious.


Ing lacan a lalake matenakan ya’t mapangumpuni.

The male master is clever and adaptable.

LACAP. DImunitive of SALACAP. N. A fishing tool

Ing salacap nang Manding melakuan ya king taguling.

Mandy’s “salacap” was left In the ditch.

LACSAMANA. N. Plentiful wealth

Ding lacsan a manang tinggap da mupaniua ‘ la ketang kasamak da.

The plentiful wealth they had inherted was entrusted to their tenant.

LACSON. Akin to LACSAN. N. Bundle

Ing ka lacsan a dutung tatambayuka’ na pepalangia’ na king mula.

The bundle of firewood he carries was sun-dried in the backyard.

LACSINA. Akin to SINALAC. V. Strained

Sinalac na ing palak ning mayumung atnang pekat.

She strained the residue of the thickened sweet.

LACTAOTAO. Akin to LACTAO. Adv. Irregularly

Ding tabtab mitanam tinggap lang lacto-lacto.

The sugar cutting were planted irregularly.

LAKI. Akin to LALAKI. N. Male, boy , brothers

Lima keng mika kapatad a lalaki king bale.

We are five brothers at home.

LALIC. Adj. Substantial

I matuang Lucia panuala’ na lang malalic ding makapagmuulala ng istoria.

Old Lucille substantially believes her amazing story.

LALIC. V. Shape

I Mamang Dedu ing meglalic karing matibe inbudu.

It was uncle Doods who shaped the durable funnels.

LALU. Adj. More

Luguran taya ing amunung sisuan lalu ding kayanakan.

Let us love our native language, especially, the young.

LAMBAT. Adj. Late

E ku bisang magdatun malambat uling manasi’ ku pa dayat.

I do not want to stay late because I will still tend the farm.

LAMPA. Adj. Frail

Ing anak a lampa ala yang aparusta.

A frail child gains nothing.

LANDINGIN. V. TO toy playfully

Ing angina landi-landingia’ na ing api.

The wind playfully toys the fire.

LANGIT. N. Heaven

“Langit at Lupa”, “Yin-Yang”, “Banua’t Gadun”, deti wagis-wagis la kabaldugan.

“Heaven and Earth”, “Body and Soul”, “Land and Horizon” all these have common meaning.

LANSANG. Aking to MALANSA. Adj. Fishy

Deng malansang igat makukua lamu king ning bundaki.

Fishy eels are raised only in salty waters.

LANSANG. Diminutive of LANSA. N. Slime

Ing imang kakagli e na buri ing lansa ning bundaki.

An infanticipating mother dislikes the large mudfish’s slime.


Ing anak a lama’ning lasangan ararakap na ngan ing sablang pisasabian.

A child who is a street bystander catches all the news around.

LAPID. Diminutive of LAPI. V. Lop

I Pepe linapid ne ing dutung bulaun.

Peter lopped the molave tree.

LAPUS. V. Overcome

Salamt pu Guinu, a lapus ku mu rin ing kapibabatan ku.

Thank you Lord, I have finally overcome my sacrifices.

LAQUINDANUM. Phrase of LALAQUI KING DANUM. Man from the river.

Ing lalaqui king danum ala yang takut kung bague nanu man.

A man from the river is not frightened in whatever thing.

LARA. N. Pepper

Patugutan mu lang gigigutan ding larang maparas.

Stop munching the spicy pepper.

LARIN. N. To repair

Ing eran masanting ya pangalarin.

The ladder is well repaired.

LATAY. N. Scourge

Ding late ning magsalibatbat makalunus la’t makakakiak.

The flagellant’s scourges are pathetic ad and saddening.

LAUS. Adj. Old

Ding tigtigan laus na la.

The old songs are already old.

LAUS. Akin to MALAUS.  V. Welcome

Malaus kop u king bale ku.

Welcome to my house.

LAWAN. V. Look

E mu ku lalawan makanian.

Do not look at me like that.

LAYUG. Adj. Lofty

Ing bale ning pepagawa na pekalayug ya karing kegana gana.

The house that he had built wes the loftiest of all.

LAZATIN, LASATIN. Diminutive of LASA. N. Taste

Ing lasa ning taramindu atnang kayunang kayumu.

The taste of the taramid jelly is too sweet.

LELAY. Adj. Near

Ing balen lele Apalit iya ing Calumpit.

The town near Apalit is Calumpit.

LENON. Aking to LINGUN V. To attend

Lunguna’ na la ding mapanirang pusa.

He attended to the destructive cats.

LENON. Akin to LINGUN. Adj. Care

Ing lingu’ning pengaring babai ala yang kawari.

A mother’s care is uncomparable

LENON. Akin to LINGUN. Caring

Itang matuang dalaga malingun at malingan ya.

The old lady is exceptionally caring.

LIBAN. V. Got/Entered into

E na balu ing liba’ na.

He does not know what he got into.

LIBAN. Prep. Except

Ding sabla meko la liban I tata.

All went except Father.

LIBUT. N. Travel

Ing wari ku e na alarawan ing matula kung libut king binduc Pinatubu.

My thought cannot picture my delightful travel in Mt. Pinatubo

LICAD. V. To leap

I pedru mitalabu’t menabu ya king kakalicad na.

Peter slipped and jerked as he leaped.

LICAD. Adj. Straight

Ing licad a katawa’nang Nina iyang migpapaniambut keya.

Nina’s straight body was her winning form.

LICTAWA. V. Skipped

Kalakalale na lang pibula-bulaya ding kutang a kayang lictawan.

She carefully analysed the questions that she skipped.


Licuanan deng dinalan a pesus.

They left him one hundred pesos.

LICUP. V. Shrouded

Ing dalumdum licupa’na ing sala padane balen Candaba.

Darkness shrouded the skied towards Candaba town.


Mebaril ya ing limlingan na.

His temple was shot.

LIMPIN. Akin to LIMPE V. TO compete

Ing Kapampangan a limpi kenu man.

A Kapampangan can compete with any one

LINDO. V. To confuse

Ding anak a mamialung linindu da la ding managal karela.

The playing children confused those running towards them.

LINGAD. V. Denied

Lingad na la ding marinat nang dapat king malugud nang asawa.

He denied his filthy acts against his loving wife.

LINGAT. V. To be awaken

I ima mipalangit ya ketang akbung a masigla.

Mother was awakened by the noisy shot.

LINTAG. V. Rolled Down

I Nanang ku lintag na ne ing dase uling I Jose mitutundu ne.

My aunt rolled down the mat because Joseph is already sleepy.

LISING. Akin to ISING. N. To cry

Nanu mo kaya ing pisaingsing-saingsing na?

What is it that she is crying about?

LIWAG. V. To loosen

Ing soga ning biserung baka liwaga’neng kakang Maria.

The rope of the oxen was loosened by my sister Mary.

LIWANAG. V. To explain

Dapat kang magpaliwanag marapal.

You must explain immediately.

LOBO. N. Balloon

Ing lobo malutu ya.

The balloon is red.

LUAT. Adj. Late

I Kat-Kat dinatang yang atnang luat.

Katrina came very late.

LUGUE, LUGAY. V. TO hang loosely

Ing buak nang Ella malagu yang maka lugue king takde na.

Ella’s hair beautifully hangs loosely around her shoulder.

LUGTU. Diminutive of UGTU. Adv. Too late

I maglutung tiburan ku meniasat yang atnang ka ugtu.

The chef I asked cooked too late.

LULU. N. Race

Ing lulung kabayu piyalung a maka karug salu.

Horse race is a heart- thrilling contest.

LULU. V. To race

Ding mikakaluguran milulu lang pulanditan.

The comrades raced a sprint challenge.

LUMABAS. V. Drop in

Lumabas ka keni bayu ka muli.

Drop in before you go home.

LUMALU. Adv. Excessively

Nung lumalu ka pengan, sakit ka atian.

If you excessively eat, you will have stomach ache.

LUMAME. Adv. Sluggish

Aro, Guinu ko! Kalumame nang anting pau.

Oh, my God! He is as sluggish as a turtle.

LUMANOG. Diminutive of LUMA. Adj. Old

Dapot luma nong bina ding pangaral nang tata, malaman at maulaga la pa.

Though father’s teaching teachings are very old, they still hold meaning and value.

LUMANLAN. Diminutive of LUMA. Adj. Old

Ing lumang malan pemie na ngan karetang mangailan.

The old clothes were all given to the needy.

LUMBA. Akin to LUMBA-LUMBA. N. Dolphin, whale

Ing lumba-lumba misadsad ya king sapang mamala.

The whale landed in the shallow river.

LUMBA. Adj, Great

Ing lumba nang dapat kasing lualas ning damun dayat.

Her great deed is as astounding as the waters of the sea.

LUNDANG. Diminutive of LUNDAG. V. To jump

Tuknang kang lulundag pota akua mung mituag.

You stop jumping or else, you might trip.

LUNDANG. Akin to UNDANG. N. Bamboo craft

I apung Gundang permisali ne ing keying makabang undang.

Grandmother Gertrude sold her large bamboo craft.

LUSUNG, LUZUNG. Akin to SULUNG. V. To advance

Sasabian ning Kasulatan: “Sumulung ing kabiasnan anti murin ing dewakan”.

The Holy Testament says: “As knowledge advances, so too, is wickedness”.

MABANGLO. Adj. Fragrant

Ding sampagang sampaguita mabanglu la.

The sampaguita flowers are fragrant.

MABUTUL. M. A seedful

Ing unaba mabutul yang bungang fruta.

Sour soup is a seedful fruit.


Ding dase macabali la king mialiua- liung kule.

The mats are woven in different colors.

MACABULOS. V. Scattered

Ing imalang kapipipi, macabulos lele ning bale patipati.

The new laundried clothes are scattered near the pigeon’s cage.


E macapagal ing sasaup karing taung mangailangan.

It is not tiring to help needy people.


Ing mapinac a malubang mamuyutputan yang asan.

The muddy pond is aplenty with fish.

MACAPINLAC. V. Wholesaled

I Sisa macapinlac na lang pisali ding ararung apupul na.

Josephine wholesaled the arrowroots she harvested.

MACARAYO. N. Distance

King macarayu, ing Guinu lalon naka tamu.

From a distance, God is watching us.

MACARAYO. V. Removed

Ing tastas na macarayu ne yang iniang ding kalugura’na dinatang la.

His nick has already been removed when his friends arrived.

MACASIO. V. To shout

Nuco! Anti yang kabayu nung macasio ya.

Gosh! As is she is a horse as she shouts.

MACASPAC. V. To crack

Ding dayus mani mengaspac

The peanut’s furrows cracked due to extreme heat.

MACASAQUIT. V. To cause pain

Mcasaquit lub ing guluta’ n aka ning taung liguran mu na.

It causes me pain to be abandoned by someone whom you have loved.


Ing aldo macasinag ne.

The sun has risen already.

MACATULA. Adj. Hilarious

Ing magplulosa macatula ya.

The fold singer is very funny.


Ing gitara e ta macatonu.

The guitar is out of tune.

MADLA. Pronoun. Everyone

Ing madla minie yang tula king Reyna ning Labuad at banua

Everyone gave honor to the Quenn of Heaven and Earth.

MADLAMBAYAN. N. General Public

Ing madlambayan minie yang puge king bayung alcalde.

The general public gave welcome to the new mayor.

MAGALING. Adj. Smart

Ding memale’ ning San Fernandu magaling lang gauang parul a mautitu.

The town of San Fernando are smart in making very well lanterns.

MAGAT. N. Noble man

Ing taung magat masakit yang ibabatbat.

A noble man could hardly be destroyed.

MAGBAG. V. Detach

Magbag kang table karing lande maka’rela.

Detach some boards on the scantlings.

MAGBANUA. Akin to MAGPABANUA. V. To turn one year old

I Inggu magpabanua ne keng Domingo.

Dominic will be one year old on Sunday.

MAGCALAS. V. To severe

E mayap ing magcalas ka ring malugud mung bilas.

It is unworthy for you to severe ties with your caring in-laws.

MAGDANGAL. Adv. Proudly

Ing burarul nang Jaime Crisanto magdangalan yang susulapo banua.

James Christian’s kite is proudly soaring in the horizon.

MAGGAY. Akin to MAGE. V. To conduct

I Mrs. Del Rosario iyang mega king koro.

Mrs. Del Rosario will conduct the choir.

MAGGAY. Akin to MAGE. N. Conductor

Ing mamage king banda menibatan ya Florida Blanca.

The conductor of the band came from Florida Blanca.

MAGLAGUI. Diminutive of LAGUI. N. Name

Nanu ing lagui nitang malagung dalaga?

What is the name of the beautiful maiden?


Ing Maglalang a Guinu iyang miulip king laduad at yatu.

God, The creator, fashioned the heaven and the earth.

MAGLALANG. V. To twine

I Iskung bayung talasawa maglala yang dala.

Francis, the newly wedded, is twining fishing net.

MAGLANOC. V. To fret, to show discontent

Ing ninu mang maglanuc-lanuc ala yang kakapuntalan.

Whosever frets goes nowhere.

MAGLANQUE. Akin to LANGCUL. V. Knotted

Ing lubid linangcul neng Apung Celu.

The rope was knotted by Grandfather Marcel.

MAGLAQUI. Diminutive of LALAQUI. N. Male

Ing lalaking kambing ausan deng potru.

The male goat is called a billy.


Tuknagan mung gugogo ing sabo uling pota maglasang apdu.

Stop mixing the broth or it might taste bitter.

MAGPAYO. N. Counselor

Ing malagu’t maganakang magpayu me ragul ya balen Masicu.

The lovely and kind counselor grew up in the town of Mexico.

MAGSINO. Akin to MAGSINUP. N. Custodian

Ing magsinup king bale mi matua yang dalaga.

Our house custodian is spinster.

MAGSINO. Akin to MAGSINUP. V. To treasure

Nung magsinup kang mayap, mupul ka naming mayap.

If you treasure kindness, you too will harvest kindness.

MAGTIBAY. Diminutive of MATIBE. Adj. Strong

Ding ipa’na matibe la pa.

His teeth are still strong.

MAGTOTO. Akin to MAGPATUTU. V. TO affirm

Magpatutu ku king kayupaya’ ning Apung Guinu.

I do affirm the omnipotence of God.

MAGSAYO. V. TO become wet

Ing gabun a pipamiyalungan da magsayung-magsayu.

The ground where they played has become so wet.


Ing seli na makabili king palanggana.

Her merchandise is placed on the basin.

MALANG. N. Dress

Ing malutung imala’na binie ne ning kaburi na.

The red dress was his fiancee’s present to her.


King malapitan , ing ana’kung Katrina Bianca binang malagu ya.

Closely, my daughter Katrina Bianca is very pretty.

MALIG. Akin to MALIGUA. Adv. Hurriedly

Maligua yang tinipa uling ding kaluguran na manenaya la.

Hurriedly, he went down because his buddies are waiting.

MALINAO. Adj. Clear

I Simun lebuga’na ing danum a malino.

Simon soiled the clear water.

MALIWAT. Akin to MALUAT. Adv. So long

Bakit meluat ka?

What took you so long?


Ing bague ali mu maliari iya itang nanu mang e buri mu.

The only thing that is not possible is what you dislike.

MAMACLAY. V. To turn around

Ing mamacle ketang sake’na yapin I koya na.

The one who turns his car around his brother.

MAMANGUIN. V. To restore

Ninu kaya karela ing mamangun king lagui dang mesira?

Who among them restore their desecrated reputation?

MAMAWAL. V. To prevent

Alang maroc nung mamawal cu man karetang pulpiaru kung disipulu.

There is nothing wrong if I will prevent my bullying pupils.

MAMAWAN. Adj. Infectious, communicable

Ding ipe ilang mamawang sakit.

Measles is the infectious disease.

MAMUCUD. Adj. Rasest

Ing mamucud kung tatso kasebian ya king mabilug a bariu.

My rarest rooster is far known in the whole village.

MANABAT. V. To wait

I Portia Elena, a bisita ning Baba, matula yang manabat saken a marimla.

Portia Elaine, a visitor of Lubao, eagerly waits for an air-conditioned bus.

MANACMUL. V. Swallow

Mabaknal ka nung manacmul kang mabilug a sagin.

You will choke if you swallow a whole banana.

MANAID. V. To lead

Ing gaindu manaid yang sisi.

The hen is leading its chicks.

MANAGO. V. To butt with a horn

Ing baka manage yang e basta-basta.

The cow is butting unjokingly.

MANALAC. V. Strain

Manalac yang paro king sapang mababo.

She strains shrimps on the shallow stream.

MANALANG. V. Opposes

Ninu ing pane manalang karing kanakung sasabian?

Who frequently opposes my propositions?

MANALANG. Diminutive of MANA. N. Treasures

Ding tingga nang ima ku mana lang matua nang matua.

My mother’s earrings are treasures that are very old.

MANALANSAN. V. To file neatly

Manalansan yang batu padurut ning gripu.

He files the stones neatly around the artesian well.

MANALASTAS. V. to think

Ing talaturu manalastas yang bayu nang ituru.

The teacher is thinking of new lessons to teach.

MANALESE. V. To settle, to arrange

Ing kapitan ing manalese king karelang pisasabian.

It is the chieftain who settles their understanding.

MANALILI. V. To change

Ing tatang ku manalili yang sandu.

My father changes undershirt.

MANALOTO. Diminutive of MANALO. V. To catch

Alang manalu karing bungang mananabu.

No one catches the falling fruits.


Ding manalungsung ketang babi, ikua rang mesora’t mekulami.

Those who were hunting for the hog got disgusted and upset.

MANANQUIL. Akin to MANAGKIL. V. To touch with the hand

I Sita mananquil yang langka king mula nang Apung Pala.

Cynthia is touching jackfruits at old Pauline’s yard.


E ka Manansala king nanu mang e keka.

Do not destroy anything that is not yours.


Ing manapat mayap mamungang masampat.

He who does goodness earns godliness.

MANAPLAS. Akin to MANGAPLAS. Adj. Pungently painful

Ding malutu nang matang Malu mangaplas la king seli nang panulu.

Malou’s red eyes get pungently painful with the medicine she bought.

MANAPSAL. V. To extract.

Manapsal yang ungut uling maglutu yang sampelut.

She extracts coconut milk because she will cook porridge.

MANAPUL. V. To blow

Ing anging mangie manapul yang bale.

The hissing wind blows the houses.

MANARANG. V. To close

Ing malagung Bebang iyang manarang awang.

It is pretty Elizabeth who closes the windows.

MANASAN. N. Fisherman

Ing manasan sinaka yang atnang tula king sapa.

The fisherman rose pleasantly from the river.

MANASAN. V. To go fishing

Manasan tamu ketang plasdan.

Let us go fishing in the fishpond.

MANAYANG. Akin to MANAYA. V. To wait

Ing matuang manayang saken menibatan ya balen Minalin.

The elderly who is waiting for the bus came from the town of Minalin.

MANDAL. V. To intimidate

I Mayang memandal ya karing marok nang kararaptanan.

Mary was intimidated from her unpleasant actuations.

MANDAP. Diminutive of ANDAP. N. Flicker

Ing andap ding sulu anti lang alitaptap.

The flicker of the lights is like that of the fireflies.


Ing manucduc imalan atneng ka bague king matimias nang timan.

The laundry woman looks lovely with her gentle smile.

MANDUCDUC, MANUCDUC. V. To pound with a wooden club

Eka manucduc imalanketang sapang mabuluc.

Do not pound the clothes on the stinking river.

MANESE. V. Raising

Manese lang limang babi king daratang nang kasal Randy.

They are raising five hogs for Randy’s forthcoming wedding.

MANGACU. V. Promise

Mangacu ka kakung manabi ka mung tutu.

You promise to me to tell only the truth.


Ing mangalinduan a isip ala yang kapupuntalan.

He who gets a confused mind is directionless.


Mangalino ngan ing kayang sinabi.

All that he said are clear.

MANGALUS. N. Scratching

Ing pusang mangalus sinalikut ya king busbus.

The scratching cat hides on the hole.

MANGANTI. Pron. How much

King palage mu, manganti karaka ling pusanan kung bakal?

In your opinion, how much steel shall I carry?

MANGANTI. Diminutive of MANGAN. V. To eat

Ume na cayu at mangan tana.

You come now and let us eat.

MANGAYA. V. To spread rumor

E ka mangaya king nanu mang e mu kabalu-balu.

Never spread rumor on anything that you do not know.

MANGILA. Akin to MANGILAG. V. To avoid

Ding dalaga mangilag la karing baintuang maglolo karela.

The ladies are avoiding the gentlemen who are courting them.

MANGILIMAN. Diminutive of GILI. V. Slices

I nanang Cely mangili ya namang paskad karni.

Aunt Cely is slicing meat too.

MANGILIT. Phrase of MANGILI. AT. Slice and

Ing talaturu tuturu ya kabang mangili’t manggisea yang kulubasa.

The teacher is instructing while slicing and sautéing the squash.

MANGIO. Akin to MANAGIU. V. To defeat

Ing deuakan e managiu king kayapan kapilan man.

Wickedness will never defeat goodness forever.

MANGUBAT. V. Hunting

Ding anak nang Putak mangubat lang barak.

Crow’s children are hunting monitor lizards.


Ding matapat a mangulabanuan piyabaian dang metung ing karelang sikanan.

The faithful fighters have joined their strength as one.

MANGUNE. Akin to MANGANE. N. A new mother

Ing indang mangane miraramdam ne.

The new mother is already laboring with pains.

MANIAGO. V. Butting

I Apung Sisu bandi ne ing damulag a managu.

Grandfather Frank owns the butting bull.


Ing manianglung kasakitan magtagumpe ya king katataulian.

He who carries his burden reaps success in the end.

MANIAUL. V. To abuse

Eya mapamaniaul anggiang ati ya king katungkulan.

He does not abuse although he is in power.

MANICAD. V. Kicking

Tucnang kang manicad pota akua mung mibaligtad.

Stop kicking or you might turn upside down.


Manicdo na ko ngan, uling ing aldo lalto ne’t manandauan.

You all rise now because the sun is already rising and manifesting.


Ing maninang bakal menibatan ya Capalangan.

The steel welder came from Capalangan.

MANINANG. V. To weld

E ka maninang bakal a makalauang.

Do not weld corroded steel.

MANIO, MANIA. Adj. Fortunate

Ing ninu mang mapibabata manio ya’t masaplala.

He who is persevering is fortunate and triumphant.

MANIPON. V. Gathering

I Pepe manipun yang are keta king marangle.

Joey is gathering hay in the farmland.

MANITI. V. Fries

I Lani maniti yang tabang babi king malating kauali.

Lilibeth is frying pork fats on a narrow pan.

MANIULIT. Akin to MANULIP. V. Patching

I Jose matiaga yang manulip king peimburisa’nang pamagaral.

Joey is patiently patching for his abandoned studies.

MANLAPAS. Adj. Precisely

Ing sasabia’na manlapas king katutuan.

He is precisely speaking in truth.


Ing manlapat misna ya caingat.

The tailor is extremely careful.

MANLICLIC. Adv. Competently

Ing orador ning Magalang mangamanu yang maliclican.

The orator of Magalang speaks competently.

MANLUCU. Akin to MANLUCUT. V. To fold the bedding

I Meming ing manlucut king pipagkeran mi.

It is Remie who folds our beddings.

MANLULU. Diminutive of LULU. N. Racer

Ding maki lulung bisikleta menibatan la bariu Sta. Maria.

The bicycle racers came from the village of Sta. Maria.

MANLUTAC. Akin to MANULAC. V. To push

Manulac tamung karosa keng daratang a fiesta.

Let us push the holy carreta this forthcoming fiesta.

MANUBAY. Akin to MANABE. V. To accompany

Kaninu ka manabe kasal?

Whose wedding will you accompany?

MANULID. Adj. Moving straight

Ing burarul nang Jaime Crisantu manulid yang susulapo banua.

James Christian’s kite is flying straight in the sky.


Ing katuanga’na mangutang yang pipipian.

Her mother-in-law is asking laundry.

MANUYAG. Akin to MANUYANG. N. Son-in-law

Ing manuyang nang lalaki maglaku ya’t managpi.

His son-in-law is a vendor and a weaver.

MARIMLA. Adj. Chilly

Marimlang marimla ustung Pascu.

It is very chilly during Christmas.

MARIN. Akin to MURIN. Adv. Also

Nung marimla, bala mu ati ka murin Amerika.

When cold, it is as if you are also in America.

MARUCUT. Akin to DUCUT. V. To take

E me duducutan ing bague e naman keka.

Do not take anything that is not yours.

MASA. Diminutive of ASA. N. Hope

Ing asa ku keya malalam.

My hope for him is great.

MASA. V. Hope

Eku mamasa anggang nanu pa keya.

I am not hoping anything from him.

MASANQUE. Akin to MASANGCAY. Adj. Earnest

Ing masanque nang nasa ing iya magmadre ya.

Her earnest aspiration is to become a nun.

MASICLAT. Adj. terribly hot

Ing aldo masiclat ya ustung ugtung aldo na.

The sun is terribly hot when it is high noon already.

MASIGLA. Adj. Noisy

E kayu masigla.

Do not be noisy.

MATAGA. V. Struck by a fish hook

E ka lelele king matua uling pota mataga ka king paduas na.

Do not go close to the old man, or you might be struck by his rod.

MATIC.  V. To drizzle

Salilung mu nang malagua ing imalan, matic na kanian.

Take in the clothes immediately, it will drizzle.

MATIC. Akin to MATICAS. Adj. Smart

Ala nang maticas pa king Kapampangan a baintau.

No one can be as smart as a Kapampangan gentleman.

MATITU. Akin to MAUTITU. Adj. Skillful

Ing mautitu dapat katulan deyang masampat.

He who is skillful in work is truly admired by all.

MAUN. V. To dig

Maun kang malalam ban manikua tamung ng danum a maniaman.

Dig deeper so that we can secure good potable water.

MAYAP. Adj. Good

Mayap namu dinatang naya i Malou.

It is good that Marilou has already come.

MAYUYU. Adj. Greatly swayed

Ing anak cuna mayuyu yang tutu.

The crib greatly swayed.

MENESES. Diminutive of MENESE. V. Raised

I Pablu menese yang dakal a pabu.

Paul raised a lot of turkeys.

MICLAT. V. Opened

Ninu ing miclat king pasbul tamu?

Who opened our door?

MUAN. V. To be offended

E na dapat pika muan e pikatulan nang gagawan.

He is not to be offended with the wrong actions he makes.

MULA. N. Yard

Ing mula da makapadurut yang manga.

Their yard is surrounded by mangoes.

MULA. N. Beginning

Ing Guinu Ya ing Mula at Kapupusan.

God is the Beginning and End.

MULA . V. To begin

Nukarin ku magmula?

Where will I begin?

MULDONG. Akin to MALDO. V. Shine

Ngeni, maldong atnang pali inia ume na kayung mamipi.

Today, the sun hotly shined, hence, you begin your laundry.

MULI. V. To go home

Muli ka Capas bukas.

Go home to Capas tomorrow.

MUSNGI. Diminutive of MUSNI. V. To open

Nung musni kang pisasabian iti e mu gugulutan.

If you open a discussion, this you must not abandon.

MUTUC. Akin to MUTUNG. V. To place in the head, as a crown

Mamutung cang reyna kaibat mung migpoesia.

You will crown the queen after reciting your poem.

NABUNG. V. To fall

Ing menabung karpinteru titika yang pepaulu.

The carpenter who fell went limping to the doctor.

NACIS. Akin to NASI. N. Rice

Ing nasing bayung llutu atnang kaniaman.

Newly cooked rice is very delicious.

NACPIL. Akin to PINLAC. N. Merchant

Ing magpinlac ning Minalin mamisali yang matuang imalan.

The merchant of Minalin is selling used clothings.


Ing bayo mu inaguiat nacung datang ku.

Your brother-in-law invited me to come.

NAGUIT. Akin to NAGUIAT. V. Invite

Ing caluguran ku inaguiat nacung manukiat king balubad.

My friend invited took me to climb on the cashew tree.

NALUS. Akin to NALAS. V. To drift

Ing pauas manalas karing frutas.

The mist drifts into the fruits.

NICDAO. Akin to TICDAO. V. To rise

Manicdo na kayu uling makalto ne ing aldo.

Rise now because the sun has already shined.

NONO. Adj. Opportune

Nung bisa kang bie manono, apusan mu ing sipag mang apu mu.

If you want an opportune life, emulate your grandfather’s industriousness.

NUCUM. V. Judge

Ninung ing menucum ketang taung makadalum?

Who judged the accused person?

NUCUP.  V. Enveloping

Ing manucup a lulam susulapo papunta balen Sasmuan.

The enveloping dark clouds are moving towards Sasmuan town.

NUGUID. V. Provoking

Ing babaing melapastangan manuguid yang gunutan.

The scandalized woman was provoking a hair-pulling fight.

NULUD. V. Picking young leaves

Manulud yang langguk kulubasa king malualas dang mula.

She is picking squash tops at their spacious backyard.

NULUD. V. To wear

Manulud kang ita mung keka.

Wear that is only yours.

NULUD. V. To enter

Eka manulud keng kawayanan.

Do not enter the bamboo groove.

NUNAG. Akin to MUNAG. Adj. Shining

Ing talang munag kilap-kilap yang alang tuknang.

The shining star is unendlessly radiating.

NUQUI. V. Took

Menuqui yang kalugaran iniang minata ya Sasmuan.

He took a friend with him when he went to Sasmuan.

PABALAN. V. To be forewarned

I bapa mu dapat yang pabalan a’manu uling ing panaun ali piju.

Your uncle must be forewarned because of the uncertainly of times.

PABALATE. Adj. Elevated

Ing matas dang pasbul atin yang matibe batung pabalate.

Their tall doll has a strong elevated concrete.

PABUSTAN. V. To be forsaken

I Jason tamung kaluguran ali ya dapat pabustan.

Our dearest Jason must never be forsaken.

PACU. N. Fern

Mapacu lele tete.

Ferns are plentiful in the nearby bridge.

PACO. N. Furrow

Matalusad la deng paco ning plaisdan.

The fishpond’s furrows are slippery.

PAGALA. V. To get tired

Ding anak nang Clarita mepagal’ ang magdulap keya.

The children of Claire got tired searching for her.

PAGAO. N. Shoulder

E masanting ing mananabu pago.

It is not nice to have dropping shoulders.

PAGCU. Diminutive of PACU. N. Nail

I Iru sinali yang kapurit a pirasong pacu.

Peter bought few pieces of nails.

PAGUIO. V. To contain

Ding apalya mipagui la ngan king bandala na.

The bitter gourds were all contained on her basket.

PALAD. N. Palm

Ding palad nang masias mamalitang dapat na masiamas.

His toughened palms foretell his assiduous diligence.

PALAD. Akin to MAPALAD. Adj. Fortunate

Ding tau mapalad la king Guinu tamung Hesukristu.

The people are fortunate with our Lord Jesus Christ.

PALAGANAS. V. To spread

Ing dalukat pale palaganas na king mabilug a marangle.

The rice leaf blight is now spreading in the whole farm.

PALEAN. N. Ricefield

I Apung Damian malualas ya palean.

Old Arman has a wide ricefield.

PALLASIGUI. Diminutive of PALLIGUI. N. Ditch

Ing palligui marakal ya butiti.

The ditch has plenty of tadpoles.

PALO. V. Strike

Iti kasebian yang talaturu: “ipalu ung wanan, ipanaru ung kaili.”

This teacher’s saying: “Strike your right, caress your left.”


Iti adua’ ning Kasulatan:” Pamintuan yu lang masampat ding kekayung pengari.”

Thus, asks the Bible:” Obey truthfully your parents.”


Ing sabla ating sariling panaun.

Everything has its own time.

PANGAN. V. Be eaten

King palage mu, ding kamamarung merakap lele sementeryu apangan la kaya?

I your opinion, can the crickets that were caught near the cemetery be eaten?

PANGANOCAN. Akin to PANGUNACAN N. Relative-nephew/niece

I Fernan , a paungncan cu,matas ya’t masanting a baintau.

Fernan, my nephew, is a towering and a good-looking guy.


Ding sablang Kristianu masusi deng pangilinanind aldo Bierne’Santu.

The whole Christendom religiously observes Good Friday.

PANIGBATAN. Akin to PANIBATAN. N. Origin,source, cause

Ing pamisasagsagan iyang panibata’ ning paminggulutan.

Division is the cause of disintegration.

PANIGBATAN. Akin to PANIGBATAN. V. Come from/Origin

Nukarin yam o kaya ing keying penibatan?

Where do you think did she come from?

PANLAQUI. Diminutive of LALAQUI. N. Male

Ding panlalaking kanangga atiu la keni.

The perfumes for males are here.

PANLICAN. Diminutive of PANICAN. V. To go up

Panican meng maistilu ketang kayang pipainauan.

Go up to him politely In his lounging room.

PANLILIO. Diminutive of LILIO. N. Dizziness

Ing panga liliu na iyang pepalawe na nan ketang manuku.

It was her dizziness that she had consulted to the doctor.

PANTIG. N. Stroke

Itang maya’nang pantig ing migpatunud king damulag.

Is was his light stroke that tamed the carabao.

PAPA. V. To be cursed

E ka makanian a sasabian , pota mapapa ka.

Do not speak like that , or you will be cursed.

PARAS. Adj. Peppery

Maparas ing linutu nang tinola.

The chicken broth she cooked is peppery.

PARUNGAO. Akin to PADUNGO. V. To look out from the window

Padungo yang sinilip karing keya kukulait.

She looked out from the window to glimpse to her calling friends.

PASANTING. Phrase. Looks better

I Jason pasanting neng pasanting.

Jason looks better and better.

PASINAG. V. To manifest, show

Ing lugud ku karing matua ku ipapainag ku king dapat ku.

My love for my parents is manifested through my actions.

PASAMBUL. V. To exempt

Ala kekatamu ing makapasumbali king pamanubus cedula.

No one of us is exempted from taking residence certificate.

PATAWARAN. V. Forgiven

Ding makasalanan dapat lang patawaran.

The sinners must be forgiven.

PATDU. Akin to PATDA. V To put off

Ding sulu makapatda na la.

The lights are off already.

PATING. Diminutive of PATI. N. Ganta

I Mr. Manalastas sinali yang metung pating abias

Mr. Manalastas bought one ganta of rice.

PAULE. Akin to PAULI. V. To leave for home

Pauli na ku iniang dinatang ya.

I was leaving when she came.

PAULE. Conj. Because.

Migtagumpe ya pauli ning kapagmasusia’ na.

He succeeded because of his dedication.

PAULE. Akin to PULI. Adj. Well-mannered

Mayap ya pangapuli.

He is well-mannered.

PAYABYAB. V. To warm

Ipayabyab me ing sulasi king api.

Warm the “salusi” into the cinder.

PAYAD. V. To touch into the surface.

Ipayad me ing bitis mu king samientu.

Touch your foot into the floor.

PAYAG, PAYANG. V. To allow

King palague mu payagang de mo kaya?

Do you think they will allow him?


Ing kata-katang akakit tamu menibat king upaya ning Guinu.

The multitude that we see came from the power of the Lord.

PAYUAN. V. To advise

Ing ninu man e me papayuan nung iti e na aduan.

Anybody must not be advised if he does not seek for it.

PAYUMO. Phrase. Getting sweeter

Ding bunga patua nong patua inia payumo nong payumu.

The fruits are becoming older, thus, they are getting sweeter.

PELAYO.V. Nickname

I Francisco pelayuan deng “Kiku”.

Francisco was nicknamed “Kiko”.

PILI. V. Selected

Ding tinuki pili lamu.

Those who joined are selected.

PINGUL. V. Earpinch

Ing masias a buntuk a’nak pingula’ neng Mr. Bondoc.

The hardheaded boy was earpinched by Mr. Bondoc.

PINILI. V. To choose

Ing Guinu pinili na la ding Pilipinu bang mamunu ngening bayung siglu

God has chosen the Filipino people in order to lead in the new millennium.

PINPIN. V. Fold nearly

I apung Daling masanting na lang pininpin ding lampin.

Grandmother Adelaida neatly folded the diapers.

PRING. Akin to PURI. N. Reputation

Ing puring meuala kaya maragul pa king kaladua na.

The reputation lost to him is much greater than his soul.

PUNLA. N. Seedling

Ding punla pitput da la karing kama at dela da la king taldaua.

The seedlings were uprooted from the ricebeds and were taken to the farm.

PUNO. N. Chief

I Mr. Palo I yang punu ning bariu.

Mr. Palo is the chief of the village.


Ding beluga ilang pungsalang ning balayang Kapampangan.

The Aetas are the pioneers of the province of Pampanga.

PUSUNG. Adj. Naughty, fond of joking

Ing pusung a’nak nang Tina e ne katulan Gina.

The naughty son of Tina displeases Gina.

PUYAT. Adj. Sleepless

Ing puyat a tau e ya dapat pipilitan manasik king dayat.

A sleepless man should not be forced to tread in the farm.

QUIAMBAO. Akin to QUIAMBAY. V. To sway

Paquimjbe-quimbe ing lakad na.

She sways her body as she walks.

QUIBOLOY. Diminutive of QUIBUL. V. To throb

Ing pusu na quiquibul ya ustung akakit ne ing paglolua’ na.

His heart throbs whenever he sees the maiden she woos.

QUILALA. N. Acquaintance

Deti ilang quilala-quilalang maestra yapin ing kanakung asawa.

The very famous teacher is my wife.

QUILLING. Adj. Tilted

Ing quilling a kalderu semasa’ neng Remigio.

The tilted pot was fixed by Remy.

QUIOC. N. Turkey’s sound

Ing pabu danupan ne nung mag “quiuc-quiuc” nay a.

The turkey is already starving as it sounds “quioc-quioc”.

QUIZON. Akin to QUISAO. V. To wade

Ing pipagquison ding damulag atnang kaburak.

What was waded by the carabaos is so muddy.

QUITALIG. Diminutive of TALI. N. String

Inaptas da ing pale quing taling matibe.

They tied the rice stalks with hard strings.

SABANGAN. V. To expose

E mu sasabangan ing angina uling iti babie kuku’t sipun.

Do not expose yourself to the breeze because it causes cold and sneeze.

SABAT. N. Obstruction

Ing sabat king dalan memunga yang pate’t pamisagsagan.

The obstruction on the pathway brought mayhem and disorder.

SABAT. V. To butt in

Ali masanting ing sabat mung sabat.

It is not good to butt in relentlessly.

SABLAN, ZABLAN. Diminutive of SABLA. Adj. All.

Ding sabla siniklaud la

All knelt.

SACDALAN. Diminutive of SACDAL. Adj. Immense

Sacdal ing lugud ning asawa ku kanaku.

The love of my wife for me is immense.

SACLAO. N. Dominion

Ing kegana-gana saclo ning Mayupayag Guinu.

Everything is the dominion of the Lord Almighty.

SADDI. Akin to ADDIA. V. To prepare

Ding tau maka’ddia la king nanu mang mallari.

The people are prepared to whatever might happen.

SADIAN. V. Preparing

Ding sablang Cristianus mayumu dang pag sadian ing paniatang ning Pascu.

All Christians are enthusiastically preparing for the coming Christmas.

SADSAD. V. To embank

Ing banca mi sadsad ya banda paroba.

Our boat embanked near the lakeshore.

SAGAD. Adv. Extremely

Ing sagi’nang Bebut sagad ne lulut.

Beth’s bananas are extremely ripe.

SAGCAL. V. To prop

Ing banca macasagcal yang dutung a matua.

The banca is propped with a strong timber.

SAGMIT. V. To seize

Sagmit kang pabu at ibie me kang Mr. Dabu.

Seize the turkey and give it to Mr. Dabu.

SAGUM. Akin to AGUM. V. To unite.

Ding Kapampangan mak’agum la pamicacapatad.

The Kampapangans are united in brotherhood.

SAGUM. Akin to AGUMAN. N. Association

Ing pamisanmetung ding Kapampangan mayayakit ya karing aguman da.

The unity of the Kapampangans is found in their associations.

SALA. N. Light

Ing sala ning also makaslag na.

The sunlight is shining already.


Sinalac na ing palak.

He filtered the particle.

SALALAC. V. To be caught, to hang

Ding pakpak ning tagak misalalac la king dikut tarlak.

The heron’s wings were caught on the Tarlac grass.

SALALILA. Akin to SALALE. V. Borne/depend

Ing paintungula’na makasalale king takde nang ating na.

His future is borne on her sister’s shoulders.

SALAMAT. N. Thanks

Guinu, dakal pung dakal a salamat.

Lord, I owe you many thanks.

SLAMAT. V. To thank

Aku magpasalamat ku keka.

I am thanking you.

SALAMAT. Adj. Thankful

Pasalamat ku king katuangan ku.

I am thankful to my mother-in-law.


Ing sungkit na ala yang salangat.

His stick is hookless.

SALANGSANG. N. Contradiction/opposition

Ing mete salangsang ala yang kararasan.

A dead contradiction is directionless.

SALANGSANG. N. To contradict/oppose

Ninu keka yu ing sasalangsang mung sasalangsang?

Who among you is always contradicting?


Ing matas a salansan dutung pelatio nang Damian.

The tall pile of firewood was chopped by Arman.

SALANSAN. V. To pile neatly

Sasalansanan da la ding ugse-ugse ulunan.

They are piling neatly the scattered pillows.

SALENGA. Diminutive of SALE. N. Nest

Ing kanakung bilas inukiat ne ing saleng atnang katas.

My brother-in-law climbed the very high nest.

SALENGA. Diminutive of SALE. N. Citronella

Migdala yang sale a mepupul Sta. Rita.

She brought citronella harvested in Sta. Rita.

SALISI. V. To replace

Ninu kaya ing salisi karela?

Who will replace them next?

SALTA. V. Bounce

Tampian me ing bola, iti salta ya.

Tap the ball; this will bounce.

SALUNGA. Akin to SALUNGAT. Adj. Contrary

Ing buri ding tau salungat king keying balu.

The choice of the people is contrary to his knowledge.

SALUNSON. V. To fetch

Ninu kaya ing salunsun karela?

Who will fetch them?

SAMBA. V. To worship

Samba ka mu king Guinu.

Worship to God only.

SAMBAT. Akin to SAMBA. V. To worship

Samba’t mangadi ka mu king mapamakalulung Guinu.

Worship and praise only in the merciful Almighty.

SAMIA. Akin to SAMIU. V. Fragrance

Ing samiu ning sampagang sampaguita ala yang kalupa.

The fragrance of the sampaguita flower is uncomparable.

SAMPANG. Akin to SAMPA. V. To rise, to ascend

Ding melahar sinampa lang malagua.

The lahar victims rose immediately.

SANGALANG. Akin to SANGAL. V. To break

Ing paratut a’nak asangal ne ing tindaragul ning gamat na.

The boastful child broke the thumb of his finger.

SANGALANG. Akin to SANGAL. Adj. Broken

Ding mesangal a sanga abuta’na lang Patricia Ella.

The broken branches are being reached by Patricia Ella.

SANGGALANG. V. To resist

Ing sulisitud ding migpusitara singgalang da ding mangatua.

The betrothal of the couple who eloped was resisted by the elderly.

SANGGALANG. N. Resistance

Ing sanggalang tamu karing mapanupil balu da ding sablang Pilipinu.

Our resistance against the oppressors is known by all the Filipinos.

SANGIL. N. Cruelty

Ing sangil ning tau e na katulan ning Guinu.

The cruelty of man is nor pleasing to the God.

SAPAD. Adj. Flat

Ding arung a sapad malagad na la ngeni.

Flat noses are rare nowadays.

SAPAD. V. To lay flat

Ing pale makasapad king marangle.

The rice plants lay flat on the field.

SAPLALA. V. To succeed

Ing ninu mang e matiaga e ya misaplala.

He who is not patient will not succeed.

SAPNU. V. To catch or prop with the hand

I Portia makasapnu ya baba uli ning malumbe ya.

Portia props her chin with her hand because she is sad.

SARASA. Adj. Seemingly

Ing tarat sarasaramatsa yang teterak keng pitak.

The sparrow seemingly dances on the murk.

SARASA. N. White spotted rooster

Iniang malati cu atin cung manuc a sarasa.

When I was young, I have a white spotted rooster.


Atin cung bayung singsing.

I have a new ring.

SESE. N. Pet

I Tagpi mayap yang sese.

Spotty is a good pet.

SIBAL. Akin to SIBUL. N. Spring

Ing danum ning sibul malinong-malino.

The water of the spring is very clear.

SIBAL. Akin to AKSIBAL. N. A purple herb

Ing aksibal panulu ya karing tigsang tutubu.

An “aksibal” is a cure for skin boils.

SIBUG. Akin to SIBUNG. V. To push

Sibung ne ing gareta padulung king budega.

She pushed the cart towards the storeroom.

SICAT. N. Brilliance

Ing sicat ning aldo memie yang tula karing liligo.

The brilliance of the sun gave laughter to the fishermen.

SICAT. Adj. Popular

Ing sicat a talaturu bait at meragul ya king pangulu.

The popular teacher was born and grew in a rustic village.

SIGUA. N. Storm

Ding sigua ning bie dapat lamung kilikang kala-kalale.

The storms of life must be taken easily.

SIMBUL. N. Symbol

Ding pusu tamu ila ing simbul ning Guinu tamung Hesu Kristu.

Our hearts are the symbol of our Lord Jesus Christ.

SIMBULAN. V. To symbolize

Ing aklis ning bunduk Arayat sisimbula’na ing ugali tamung mayayatyat.

The extensiveness of Mt. Arayat symbolizes our forthright character.

SINAMBAN. V. To worship

Ding tau sinamban de ign Mayupang Guinu king santuariu.

The people worshipped the Almigbty Creator in the sanctuary.

SINDALAN. V. To shelter

Ding mengalahar sinandal da la king matas a sular.

The lahar victims were sheltered in high places.

SINGIAN. V. To part the hair

I Esting masanting neng singian ing titikdo nang buak.

Ernest stylishly parted his rising hair.

SINIO. V. Shouted

I Antu matni neng sinio ing keyang lagiu.

Tony loudly shouted his name.

SOLIMAN. Diminutive of SULI. N. Seed

Ing suling mitanam karing kaladua ding Kapampangan iya ing tepangan.

The seed that was implanted into the souls of the Kapampangans is gallantry.

SUBA. V. To go up

Ding talangka susuba la pangulu neng bula’ning Agostu.

Palm crabs go up the village during the month of August.

SUING. N. Breech

Ing suing anak mibait yang mipnung taun.

The breech baby was born with heavy pigment.

SULA. N. A deep-red stone

Maracal a sula king bariu Iba.

There are plenty of deep-red stones in the village of Iba.

SULIT. V. Compensate

Ing penga’na e sulit king binayad na.

What he ate does not compensate with what he paid.

SUMANG, SUIMANGA. Akin to UMANG. V. To place something against

Ding palwe inumang na la lete tete.

He placed the fish poles near the bridge.

SUMANGUID. Adj. Opposite/across

Sasamasan de ing bale sumanguid ning tete.

They are fixing the house opposite the bridge.

SUMAT. Akin to SAMAT. N. A smooth heart-shaped vine

King bulung samat ipapalaman da ing luyus ampon api.

On the “samat” leaf is stuffed the bettle nut and the lime.

SUNDIAM. Diminutive of SINDI. V. To kindle, to light

Sindian me ing kalang.

Kindle the stove.

SUNGA. N. Gasping, panting

Ing sunga na iyang mekabungsul keya.

Her gasping caused her to faint.

SUPAN. Akin to SAUPAN. V. To help

Nung saupan me ing sarili mu, saupa’na ka naman ning Apung Guinu.

If you will help yourself; the Lord God will help you also.

SUSI. N. Key

Lugud ing susi king pamakawani.

Love is the key to disunity.

TABION, Akin to TABUN. N. Soil cover to contain water/water embankment

Ing tabu’ning sapa kapmu neng kapmung danum.

The soil cover of the riverbank is already full of water.

TABLANG. Diminutive of TABLA. N. Flat wood

Ing tablang matibe mesali ya Macabebe.

The strong wood was bought in Macabebe.

TAGLE. N. Pole

Ding bule igapang la karing matibe tagle.

The purple beans must be crept on the strong poles.

TAGUINES. V. To drag

Ing bundaki piki’teginis ne ing paduas nang Basti.

The huge mudfish broke and dragged the fish rod of Sebastian.

TAJU. N. Food prepared during feast or party.

Ing tajung Kapampangan malasa’t maniaman.

The Kapampangan food is tasty and delicious.

TALA. N. Star

Itang tala king aslagan iyang tintunan ding manasan.

It was the eastern star that was trailed by the fishermen.

TAMAYO. Phrase of TAMA YO. V. Make precise

I tama yu ing ulam king maniaman a aslam.

Make precise the foodstuff in fine vinegar.

TAMAYO. Akin to TAMAK. Adj. Precise

Ing pakibat na tamak ya.

His answer is precise.

TANDO. V. To look out

Tando ka saguli.

Look out for a while.

TANGLAO. Adj. light

Ing tanglo ning bie ku atiu king Apung Guinu.

The light of my life is in the Lord God.

TAPANG. Akin to TAPA. N. Dried meat

I Nanang kung Menang maglutu yang tapang damulag.

My Aunt Carmen is cooking dried cara-beef meat.

TAPANG. Adj. Valor, bravery

Dapat tamu mu naming kilalanan ing tapang ding sundalung Amerikanu.

We must recognize the bravery of the American soldiers.

TAPNIO. Akin to TAPIO. V. To cause a tiny cut

Ing tinlalati nang Simang mitapiusan ya king palang.

Marcy’s small finger was almost cut by the knife.

TARUC. V. To fathom

E mu tatarucan ing belua’ning Mayupayang Miglalang.

Do not fathom the wisdom of the Almighty Creator.

TARUC. N. Measure

Ing taru’cu king isip nang tatang alang kapiuan.

My measure of father’s thoghts is uncertain.

TAYAG. V. To hang, to raise, to lift.

Itayag me ing pusu mu king Guinu nung mabayat la ding pupusanan mu.

Raise your heart to the Lord when your burdens are heavy.

TIBE. N. Strength/durability

Ing tibe ning pusu na minie sikanan king tagumpe na.

The strength of her heart paved power to her success.

TICSAY. Akin to ACSE. V. To stretch

Ding gamat ning Guinu tamung Hesu Cristu make’cse la king pacalulu.

The arms of the lord Jesus Christ are stretched with mercy.

TIGLAO. Adj. Prosperous

Ing bie nang Pining atna’nang ka tiglo ngeni.

The life of Josephine is now very prosperous.

TIGLAO. Akin to TIGLAUS.V. To accomplish, to continue

Ing e malaus nang paninap tiglaus nitang keying anak.

Her unrealized ambition was accomplished by her son.

TIMBOL. Diminutive of TIMBU. N. Broom grass.

Ding sampagang timbu mamuyutputan la king pangulu.

The broom grass blossoms abound in the prairie.

TIMBOL. V. To beat

Ding anak timbulan da la ding batya.

The children beat the basins.

TIMBANG. N. Weight

Ing timbang ku igit a mabayat ngeni.

My weight is heavier now.

TIMBANG. V. To weigh

Tinimbang da la ding seli ku.

They weighed what I bought.

TIMPUG. Diminutive of TIMPU. V. To sit with folded legs infront of the body.

Tucnang kang timpu mung timpu.

Stop sitting with your folded legs.

TINDAN. V. Marked out

Tinda’na king isip na ing marok a depat da kaya.

He marked out in his mind the insults done to him.

TIPA, TIPAY. Diminutive of TIPA. V. To go down

I tata tipa ya mu potang ima dating nay a.

Father will only go down when mother comes.

TIQUI. V. Brought along

I tatang ku tiqui na ku ketang bariu dang matua.

My father brought me to their old village.

TIRAO. Adj. High

Ing tuku atneng ka tiro ukiat king tanamang caimitu.

The chameleon has crawled high on

TIRU. V. Taught

Deti ilang tiru ning maestro ku ketang malati ku: pamanulat, pamamasa, pamamilang

These are what my teacher taught me when I was young: writing, reading and counting.


Ing maka sogang damulag makatali ya king makutkut a tulus.

The grazing carabao is knotted into a deep buried pole.

TONGIO. Akin to TANGO. N. Nod

Ing tangu na kanaku atnang kayumu.

Her nod to me is very sincere.

TUA. Diminutive of MATUA. Adj. Old

I inang ku matua nay a.

My mother is already old.

TUAZON, TUASON. Akin to TUAS. V. To beat

E mu la a tuasan ding Kapampangan.

You can never beat the Kapampangans.

TULABING. V. Walk on a narrow path, rope, pole, top of a wall

Ding kambing tutulabe la karing malating pilapil.

The goats are walking on the narrow hill.

TULABOT. Akin to TABALU. V. To Trip

Ding damulag mengatalabu la king burak.

The carabaos tripped into the mud.

TULLAO, TULAO, TULIO. V. To look at a short distance

Tulauan mu na la ding wali mu nung daratang na la.

Look at your small brothers if they are already coming.

TULUD. N. Young leaf

Ing tulud balubad misna kaniaman king tiris kamatis.

Cashew’s young leaves are edibly luscious in crushed tomato.

TUMANG. V. To get hold

Tumangan meng tulus ing posting mikakabius.

Hold with a pole the falling post.

TUNGCAB. V. To open forcibly

Ing maca candadung pasbul metungcab yang mapanaco.

The locked door was forcibly opened by burglars.


Ing magaral a mapagbulakbul madalumdum ya paintungulan.

A student who is procrastinating has a bleak future.

TURLA. Akin to TUDLA. V. To hit with a bow and arrow

Ding kulut atudla de ing maragul a babing dikut.

The Aetas hit the big wild boar with their arrow.

TWANO. Akin to TUA. Adj. Old

Ding kaluguran ku matua nong memamakiasawa.

My friends were old when they got married.

UMALI. Akin to TUMALI. V. To rise

Tumali kang maranun potang gatganapun.

You rise early this afternoon.

UMLAS. Akin to MULAS. V. To share blanket

Umulas ka kang Kulas.

Share blanket with Luke.

VINLUAN. Akin to BANGLU. V. Made fragnant

Ding dalaga pepa bangluan da la ding imalan da.

The ladies made their dresses smell fragrant.

VINUYA, VIUYA. Akin to BINUYA. V. Cultivated

I Mr. Sese binuya neng masalese ing keying marangle.

Mr. Sese rigidly cultivated his farmfield.

VIRAY. N. Boat

I Pepe gagamita’neng keyang pamamagale.

Peter is using his boat in fish hunting.

VITUG. Akin to BILITUG. N. Fried corn

Ding bilitug a binie ning wali ku maniaman la pamangamayumu.

The fried corns given by my sibling are deliciously sweetened.

VITUG. N. Akin to BITAOG. N. A Hardwood

Malagad na la mu deng dutung bitaog ngeni.

Bitaog trees are scarce nowadays.

WANTA. Diminutive of WA. Adv. Yes

Wa, tuki ku karela.

Yes, I will join them.

YABUT. V. To offer

E ka painainggulat king saup a keka na yabut.

Never discard the help which to you he offers.

YADAO. V. To seek

Yaduan mu ing pacalulu ning Guinu.

Seek the mercy of the Lord.

YALUNG. V. To play

I Buru memiyalung yang pau inya mapangaliguan yang tutu.

Robert played a turtle, that’s why, he is truthfully forgetful.

YAMAT. V. To get pleased

I inang ku meyama’t metula ya king panyake nang tsubibu.

My mother got excited and happy riding on a ferries wheel.

YAMBAO. V. To set in front.

Yamba me ing palupalu ban mikarugan ya I Goriu.

Set the paddle to the front so that George will get frantic.

YANDAN. V. To prepare

Ding maisawa piyandan dang mayap ing pamaglako da.

The couple has prepared well for their departure.

YANDOC. V. Allure

I Ando inandu na la ding manuk a malutu.

Fernand allured the red cockfighters.

YANGA. V. To raise

Yanga me king api ing kabukal-bukal a nasi.

Raise from the fire the simmered rice.

YUMANG. Diminutive of UMA. N. Kiss

Ing umang ima misna king yumu.

A mother’s kiss is very sweet.

YUMUL. Akin to MAYUMU. Adj. Sweet

Ding mayumung caimitu pemisali na lang apu ku.

The sweet starapples were sold by the grandmother.

YUNUN. Akin to AYUNU. N. Fasting

Ing ayunu katulan’ing Guinu.

Fasting is delightful to the Lord.

YUSI. V. To close

Manyusi na kang pasbul.

Close the door now.

YUSON, YUZON. Akin to AYUSAN. V. T fix

Ayusan me ngeni murin.

Fix it immediately now.

YUTUC. V. To bend

Beyutuc na la ding sangang sari baba.

He bent the very low branches.

ZABAT, SABAT. V. To butt, to meddle

E ka sabat mung sabat nun gala kang masalese pakibat.

Stop butting in if you have none sensical answers.


Karing anggang mamasa kaniting libru, mayap a oras pu kekayung sabla.

To those who are reading this book, a very fine day to all of you.


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by the International Association of Multidisciplinary Research (IAMURE)
at Marriott Hotel, Jakarta, Indonesia
on January 21-23, 2013.


Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using audiotapes, videotapes, or transcriptions of planned interviews. These interviews are conducted with people who participated in or observed past events and whose memories and perceptions of these are to be preserved as an aural record for future generations. Oral history strives to obtain information from different perspectives, and most of these cannot be found in written sources.

Oral history has become an international movement in historical research. Oral historians in different countries have approached the collection, analysis, and dissemination of oral history in different ways. However, it should also be noted that there are many ways of creating oral histories and carrying out the study of oral history even within individual national contexts.

Along this premise, the elders of Lubao, Pampanga, (Lubao is considered to be the Cradle of Kapampangan Civilization and Christianity) traditionally believed that the sacred Cross of the Crucified Christ was received by their ancestors led by Datu Macabulus after they capitulated to the Spaniards in September 14, 1571. Oral accounts indicated that the holy Image of the Crucified Cross was lost for a long period of time but was believed to re-appear sometimes in the middle of 1700. Since then, it was enshrined in barangay Sta. Cruz and is venerated by its countless devotees because of the countless favors and miracles the holy Cross has been sustaining them.

However, some people were skeptical about its authenticity and age; hence, this research. For this purpose, the investigatory research will employ the scientific inquiry method using carbon dating procedures as the primary method to yield empirical results.

Radiocarbon, or carbon 14, is an isotope of the element carbon that is unstable and weakly radioactive. The stable isotopes are carbon 12 and carbon 13.
Carbon 14 is continually being formed in the upper atmosphere by the effect of cosmic ray neutrons on nitrogen 14 atoms. It is rapidly oxidized in air to form carbon dioxide and enters the global carbon cycle.
Plants and animals assimilate carbon 14 from carbon dioxide throughout their lifetimes. When they die, they stop exchanging carbon with the biosphere and their carbon 14 content then starts to decrease at a rate determined by the law of radioactive decay.

Radiocarbon dating is essentially a method designed to measure residual radioactivity. By knowing how much carbon 14 is left in a sample, the age of the organism when it died can be known. It must be noted though that radiocarbon dating results indicate when the organism was alive but not when a material from that organism was used.

The scientific results of the study will provide not only empirical information to the on-going inquest of the Research Office of the Tarlac State University along social, technological, cultural, industrial and scientific realms but will also supply the Philippines with additional and valuable literature vis-a -vis church heritage.

The results will bolster the authentication and validation of oral traditions through scientific inquiry. This study, which is a pioneering research undertaking in the university on radiocarbon dating procedures, will invite the attention of local government and church authorities to involve themselves in allowing their surviving treasures i.e. church antiques, ancestral porcelains and the like to undergo scientific examination to bolster their local pride and heritage; thus, a boost to local tourism industry.

The results of the study will not only serve as local pride to the Municipal Government of Lubao, Pampanga and Archdiocese of San Fernando, Pampanga but as a national pride for the Tarlac State University in the field of socio-cultural-ecclesiastical research in exploring new investigative frontier. Similarly, its impact will serve as a great contributory to the re-discovery of Philippine’s national history and heritage.

The general objective of the study is to identify the age of the holy Crucifix using radiocarbon dating method. Specifically, it aims to carry out the study by identifying the age of the sacred Cross of the Crucified Image of Christ through radiocarbon dating procedures, and to provide scientific information to the people vis-à-vis results of the carbon dating analysis.

Specifically, the study aimed to:
1. Verify the age of the cross sample that was presumed to be brought by the Augustinian Friars in the Philippines in September 14, 1571 according to some documents and oral accounts through carbon-dating analysis.
2. For some time, the cross and the image were separated. To prove that the pieces are compatible, similarities in the matrices of radio-carbon data will justify that the two are compatible.

Methods and Materials

Radiocarbon dating (sometimes simply known as carbon dating) is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring radioisotope carbon-14 (14C) to estimate the age of carbon-bearing materials up to about 58,000 to 62,000 years.

The technique of radiocarbon dating was developed by Willard Libby and his colleagues at the University of Chicago in 1949. Libby estimated that the steady state radioactivity concentration of exchangeable carbon-14 would be about 14 disintegrations per minute (dpm) per gram. He demonstrated the accuracy of radiocarbon dating by accurately estimating the age of wood from a series of samples for which the age was known, including an ancient Egyptian royal barge of 1850 BC. ( dating)
Using this investigative method, the objectives of the research were carried out with the results presented in the foregoing discussion.

This undertaking is an inter-agency research that endeavored to provide, facilitate, and conduct actual procedures in collecting samples to authenticate the oral tradition of the devotees of the Holy Cross of the Crucified Christ located in Sta. Cruz, Lubao, Pampanga, which they have been devoted with since time past.

The age of the holy Image was determined through radiocarbon dating procedures. The research was started January 2012 until April, 2012.

Initially, the researchers facilitated links with local and national agencies as regards protocols and carbon dating service providers. Unfortunately, no local radiocarbon dating agency in the country today is available to conduct the objectives of the research.

Finally, the proponents succeeded in connecting links with the Beta Analytic Inc. based in Miami, Florida, USA, which is probably one of the largest radiocarbon dating service providers in the world at present.

The Research and Development Office of the Tarlac State University through its Research Office provided technical assistance to the local government of Lubao, Pampanga. The municipal government of the town represented by Mayor Mylin Pineda-Cayabyab agreed to finance the services of the radiocarbon dating agency.

Collaboratively, the researchers created a working team composed of archeologist, chemist, planning officer, parish priests, carpenter, photographer, and municipal mayor to carry out the methods and procedures on the technical components of the project i.e. sampling, transport of samples, and the likes. Collaborations with the local parish priests, the Archdiocese of San Fernando, Pampanga and the
National Museum of the Philippines were made as regards the undertaking.

The radiocarbon dating agency provided the method and procedures with regard the technical aspects of the study. Classified as archeological artifacts, the samples were transported to the radiocarbon dating agency (Beta Analytic Inc.) via cargo flight of the Federal Express in Clarkfield Freeport, Angeles City, Pampanga.

Two weeks later, the radiocarbon results were provided to the researchers and chief executive of Lubao, Pampanga.
Wood samples were collected from the cross and from the image. Standard procedures were conducted prior to shipment to Beta-Analytic Laboratory for radio carbon dating:

A. Wood Collection and Sampling:

1. Select an area that does not show signs of rot or insect activity. Also make sure that the area does not show signs of being treated with shellac, oil, glue, other preservatives or additives.
2. Ideally the wood should be collected from the outer-most section of the piece, this will ensure that the outer-most growth rings are dated and provide the approximate time of death of the tree or branch, as close as physically possible.
3. Obtain two (2) new, wood twist-drill bits. Approximate size recommended is 5/32” for the first drilling and 1/8” for the second drilling. These drill bits should be cleaned prior to use with acetone to remove any machine oils and then allowed to air dry.
4. Drill a 5/32” hole approximately 1/4” to 3/8” deep and discard these drill shaving. It may be necessary to drill deeper if the wood is rotted or altered. Try to get some wood that has been isolated from any sort of surface contamination.
5. Lay the object on its side and place a piece of aluminum foil under the area to be drilled approximately 4” by 4” store bought foil is fine and requires no precleaning.
6. Drill the second hole with the 1/8” drill bit into the center of the 5/32” pilot hole and allow the shavings to collect onto the aluminum foil. Collect approximately 100-200 milligrams of wood sample shavings.
7. Once the shavings have been collected onto the aluminum foil, fold the foil such that you make a small pouch. Label the pouch with the sample code or name. Place this aluminum foil pouch in a zip-lock container and label.

B. Radio-Carbon Dating:

The samples were shipped for testing to Beta-Analytic Inc., known for more than 30 years; it is the pioneer in the radio-carbon dating business. It is the only radiocarbon dating laboratory accredited to the ISO 17025 standard. The samples were treated and analyzed as follows:

A. Principal Methods of Measuring Radiocarbon


There are three principal techniques used to measure carbon 14 content of any given sample gas proportional counting, liquid scintillation counting, and accelerator mass spectrometry.

Gas proportional counting is a conventional radiometric dating technique that counts the beta particles emitted by a given sample. Beta particles are products of radiocarbon decay. In this method, the carbon sample is first converted to carbon dioxide gas before measurement in gas proportional counters takes place.

Liquid scintillation counting is another radiocarbon dating technique that was popular in the 1960s. In this method, the sample is in liquid form and a scintillator is added. This scintillator produces a flash of light when it interacts with a beta particle. A vial with a sample is passed between two photomultipliers, and only when both devices register the flash of light that a count is made.

Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a modern radiocarbon dating method that is considered to be the more efficient way to measure radiocarbon content of a sample. In this method, the carbon 14 content is directly measured relative to the carbon 12 and carbon 13 present. The method does not count beta particles but the number of carbon atoms present in the sample and the proportion of the isotopes.

B. Radiocarbon Dating Standards
The radiocarbon age of a certain sample of unknown age can be determined by measuring its carbon 14 content and comparing the result to the carbon 14 activity in modern and background samples.
The principal modern standard used by radiocarbon dating labs was the Oxalic Acid I obtained from the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Maryland. This oxalic acid came from sugar beets in 1955. Around 95% of the radiocarbon activity of Oxalic Acid I is equal to the measured radiocarbon activity of the absolute radiocarbon standard—a wood in 1890 unaffected by fossil fuel effects.
When the stocks of Oxalic Acid I were almost fully consumed another standard was made from a crop of 1977 French beet molasses. The new standard, Oxalic Acid II, was proven to have only a slight difference with Oxalic Acid I in terms of radiocarbon content.

Over the years, other secondary radiocarbon standards have been made.
Radiocarbon activity of materials in the background is also determined to remove its contribution from results obtained during a sample analysis. Background radiocarbon activity is measured, and the values obtained are deducted from the sample’s radiocarbon dating results. Background samples analyzed are usually geological in origin of infinite age such as coal, lignite, and limestone.

C. Radiocarbon Dating Measurements
A radiocarbon measurement is termed conventional radiocarbon age (CRA). The CRA conventions include (a) usage of the Libby half-life, (b) usage of Oxalic Acid I or II or any appropriate secondary standard as the modern radiocarbon standard, (c) correction for sample isotopic fractionation to a normalized or base value of -25.0 per mille relative to the ratio of carbon 12/carbon 13 in the carbonate standard VPDB – Cretaceous belemnite formation at Peedee in South Carolina, (d) zero BP (Before Present) is defined as AD 1950, and (e) the assumption that global radiocarbon levels are constant.
Standard errors are also reported in a radiocarbon dating result, hence the “±” values. These values have been derived through statistical means.

D. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
Mass spectrometers detect atoms of specific elements according to their atomic weights. They, however, do not have the sensitivity to distinguish atomic isobars (atoms of different elements that have the same atomic weight, such as in the case of carbon 14 and nitrogen 14—the most common isotope of nitrogen).
Thanks to nuclear physics, mass spectrometers have been fine-tuned to separate a rare isotope from an abundant neighboring mass, and accelerator mass spectrometry was born. A method has finally been developed to detect carbon 14 in a given sample and ignore the more abundant isotopes that swamp the carbon 14 signal.




As presented on the spread sheet of the results and the calendar calibration graphs, the results disclosed that at 2-sigma statistics (95% probability), 2 dates yielded overlapping ranges, indicating that the results are statistically identical. Overlaps occur at Cal AD 1680 to 1690, Cal AD 1730, Cal 1810, Cal AD 1920 to 1930 and post AD 1950.

In an inquiry with Ron Hatfield, the deputy director/quality manager of radiocarbon dating agency (Beta Analytic Inc.), he explained “the result means that if no recent contamination was introduced into the wood which could not be removed by the acid and alkali treatments performed, then the tree growth rings dated for each sample were last in equilibrium with the atmosphere (alive) in one of these ranges. “

As he further explained “radiocarbon dating cannot determine exactly which range the rings actually represent, but it is one of them for each sample.”

It is to be noted that the prior to the pretreatment (acid/alkali/acid) procedure, the deputy director suggested special pretreatment (acid/alkali/acid/cellulose extraction) considerations prior to the laboratory analysis. The suggestion was made due to the heavy presence of paint, varnishes, oils and the likes in the samples. Special pretreatment is necessary to maximize the reduction of chemical contaminants that allow cellulose extractions easier for final analysis. However, it may or may not yield significant result than the pretreatment protocol that also needed added cost. As prior agreed, the researchers opted and deemed for the pretreatment analysis to proceed.

Beta-316804 (The Wooden Cross) yielded ranges of Cal AD 1650 to 1690 (Cal BP 300 to 260), Cal AD 1730 to 1810 (Cal BP 220 to 140), Cal AD 1920 to post 1950 (Cal BP 30 to post 1950)


Beta-316805 (The Image of Christ) yielded ranges of Cal AD 1680 to 1730 (Cal BP 270 to 220), Cal AD 1810 to 1930 (Cal BP 140 to 20), Cal AD Post 1950.

If the expected age was somewhere around 1570AD as traditionally believed by the residents, the results indicated that the very oldest that the dates seemed to represent would be the overlap from around the time of AD 1680 to1690. This is to assume if all the growth rings dated from both the samples were the same.

Seemingly, the age appears to be about 100 years later than was expected. This would mean that either the actual time the cross arrived in Lubao, Pampanga was more recent than historically reported or that the wood was contaminated by more recent organics such as penetrated oils, varnishes, paints, etc.

As observed by the Mr. Hatfield, the wood samples looked physically very clean and similar but this does not rule out a more recent chemical contaminant such as those indentified above.

Where does the contamination emanate from?

There are considerations which should be noted on the results of the study. First is the ability of the radiocarbon dating technique (2 sigma calibration) results to predict perfect outcome due to some calculation error factor i.e. carbon dating test allows 5% probability of error. Second is the noticeable heavy contamination of the Crucifix with hardened coals, paints, varnishes, oils and the like that blackened the Cross and Christ’s Image. Largely, the presence of these chemicals is attributed to the cultural traditions of the people to preserve the Crucifix against deterioration. Hence, the huge contaminations are both ancient and recent, which probably and largely affected the results of the analyses.

However, Mr. Hatfield further noted and suggested that if the more recent ages cannot be resolved in terms of the historical reporting of the time of arrival of the Crucifix, then the only way to know if there was some effect from more recent contamination would be to take some of the remaining wood shavings for one of the samples that they are still keeping. After the special pretreatments has been performed prior the final analysis, a new date will reveal if the age comes in agreement with the historical reporting with regard the arrival of the Crucifix in the area. As previously mentioned, however, it may or may not produce new result.

VI. Summary of Findings

1. Radiocarbon dating analyses showed that Beta-316804 (The Wooden Cross) indicated a measured radiocarbon age Cal AD 1650 to 1690 (Cal BP 300 to 260) compared to Beta-316805 (Image of Christ) Cal AD 1680 to 1730 (Cal BP 270 to 220).

2. Results disclosed that at 2-sigma statistics (95% probability), 2 dates yielded overlapping ranges, indicating that the results are statistically identical. Overlaps occur at Cal AD 1680 to 1690, Cal AD 1730, Cal 1810, Cal AD 1920 to 1930 and post AD 1950.

3. Results did not rule out human and laboratory (chemical) contamination which directly or indirectly influenced the results of the analyses. Special pretreatment procedure was suggested to possibly validate the current results.

4. Analyses of samples indicated that samples came from the same tree. Beta-316804 (The Wooden Cross) is a little older than Beta-316805 (Christ’s Image).

VII. Conclusions:

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions are drawn:

1. Results of the study revealed the proximity of the radiocarbon dating analyses to the traditional accounts of the people of Lubao, Pampanga. Considering the highly sensitive nature of analytical chemistry apparatuses, the time ranges (ages) drawn from the chemical analyses were closely proximate to the oral history accounts of the place. Notwithstanding, the errors on probability and contamination are important considerations which must be accounted as regards imperfect results of the analyses.
2. The results revealed the antiquity of the Crucifix (Cross and Image of Christ). The results predicate the customary and traditional social and religious norms of the people as regards their reverence and devotion to the Crucifix even in this contemporary milieu.
3. Results of the analyses were limited only to the perceived period when the Crucifix arrived in Lubao, Pampanga. It did not include the actual age of the tree when it was cut down or harvested from its original abode. It did not also include the condition of the Cross and Christ’s Image after they were rediscovered by some residents after its long period of concealment in the ground.

VIII. Recommendations

The following recommendations are derived from the conclusions:

1. To further bolster the result of the study, the proposed special treatment for the remaining wood samples offered by the radiocarbon dating agency must be availed to obtain a new perspective with regard the radiocarbon age of the sample.
2. The Archdiocese of San Fernando, Pampanga and National Commission on Culture and Arts should support the preservation of the Crucifix of the Holy Cross because of ecclesiastical and cultural significance.
3. The people of Lubao, Pampanga must be proud of the history and heritage of the Crucifix because of the glory that it has contributed to the nation. Its impact can contribute to the fertilization of spirituality and tourism.
4. The history of the Crucifix should be reintroduced and reinvigorated through book writings and construction of museum to reverberate its place in church history.
5. The Crucifix should be given due homage and historical recognition by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines.

IX. Documentation

The Image of Apo Sto Cristo de Lubao

The Team

Wood sample taken from the wooden Cross (Beta 316804)

Wood sample taken from Christ’s Image (Beta 316805)

Web Design by Engr. Mark Jason V. Sicat
Photo Credit: Sam C. Nicdao

Upaya Ding Amanu

UPAYA NING AMANU                                                                                                                              (Pamibule king Santiago 3:1-12)                                                                                                                 Rodrigo M. Sicat

Makananu kang mangamanu? Deng bang kekang amanung sasabyan babie lang sikanan at kapayapan kapilubluban o babie lang migit pang kaplas salu?

Ing amanu o salita metung yang tyup (sound) o myabe tyup a sisimbul at babie kabaldugan. Yagkas o makasulat, ding amanu dake na la ning kekatamung panga-tau. Deti magsilbing pasiknangan na ka tamu, siran nakatamu panga-tau, panasakitan nakatamu o kaya, ampatan ing sugat ding pusu tamu. Ding amanu atin lang upayang pisasagsagan na la ring tau, at mu naman, mibalangkas at mitangkas pamikakapatad o kaya pagumpisan ning patayan ding tau.

Makananu ing kekang pamangamanu keng aldo mengalabasan? Deng amanung kekang sasabyan atin la bang epektung malalam kareng balang taung makaramdam? Makasiknang la bang lub ding kekang amanu o makasakit lang kapanamdaman?

Pauli ding kekang amanu, itatangal mo ba pangatau kareng masanting salita ding kekang anak, asawa, kaluguran o kaya, karetang tau emu man balu king kekang daralanan? O susugatan mo salu ding lulugud keka pauli detang kekang amanung mapanatu, masalpak at mapanusga? Ing mismu mu bang sarili keka mu yang panasakitan pauli ding mapait mung amanu mismu kaniti?

Yalimbawa neng Santiago ing dila ning tau keng kabayu. Apatunud ta ya ing kabayu pauli na mu ning malati at kaputut bakal, dapot ing tau atnayang pamagkasakit magmintini kareng salita lalual king kayang labi.

Bakit ing tau atnayang pamagkasakit lilisya king pamagsalitang amanu babie palsimi king kayang kaparang tau? Ing pamagmintini kareng kekatamung sasabyan, anti la man kasakit, adapatan ta lang mayap nung iti kekatamung buryanan. Disiplina king sarili yamung kailangan, kanita ing buri nang sabyan ning dila’t labi eya misala.

Nung eme pin akontrol ing kekang sarili, malagwa ya ping rendan ing kabayu kaysa keng dila’t labi ning tau!

Nung eme arenda ing dila, iti pane yang bubugang api king mua. Ken mung nanung bage keng bale, pane kang makipate. Kalual mu keng dalan, ken mung trapik siguradu kang makibungil.

Anang sasabing Dorothy Nevill: “Ing malagung pamipagsalita, eya mu itang buri mung sabyan ketang panaun isipan mung dapat, dapot, dapat mu la namang ipipilpil detang aliwang salita, lalu na’t deti, makapanakit lang kapanamdaman karing menasa.”

 Ing buri nang sabyan: e sablang buri tamung sabyan dapat tamung sasambitlan.

 Antimong pengari, maingat ku kareng salita padugpa ku kareng ana’ku. Nung damdaman dakung malmura o manusga kareng aliwa, migit la pang mabyasang managkas at manusga kaysa kanaku. Nung akakit at daramdaman da kanaku, ing biasa kung manyawad patawad karetang pikasalanan ku, makanyan mu naman ing karelang gawan king migit pang manayun a paralan. Nung magsalita kung alang modu ampon respetu kareng kasabi ku, iti gawan da mu naman karing balang metung karela at karing aliwa pa.

 Iti balu ku uling iti akakit ku. Nung ding ana’ku ila lang gulisakan ku, ila mu namang migugulisakan kaibat ning limang minutu, karetang salita dimdam da kanaku.

Ngeni ku lubus aytindian nung bakit migit kung dapat maging mapanupaya kareng ana’ku at aliwa pang tau. Inya ngeni, kareng anak ku, mimisip at mangisnawa ku pa mung malalam bayu ku magsalita nanu man karela. Apagisip-isip ku, ing kanaku yang dapat isane ing kanakung dila king pamagsalita, kanita, malagwa ku lang asanak lub ding kanakung anak, kamaganak, kasiping bale at kaluguran king mipmung lugud at kabanalan. 

Migit pa kaniti, deti, amanu lang kanakung tutunggen king aldo-aldo king mipmung yumu at pakalulu:

Guinu, gawan mu kung instrumentu king Kekang kapayapan; Nung nukarin atin pamimua, patanman mu kung lugud; Nung nukarin atin pamikasala, pamamatawad; Nung nukarin atin pamiyalinlangan, kasalpantayanan; Nung nukarin atin pamagkasakit, pagasa; Nung nukarin atin dalumdum, sala; Nung nukarin atin lungkut, saya.

Deng amanu apasiknangan naka tamu king kayupayan. Magsilbi na lang ipugung malalam ding kaladwa ding sablang tau. Deng amanu malyari na lang ikumun king legwan ding balang metung kekatamu. Nung deng amanu gamitan la king misnang lugud, ing yatu, miyubug yang labuad misna santing ampong kapayapan.   

Mamili ka bang amanu babye bie kareng kaluguran at pakamalan mo?

 Anang Gautama Buddha: neng deng amanu gagamitan la keng ustu at tutu, ing aske ning yatu mibayu ya sari king payapa at lagu.




(My Grade I Teacher)

A Tribute by Rodrigo M. Sicat

Bula’ning Hunyo petsang nineteen sixty four kanita

Inyang itang kanakung papel de baptisimo yang pelad nitang kanakung ima

Kang Miss Celerina Turla a pikabalwan king kaganaka ding sabla

At king pamanurung wambi alang anak ing e misaplala’t mitutula.

Ketang muna keng akit i Miss Turla atna kung takut ka ya

Bala ku rugu ena ku yural at akung tanggapan ketang klasi na

Uling Hunyo kanu dapat pitu na kung banua

Uling Agostu ya pa ing beitan ku, anya, ing irad ku alangan ya pa kanu ana.

“Munta ka keni” anang minepe kanaku

“Abutan me ing balugbug mu” ana pa kanaku

“Mamintu ka” anang inang ku kanaku

“Magislbi na ka” ana ng Miss Turla kanaku.

Meko ne inang ku, melakwan na ku king kuartu

Pepalwal na la ketang handbag ku retang papel at lapis ku

Meg-umpisa kaming gugulis angga keng mebiasa na ku

Kaibat ning paruminggu, itang lagyu ku agugulis ku neng mautitu

Mapilan aldo kaibat nita, detang  “a, e, i, o, u” ilang tiru na kekami

Aldo-aldo pasulat yang tya metung letra kareti

Munaman, ilang pabasa nang tunggal-tungal balang kanakung kaklasi  

Bayu muli manabilin ya kekami “magsane mamasa ban mika-mastery”

King kelwatan ning pamanyulat at pamamasa

Metalas na kaming metalas, metalustus na kami king sabla

“I Bagul”, “ I Tagpi,” at “King Dane Mi” ilang minuna nang pepabasa

 Anya, “Very Good” at “pikpik buntuk” ilang premyu at pabuya na.

Sinane na kaming mamilang karetang myaliwang “devices” na

Mialiwa-liwa la itsura, e la pare-pareu kule pa

Ating mabilug, ating atlu-suluk, atin mu namang kwadradu

Ating asan, ating ayup, ating sampaga at myaliwang insektu

Aldo-aldo, dumi-dumnggu, bulan-bulan atin yang ituturu

Yapin angga ngeni, itang tiru na maka-anad pa king ukul ku

Pamanyulat, pamamasa, pamamilang at pamagkanta

Deting sabla simula at inubug na la nitang maestra kung i Miss Turla.

 Dakal a dakal salamat pu maestra ku

Utang mi keka itang belwan ming mumuna

Salamat ketang kekang tenam at pinunla

Salamat king kekang tyaga kekami ngeni mamungang masaplala.

King kesyasan ding buntuk mi, deti alang sawang pigmasabalan yu   

Uli niti, meging bantug ka karing pusu ding anggang memaryu

Migit pa kaniti, pinili mu kami kesa ketang sarling kaligayan mu

Pauli mi, eka mikyasawa, meging mapamintu ka king aus ning Apung Guinu!

Ala na ka dapot maybe ka pa

Uli ning masamyu at dalise mung kaladwa

E ka mi mu mapilan kayanakan ding kekang inaruga

Nune deti, e mu la abilang uling katakata la.

Inyang ika nang inaus ning Mayupaya

Sayang pu eku man abalu, eku man mekapagadya

Sana, nung abalu ku mu, agawa ra ka mu mang makuyad a tula

A magpatiman mu man keka nung eka man tumula.

Balu mi ing ala kaming dapat pigaganakan, alang dapat pikakunwan

Uling balu ming sabla nung nakarin ngeni itang kekang karinan

Karin king labuad ding Angeles at Santos ning Kayarian

Nung nukarin la manuknangan, karin ka mu naman magluluklukan

Atyu na ka banwa, atyu ke pa yatu

King mayap mung kabilyan, panalangin mu pa kami

Yawad mu king Mayupaya ing itaid nawa kami

Karin king pusu Na a mipmung pamagkandili!

Madam, salamat pung pasibayu

Mapalyaring kalingwan yu kami dapot ikami, ali pu

Maging matatag ya ing yatu pauli ding tau a kalupa yu

Kawangis nitang dalit tiru yu kekami ketang WAMBI ku

“Mamun na ke pu maestra, datang kami naman pota…..”

Nung Makananu Minuli Kung Talasawa


Dr. Rodrigo M. Sicat


Dakal lang sasabi at maniwala, ing pamakyasawa kanu anti ya waring kamatayan a daratang king bie ning ninu man tau. Iti eku lubus paniwalan ketang bayu ku pamung tau (baintau) anggang ing tune nang kabaldugan dinatang yang anting alisus kanaku.

King katatawlian, akung sasabi kaniting kanakung sarili, tutu ya pin pala ing kasebyan a piyamanuan ding makatua! Ing pamakyasawa anti waring kidlat ya! E muya man piadyan, iti kabud datang ya keka.  Eka man maka adya, ampitan at ampita’na ka.

Iting pamikatagun, aku iting aranasan. Nung bigla aganaka ku iti, matula ku yang pipiling-piling ing buntu’ku potang pasibayu kung babalikdan nung makananu minuli kung talasawa…

Misan abak king trade school (Don Honorio Ventura College of Arts and Trades) king balen Baculud, iya ping kanakung pipagobran, metung yang office memorandum ing kanakung disan at ausan ing prusisu kung pamamunta keta king Office of the President. Iting panabilin, malagua ku yang lingunan, at akung marapal mekikit king kekaming presidenti. Pablasang king trade school bayu-bayu ku pa mu kanita, ing presidenti dakal ya pengutang kanaku. Kaya nang pekibaluan itang dikil king kakankung gagawan karin king Guidance Office, at mu naman, kareta pang aliwang kanakung kagiyuan king pamanyaliksik at pamanuru. Maluat itang kekaming pamisabi at aku na yang gelamanuan kaibat nitang masanting at malalam kekaming pipagkuwentuan. Memun kung masaya lupa, migpasalamat king pamuntuk ning kekaming escuela, at ume nakung mibalik pasibayu ketang kanakung opisina. Antimong alang nanu, kanakung sindu ing likuan a gagawan ku at aku pang sikasuan itang obrang aliwa pa.

Kalulukluk ku pamu karetang gamit yadia ku, itang kekaming janitor mayli na yang inabut kanaku, itang pirmadung administrative order nitang kekaming College President. Aku na yang tutulduan antimong bayung technical staff ning escuela king Center for Interinstitutional Research and Policy Studies (CIRPS) ding State Colleges and Universities in Region III. Iting aguman, iya ing peka think tank ding sablang state colleges and universities keti Kalibutnang Luzon, king pami-puni karing miyaliwang alituntunan ding mamuntukan kareting mesabing pipagaralan.

Bisa kung sanang murung, dapot ala kung akarapat uling iti utus na ya ning kanakung presidenti. Mabilis kung mibalik ketang kayang opisina at malugud kung migpasalamat kanitang tiwala a pigkalub na kanaku. Bayu kami mikawani, kaya na yang inabut kanaku itang bayu pang memorandum, nung nukarin, akung tumagun ketang seminar-workshop at CIRPS technical staff meeting, maganap king farm school (Pampanga Agricultural College) king balen Magalang keng October 23-25, 1986. 

Kanita eku malili papunta king farm school, akung mekisabi king kekaming Presidenti, yang akung maki yagnan karela o kaya, karing kekaming kayabe pang aliwa. Akung mekisabi kaniti uling iting escuela eke binang kabisadu.

Dinatang itang aldo ning kekaming pamaglako at pablasang Kapampangan kaming pare-pareyu atna kaming kasayang mipamiru. Pasadu alas otsu nitang abak, king farm school ning Magalang, masalese kaming miras. Akung lawe-lawe at matunud magumasid karing sabla uling nung ali kanita, aku pamung miras kaniting lugal atna kalwalas bina. Ala kung kakilala karing tau, nune mu detang kayagnan kung menibat Baculud. Manibayu ku man, ing sabla kanaku ngan panigaralan. Aku lang akilala detang miyaliwang technical staff ning CIRPS at detang miyaliwang Presidenti ning Region III. Malugud dakung tinggap detang kanakung kayabe king grupu, at aku mu namang pepakilala da karing presidenti ning Central Luzon. Kanita mismu, aku nang titu ra nung nanu ing kanakung maging obra. Kanita mu rin, simulan kung masaya ing obrang mitutuk kanaku, at e migluat, detang kanakung kakilala, ilang miragdaga’na.

 Metung karing obrang mipaniwala kanaku, iya itang akung maging facilitator ketang lecture a magagampan ketang penandit ita. Kaniting mararapat a gagampan, detang makasulat dang kutang ding participants kanaku lang titipunan at yayabut ketang moderator, kanita, itang tagapagsalita ilang pakibata’na.

 Kaibat nitang mumunang workshop, ding sabla ume lang mengan paugtuan. Akung menintun karetang abe ku Baculud, kanita, akung makyagnan mangan karela. Masaya at matula kaming mipamalita. Anang mengutang kanaku nitang kekaming abe metung:  Rod, ninung kakilala mu Tarlac College of Technology? Ala kung balu, akung kaya mekibat. Pasibayu, aku pang mengutang kanitang abe ku: Nuya karin ing Tarlac College of Technology? Atiyu ya Tarlac! anang mekibat kanaku. Bakit balu daka? Bakit pangutang da ka lagyu at nung talasawa ka kanu? Eku balu, akung karela sinabi. Nukarin ya wari ing Tarlac? akung mengutang pasibayu.

Kabang matula kaming mikukutnanan detang kayabe ku, ume danakung dinakit detang kayabe ku CIRPS, kanita, kekami la pang pisabyan detang kekaming miyaliwa pang gampanan kinabukasan. Kaibat meyari nitang kekaming pulung, kanaku lang belikan pasibayu detang kanakung likuan kayabe Baculud. Ala na kung disan metung man karela, ita pala, minuna na la kanaku, ban magpainawa na ketang kekaming tuknangan dormitoryu. Eku balu nung nanung daptan ku, eku balu nung makananung miras ku ketang dormitoryung misna dayu. Itang lugal kanaku da yang tiru, dapot nung munta kung dili-dili, mekad mawala ku at malili kung siguradu.

Mayap namu naman, atin saken kule asul itang tinulid kanaku. Ilang mengutang at migkusang lub, nung karela buri kung makyagnan uling ilang papunta mu naman ketang lugal a kanakung panintunan. Kasake at kalukluk ku, kitnan daku nung nanu ing kanakung lagyu at nuya karin itang escuelang kanaku penibatan. Kapampangan mu naman ing karelang salita, dapot itang karelang tonu, makatibis ketang matarling kung gege. Kanaku lang matulang pakiramdaman, uling detang karelang lupa, masaya lang kawangis nitang kanaku. Mangutang lang miyaliwa, at aku namang makibat matula. Kabang kukutnan daku, isipan ku nung bakit alang patna itang karelang buring abalu kanaku at pagtakan ku mu naman, nung bakit ala lang gigigit ampong mipangandut potang kanaku lang pakibatan detang sari-sari dang ikukutang. King kanakung kapilubluban, akung matulang mamiru king kanakung sarili: Ay, marayil uling menasa lang babai at siguru, kakasantingan la kanaku! 

 King tula ra, aku lang apapagumasdan detang mipipingkilan dang siku, at makanian mu naman, detang mata rang kindat-kindat atnang kapamiru. Karetang karelang pamilayun karing mapamiru dang pamaglalawe, ating lulub king kanakung isip, marayil, makapatungkul ketang dalagang matayimik makasiping kanaku. Dapot king wanan ku makalukluk ya iting abe dang dalaga, eku ya man apapansinan, uling detang kayang kayabe, makagiyam lang pakisabian. Pablasang ing dalan kekaming bibeben malipugpug ya, itang malagu nang lupa nitang dalaga, kaya nayang tatakpan ketang panyu nang malutu at pane makalawe ketang marayu. Eya bubulad, uling siguru, mikakunu ya kanaku, at ala yang kabalu-balu tungkul kanaku. Pablasang detang kayabe na purus lang mapamiru, iyang pelakuan da king siping ku, dapot peluklukan naman keta mismung kayarapan ku. Sinagakgak lang lalu pa ketang kayang pamintu, at kanakung pagtakan nung bakit ing siyo da atnang katni king tula. King karelang kimut, mamyalungan ku isip, at king kanakung ukul, balamu, iyang ibabage da kanaku. Ketang masapsap dang buring malyari, ikaming piyarap da, at detang kekaming mata ikua rang mikit, kinislap at misabi.

Aku yang linawe at aku namang linawe. Makatiman ku lupa at mangalutu ya itang kaya. Maratnang lawan-lawan ku ya dapot duku-duku ya. Akung magpakilala kaya dapot mikakunung makibat ya. Aku lang sipat-sipatan detang mabilug nang mata dapot ketang salamin nang malutu-lutu, deti kaya lang tatakpan malaguang-malagua. Itang kule nitang kayang balat, kaku ya mu namang pigumasdan, ay! kabage nitang kayang kule ketang imalan nang berde! akung sinabi king kanakung sarili.

 Kabang lalalam itang kanakung lawe, akung apapansinan itang malalam nang pangisnawa. Eku kukurap king pamaglalawe kaya, uling eku la buring matda sala detang mamanga kung mata kaya. Kanitang penandit, ala yang laman ing kanakung panimanman, nune, itang lalu ya pang asilayan. Uling bandi na ya niting kakung pamaglalawe, ena balu ning dalaga nung magpildis o malis ya ketang lugal pilulukluka’na. Ena naman balu, nung itang susulud nang baru, kaya na yang panabitan o pulisan o kuskusan o samasan, kanita, aku nang tuknang lalawe pa kaya. Marayil, uling eku ya patugutnan lalawan, iya nang isipan, ing aku nang yugse lual ning saken, kanita, akung mawala ketang karapa’na. Dapot, nung nanu itang kayang panga-inipan, iya namang ikakawili nitang mayayama kung sarili. Kabang luluat, tutung ali ke awari ing kibul ning pusu ku. Tatatap yang alang patna, pupukdul yang alang nanu. Bakit kaya ing pusu ku makanyan yang mamanga, balamu, iyang mamumulang at masisira!  Bakit kaya eke arienda ing kabug ning kakung pusu? Malsinta ya pin kaya kening dalagang ngeni na pamu a katagpo at ing lagyu naman ena pa balo?

 Kaburi ku yang ipilpil iting maliswas kung pusu, dapot, nanu ke mang itimpi, lalu yatang mikakapali. Buri keng itali, dapot, lalu yang magpatabili. Buri keng dukutan, dapot, lalu yang sasalikut. Buri keng dakma, dapot, lalu yang maglumpasag. Buri keng sakalan, dapot, lalu yang lulundag. Akung mangutang kening kakung sarili: Bakit eku balung ipalino nung bakit ing kanakung pusu aku na yang ililindu? Bakit ing kanakung pakiramdam tuliru yang tuliru?  

Kabang iting dalaga, kanaku ya pang pagumasdan, lalu ku ya pang angaan, lalu pang paninapan. Detang pitiris-tiris nang bitis, kaku lang lalawan, kaku lang batya-batyawan… kasanting da at kakaba, aliwa lang aliwa, uling king bie ku yata, kanita ku pa minangang minanga. Tutu kung mawiwili… tutu kung mayayama… tutu kung miyuyu king lawe ku kaya… Marayil, mua at masusora ya kanaku uling detang kanakung mata atna lang kapamuska. Dapot iya nang makasibaktung kanaku, kaya ku pa lalung mamanga uli nitang buak nang makaba. Akung sinabi king kanakung sarili: Ay, kabage nang kabage ketang buak nang makaluge! Uling akung makalawe ketang buak nang makaluge, kaya ya iting kinaul at sepunggul, at iti kaya yang pinusud. Pasibayu, akung sinabi king kanakung sarili: Kalalu na pang mibage ketang malagu nang lupa… lalu yang metingkad…lalu yang melagu…! Metung ya waring kandidata ketang ligligan detang musa… alang malyaring sumambut  kaya king tikas at dagul na…!

 Kaburi keng akaket! Kaburi keng lalawan! Kaburi keng pag-umasdan! Kaburi ku yang talanan! Kaburi ku yang apisan! Kaburi ku yang uman! Marayil, nung malyari mu, iti kanakung depatan inggiang ikadalum o ikasukul ku man! Dapot ita eku gewa uling kanita, metung kung tulala at mulala!

 Kasukal ku lub, kamua kung kamua, uling ketang lugal kekaming pupuntalan, kekami nang disan. Mimasmas ku isip, mibali’ku diwa, ketang ing dalaga kung mumutya, kabira-bira… iyang mitambad kayarapan ku!, Tiniman ya kanaku, at aku mu namang tiniman kaya king mipmung yubu’t yumu. Ay! karagul a bage, kasanting ning pakiramdam ko, uling pusu ku lalu yang miyuyu…lalu yang kinarug…lalu yang linuksu! Kalagu na ning dalagang kanaku mekabigani! akung sasabi king kanakung sarili.

Mikawani kami pintalan, dapot, ing kanakung sarili lalu ku yang ali a wari, pauli niting pusu kung megani. Iti lalu yang minanga, lalu yang milsinta, at maninap king ing sana, itang dalaga, akit ku yang pasibayu! 

 Miras ku ketang tuknangan a kanakung panintunan. Akung masayang selubung detang kanakung kayabe at tiru itang maging tudturan ku. Karela lang mengutang kanaku nung aku lang balu detang kayagnan ku, at ali ing pekibat ku. Nandin karatang mung abak, ila ping mangutang tungkul keka, arang sinabi kanaku. Tau la Tarlac College of Technology karin king Tarlac, digtung da pang pasibayu. Nanu ya kaya lagyu itang abe dang dalaga? akung mengutang karela. Aba, tuturu yang Mathematics ita at Lolita Victorio ing lagyu na, at Lolit ing yaus mi keya, anang mekibat nitang metung kayabe ku. Kabiasna’na, mag-doctorate yang Statistics king U.P., maganaka na, kaluguran ku ya, anang mekibat nita pang metung. Paglolon me! paglolon me! buri mi ya keka! arang matingid aduan kanaku. Oy, Rodrigo! Eka mumuli keta kekatamu trade nung ala kang apalyari! arang mangulit kanaku detang babai. Mayli at pibabalugbug ku la mu uling balu ku, makadua mu, karin king trade school muli na kaming pasibayu.

 Makanyan man, i Lolit buri ku nayang akit pasibayu. Akung matula at masaya uling kakilalang-kakilala deya ding abe ku.

Kaybat nitang kekaming gamit mitangkap na, ikami nang mibalik seminar room, at bandang ala dos ning gatpanapun inyang pasibayu misundu itang seminar-workshop a gagawan mi. Abala ku king assignment a mitutuk kanaku at abala la ngan ding dakal makayabe kaniting seminar a mesabi. Silip-silipan kuya itang dalaga Tarlac dapot ali ku ya apagumasdan uling king dakal ding tau at abala lang mipanigaral karetang assignment makatutuk karela.

Karas nitang ala singku, mikawa-kawani na la ding tau at ume nang muling pasibayu karing karelang kuartu. Alang saken kanita, inya ding menasa kailangan maglakad la. Ikit kuya i Lolit kayagnan ding abe na at aku lang likuan detang kayabe kayagnan ku. Akung tinuki king karelang pamaglakad at kunwaring migpakilalang pasibayu ing ninu aku. Kanaku matula la at iyang inagape kanaku itang karelang dalaga. Makaba at miyaliwa itang karelang kuwentu. Mayli la mung mayli uli yatang pibabage at manintun lang talagang dalan, kanita, ikaming adua akua ming misabi. Iti kanakung ikakalugud at masapno nang ikakatula ning kanakung pusu uling kanakung paninap mididinan sese ampong lino. Ali miglambat, miras kaming matula ketang kekaming tuknangan at ikami nang migpainawa.

Kaibat nitang alus aduang oras, miglakad kaming pasibayu ban mapun na ketang kantina. Pasibayu, kinawani ku karing abe ku Baculud at ketang dalaga ning Tarlac karin ku migdatun at mekiyagnan. Tunggal ditak kaku yang akikilala’t ababalu at aku makanyan mu naman keya. Kayari nitang kekaming pamamangan apunan, miglakad kaming pasibayu kaibat nitang makuyad ming painawa. Madalumdum na kanita, at detang posting kekaming lalabasan, ala lang aslag uling kanita, alang kuryenti. Iting pamikatagun, lalung minye puge king kanakung pusu, inya kanita, detang kanakung kuwentu kaniting dalaga, lalu lang melabung at minyampaga. Bagya bagya, i Lolit mayli naya kanaku at ditak-ditak, aku nang manakit kilim ketang keyang lupa. Kalakalale, aku nayang apapatunud at detang mangalati nang timan kanaku, akakait ku na lang lalare ampong nenene.

Pasibayu, miras kaming matula ketang kekaming tuknangan. Akung memun karing kayabe nang Lolit, nung karela yang a panuala kanaku, kanita, ikami pang mipag-istorya. Marayil, uling mayan ing lub da kanaku, karela eku man mikaduan amanu. Karela yang penabilin mayap at ara pang memusit kanaku: E me paburen ing dalaga mi uling yapin ing kekang maging asawang painturu! Sesen muyang masalelse uling bage kayung bage!   Kekami yang kaluguran, inya keka yang ingatan!  Mayumu kung tinangu, patune, daptan kung dalise itang likuan dang panabilin kanaku. Matula kung matula karing bayung kakilala ku menibatan Tarlac uling palage la lub kanaku at king timtim ku, ing karelang dalagang kanakung tagimpan, balamu, buri da ya mu naman kanaku.

Aku yang inagkat lukluk ketang eran sementu itang dalagang kanakung pemun pakipagkwentuan. Kaganaka nang agkatan uling agad-agad, kayang pemintuan itang keya inawad ku. Linukluk ya dapot ing dayu na kanaku atin yatang aduang metru. King lub ku, mayli at masaya ku, uling mamyalungan king isip ku a nung makananu dumatun ya king siping ku.

 Ding batwin masanting la kanitang bengi at ing banwa malwalas at matunud ya. Ing bulan kilap-kilap ya king sala nang matina at ing kapadurutnan misisinagan ketang aslag nang misna tula. Uli ning Pasku malapit na, ing tiyup nitang angin mamyalungan na king dimla. Pablasang makatalpa’kami tukura’ning Bunduk Alaya, ing ambung dudulung manibat king banua, gagapang at gagale na king dimla. Ing sunis ding kuliglig sitsitsitsit at kulakulait, babie nayun king panimanman, babie santing king pakiramdaman, atnang kabage karing tulauk ding tuku ampong kulayo. Ing banglu ding sampaga, alimuyak waring manamuyut at kanaku mangamanu: Rodrigo, kekang samasan mamunting amanu, kanita, keka yang  apapalsinta ing masamyung Lolita…

Memuklat kung istorya, at e miglambat, memuklat ya namang kuwentu. Kanaku lang pipinpinan detang mabanglu nang amanu, at iya, titimtiman na la detang kanaku. Istorya na ing keyang pamagaral, kukuwentu ku mu naman ing kanaku. Eksplika nang pamanauru nang Mathematics, Counseling naman itang kukuwentu ku kaya. King balang sabian na, akung tatangu keya at king balang sasabian ku, ing tangu na anti mu rin ketang kanaku. Ala kaming pisasalangsangan, ala kaming pisasagsagan.

 Kabang pupulayi ya karing kuwentu na, tunggal ditak, akung dudusug ketang lele na. Dapot, eku binang makiramdam karetang kayang istorya, itang maragul kung tagimpan, iya itang akung mileleng milele ketang kayang pangisnawa. Uling e na ku binang balu, atnayang kalyap potang misisiping ku keya. Dapot, nung dusug na ya namang marayu, ketang galo na, kalakalale, tutuki kung pasibayu. Marayil, ikua nang sinawa ketang kanakung tiyaga, at ketang kanaku nayang kalele, akung manene ka ya sinabi: Eka tatakut, emu ku darayuan. Mayap kung kasabi. Maniwala ka king kanakung amanu, at ali mu isipan ing aku, malikut at marok kung tau… Dinuku at mipakayli ya, at ita, lubus mekasaya king salu ku. Manibat kanita, king siping ku, metunud ya, at meluat nang meluat ing kekaming kuwentu. 

Kaya ku la tiru detang kilap-kilap at masayang batwin at bulan karin babo banua. Kabang kaya lang pagumasdan, akung kaya mengutang: Balu muya itang kantang Vincent? Aku yang daramdaman pero eke masyadung balu letra, anang mekibat kanaku. Bisa ka istorya ke keka, akung sinabi kaya. Meyli at tinangu ya, at ume yang mekiramdam ketang makalunus nang bie Vincent Van Gogh. Tayimik na ing sabla liban na mu kekaming adua. King keluatan, ing balat detang kekaming gamat, tunggal ditak akakua da nang misasagana at miuuma. Itang kayang lupa, kalakalale akakait ku yang lalu pang sasala, at detang kayang pisngi at labi, kikinang na lang king lare at tula. Kaniting magani kung kabilyan, lalu yang malulumud king saya iting pusu kung manabiba. Marayil, alang ninu man ing magsilbing makapagpalino kanaku, a nung bakit iting pusu ku anti ya waring makatsubibu. Makayama iting pakiramdam! Makayuyut ing kanakung daramdaman! Mandilu ya king ligaya ing magtampiso kung pusu! Sari ya king kayan iting kanakung inawa! Biga ku waring makasangkayo babo dikut king taldawa! Ambun ku waring sanap-sanap king sepu ding amor seku! Kasanting ku pakiramdam! Kalagu ku panimanman! Ing pulayi ning oras, iti ali miya apansinan… ali miya apansinan… uling ing balang penandit atnang saya kekeng adua… at e mi apansinan…ganingaldo na pala!

Kabuklat ning abak, aku nang ginayak. Linual kung masaya, malwalas ku lupa. Ing kakung aske at ing malare kung kule, lalu yatang mibage keniting sisigpo at inspiradu kung pusu. Kabungad ku ketang pasbul, tambing-tambing, i Lolit na iyang pagdulapan ding mata ku. Ikit keyang makalukluk, mamangan, kayantabe detang masaya nang kaluguran. Matula keng linawe, masaya na ku namang linawe. Masaya keng pinepe, matula ya na mang minepe. Meyli ku keya, at kananku, tiniman yang atnang kayumu.

Makarine mang ukulan kening kanakung sarili, bakit balamu, mibangun yatang pasibayu, itang panamdam kung malsinta ketang kanakung kayanakan. Akung pang sasabi kening lub ku: Balamu, mamutikas at sasapo pasibayu iting kanakung pakiramdam. Isip ku, kening idad kung beinti nuebi at itang kaya beinti otsu, iting panamdam, ena makabage kening kekaming estadu. Iting malilyari lubus makatula, dapot kaniting pamikatagun, balamu bisa kung maniwala, ing panamdam pamalsinta king idad eya kikilala! Nanu ing daptan ku? Nanu ing gawan ku kening panamdaman kung e aintindyan?

Katlu at katataulian mi nang aldo niting kekaming seminar-workshop keti farm school king balen Magalang. Kaybat nitang kekaming almusal detang kaluguran ku Baculud, ikami nang melaus king seminar room. Bayu megumpisa itang mismung seminar, atin pa mung programang makuyad ing megampan, ban ding sabla, ilang magsaya at mikikilala. Bayu ya menyara itang tagapagsalita, inaus naya ing lagyu nang Miss Lolita Victorio, kanita, magparamdam yang metung a kanta. Minta ya arap at migkanta yang acapella pemagatan If This is Love Darling. Kabang magkanta ya, papalakpakan da yang atnang katni uli nitang bosis nang masanting at matarling. Rod pakibatan me ing kanta nang Lolit, arang misusubung ding kayabe ku Baculud.  Ketang karelang sinabi, migkule kung anting ange, uling king kanakung bie, deng kanta eku la balung igege. E na ka daratang keta kekatamu nung eka talakad at magkanta! arang matingid manyawad kanaku. Italakad me ing bandera ning Baculud! Patunayan mung ika tau ka Baba! ara pang mangulit kanaku.

Migparugu-rugu ku karela uling king tutu mu talagang eku biasang magkanta. Dapot, ara mung mekibat kanaku: Eka mangupeti…eka tatalyu…! Bayu ya mayari itang kakanta nang Lolit, tinalakad ya itang metung a kekaming kayabe, at kabud, keyang telanan itang mikroponu, pepakilala ing lagyu ku, at aku kanung pakibatan itang kanta nang Miss Victorio. Bista man, eku bisa, penulak daku detang abe ku, angga ketang dela daku ketang mabababg entebladu. Papalakpak la ding tau at ala nakung agawa, nune itang mamintu ku angga mung makapakananu. Kamarinayan a maragul nung ali magkanta ku, inya inggiang bosis ku sintunadu, kaku yang peramdam itang kantang Hindi Kita Malilimutan.  Kaburi, kasaya ring tau at king wari ku, atin lang balu ding malda kaniting tinubung lub ku kang Lolit apapalsintan ku. Kanyaman niting kanakung pakiramdam, at ala kung malit-malitan, lalu pa yatang mitawu at milablab iting tinubu kening kanakung pangatau.

 Kaybat nitang paugtuan, meyari at misara na ing atlung aldo seminar-workshop a kekaming gimpanan keni balen Magalang. Kalupa detang sabla, marapal kung tingkapan itang keganaganang gamit ku, kanita, makisake kung pasibayu karetang kayabe ku. Karetang kayabe ku Baculud, akung meki mayap lub pamu karela, kanita, akung makisabi at mamun kang Lolit a kanakung apapalsintan tutu. Kaibat nitang kekaming makuyad pamisabi, aku nang memun keya, at metung amanung maula ing pebakal ku keya. Akung masuging sinabi kaya: Potang mikit katang pasibayu, agkatan da kang kasal ta na. Iti, king buri mu at ali… Meyli yamu kanaku, dapot melutu yang alang nanu itang keyang lupa.

 Mikawani kami kaibat nita, at ala na kung balu nung kapilan mikit kaming pasibayu. Karatang nitang malalam nang bengi, masusi kung ukulan nung nanu ing kanakung daptan karetang amanu kung likuan kanitang dalagang kanakung akilala. Makananung mapalyari, makananung mipaltutu… uling lubus ali kami malalam pang mika-imbalu…e pa panaun…epa sapat ing kekaming pamikilala… akung sasabi kening lub kung mikakunu. King isip ku, iti buri ku nang kalinguan… uling ala namang kapuntalan…ala namang paintungulan. Iti buri ku nang ipilpil…buri ku nang kalinguan…buri ku nang ikutkut. Iti eku na buri pang isipan uling balu ku, kaniti, ala kung akarapat… ala kung apalyari. Dapot iti, nung kapilan ku iwawale, lalu na naku mang ilalako inawa niting kanakung sarili.

Kaybat nitang paruminggu, ati namang sulat ing kanakung tinggap. Iti pirmadu naya nitang CIRPS Executive Director at aduan ing malaguang pamanagun ning kekaming College President at aku mu naman, a maganap November 12, 1986 king Tarlac College of Technology, Tarlac, Tarlac. King tula ku, king College President Office migsarya ku, at akung mengutang nung makananu king Tarlac miras ku. Eku kanu migaganaka uling itang lugal karela yang kabisadung kabisadu.

 Metung aldo bayu datang itang kekaming pamunta king Tarlac, binuklat ku king kanakung college president at ketang kayang asawa, itang  lama’ning lub at isip ku. King wari ku, ilang mikakunung tangu ketang pamakyasawang isipan ku, uling ela piu ketang kaulia’nitang kanakung planu. Antimong kanakung matua, peisip da ing sabla kanaku, lalu na itang kayang maging bunga. Kanaku lang pakiramdaman, dapot, ketang penandit ita, bulag ya ing sabla kung pangatau.

Tutu ing sasabian ding aliwa, ing pusu nung malsinta ya, abubulag naya ing isip ning tau. Anti ya man kayapan ing isip, ing pusu abulag na ya iti, tuki at tuki ya ketang kayang buri. Ana pin nitang kasebyan, O lugud misna king upaya, potang keka yang sekupan ing pusu ning ninu mang tau, ing sabla keka ngang paimburisan matuki mu sana itang buri mung malyari.

Makanyan man, detang miyasawa, ilang mengakung saup ketang kanakung planu at nanu man ing malyari, pabustan ali daku.

Pablasang detang miyasawa maluat lang tinuru king Tarlac College of Technology at karin Tarlac manuknangan la, aku rang tiki ketang karelang saken, inya akung miras malagua ketang escuela, nung nukarin itang pulung magagawa. Akung magumasid king makapadurut kanaku uling nung e kanita, king balen Tarlac miras ku. Karing tau alus ala kung kakilala, puera namu, karetang dati ku nang balu. Kaluklu’ku ketang conference room, i Lolit na iyang panintunan ku. Nukarin ku man marap, alang Lolit ing akakit ku. Kalyap detang mata ko, maliswas ya itang pusu ku. Ing kanakung mabilug pangatau, manintun ya mung metung a tau, at iti, aliwa nune i Lolit a sinta ku!

 Ketang kekaming pulung misna ku king kainip. Lingo ku panimanman, sulasulapo ing kakung diwa. Pata yang isip ku, balamu, linto ku yatang lingo at tungo! Aku lang daramdaman detang sablang misasabi, dapot detang karelang maulang pisasabyan, kanaku ala ngang kabaldugan. Karetang kekaming pipulungan, nanu man, ala kung atandanan. Ketang maulang penandit a ita, metung ya mung bage ing buri kung malyari. Iti ya ing akit ku na i Lolit king ora mismu! Kakaba nitang oras, kakaba nitang pisasabyan, at nung magsilbi mu, itang oras kaku yang pamatakan, kanita, itang pulung midina’nang kawakasan!

 Salamat a dakal at ing pulung meyari na. Kabang ding sabla, king paugtuan masaya la, iting wawa ku naman mete ya panlasa. Kanyaman ing pamangan, lutu pa namang Kapampangan. Ala kung teginan, ala ku mang tikman, uling itang isip kung mamyalungan, i Lolit mu ing buri kung akit!

 Kaniting buri kung malyari alang ninu mang makibalu. Kapatad man o pengari, alang ninu mang mimisip keting luluban kung peligrosu. Kaniting penandit, ala kung kasaup, ala kung kamaganak. Aku mung magdili-dili, maliban mu pin king kanakung presidenti. Nanu man ing malyari kanaku, kaniti ala mang makabalu. Nanu man ing malyari, iti tanggapan kung manyaman. Nanu man ing kalwalan, iti kanakung tanggapan. Dapot, siguradu ku kaniting buri kung malyari… ala kung pikakunuan… alang nanung matsurang sasagi kanaku, alang nanung inisip ing aku mipariwara ku. Aku mang magdili-dili, dapot, akung maragul maniwala king kanakung sarili, ing Apung Guinu makasiping ya kanaku.

 Kaibat nitang paugtuan, ena ku likuan nitang kanakung presidenti. Kaya na lang peyaus detang sabla nang kaluguran. Kaya na lang kesabi detang makatua king escuela. Karela, akung na yang pepakilala. Matula nang pebalu’t sinabi karela, nung nanu ing palsintan kung malyari. Balu deya i Lolit nung nanu ing kayang ugali, balu deya pangatau, inya ila anti na lang pengari. Kanaku, ati’na lang dimdam dapot ita karangan mu. Kayakit da kanaku, miyasamas dakung tinimtim, at mayap namu naman, meging mayan la lub kanaku. Pablasang kanaku lang karaya anti mong Kapampangan, meging malugud la kanaku, at ilang migparaya ketang karela adwan ku.

I Lolit ausan yang malagua at pidungut lang adua ban ilang misabi, arang masayang sinabi. Memintu ya itang karelang tiburan, at ditak mung penandit, aku nang inagkat da, ketang bale ning escuela. Kinislap ku lupa ketang ikit ku naya in Lolit. Buri keng talanan…buri keng kaulan… dapot king tula ku, eku balu nung nanu ing kanakung daptan. Ing lupa nang Lolit kanaku yang pakasipatan…kanaku yang pakalarawan. King kanakung wari, iya man, ena na naman balu nung nanung keyang daptan. Wari ku, king masaya kung sarili, maluat ku na yang kakaburi, maluat ku na yang bandi, a eku ikit kilub nitang limampulung banua!  Ketang kayang luklukan, atneng kataimikan. E kikimut, malalam ya isipan. King wari ku, bisa yang tumulu lua, bisa yang mako uling pota mipasubu ya kening kadungut nang atna  ka-agresibu.

 Likuan da kami at misabi kaming adua. Dinatang ku ban tupad ketang likuan kung amanu keka, akung segiwa kaya. Ala yang bulad, ala yang nanu mang pekibat. E migluat anang manene mekibat: Eku tenam king lub ku itang kekang sinabi, balu ku mamiru kamu. Akung malugud sinabi ka ya: Dinatang ku uling laus ku lub at pusu, Dapot anang mikakunung migsalita: Emu mu ku lubus kakilala at balu. Emu ku kakilala.  Era ka pin mayap balu… era ka man mayap kakilala, dapot kanaku, pebalu naka ning Apung Guinu, at ika nakang tiru kanaku. Biyaya na ka kanaku at ika kanaku, akung malugud sinabi kaya. I Lolit mangalutu ya lupa, atnang sinabing pasibayu: Maglolo ka pamu kanaku, ban akilala mu kung tutu at nung ninu aku. Akung pasibayung mekibat ka ya:  Tukyan daka buri, dapot tukyan mu ku naman sana buri. Kasal ta na. Kasal ka ta pamu, ban kanita, itang buri mung suyuan daka, gawan kung mayumung-mayumu. Mipakayli ya kanaku, at lalu ya pang mengalutu. Lawan mu ing idad tamung adua, akung kaya pepaganaka. Beinti otsu ka, beinti nuebi ku. King wari ku, e makabage na, ing mipaglolo kata pang adua, uling ding tau, pagsistiyan daka ta pa, pauli ning idad tamung mamun na king kalendaryu, akung pang migpakayli kaya. Lawen mu ku mata…lawen mu ku lupa… deti manyabi lang tutu keka… aku pang maglolo kaya. Lawan mu la ding matua, lawan mu la ding kaluguran mu, metung at metung, alang ninu mang sasalangsang karela, akung manyawad pakibat kaya. Kaluguran daka at palsintan dakang alang sala, ika ing buri kung maging asawa, maging indu ning kakung familia… akung malugud susuyu kaya. Ali daka pabustan… ali daka paburen…ali daka pakyakan…at kapilan man, pakaluguran dakang pakaluguran…akung tutung mangaku kaya. Ala yang pakibat, ali ya bubulad. Makaduku ya lupa, bisa yang kumyak. Bisa yang miwas, bisa yang mako, dapot, ketang lukluka’na, kaku yang ginapus karetang gamat kung keya magparalampu.

Marayil, makiramdam at magumasid la kanitang penandit, detang kaluguran at malugud kaya. King sablang tula ku, akung ikuang mipakakama, ketang ing metung nang kayabe escuela, magdala yang marriage contract ayusan da na pala!. Eku balu nung magsaya at magdiwang naku. Ing pekamasanting a balu ku kanitang penandit, iya itang kasiping ku na yang kasiping, ing sinta kung painturu ku nang ayasawa!

Karing tau, matula kung matula. Inggia man era ku binang balu, maliswas at kikimut la, ketang upayang mikasal na kami maganap kanu king balen Victoria. Ding saken ning escuela geyak da la, at ding sabla mamirapal na la, uling ing silim daratang na. Ala kung balu nung nukarin dala daku, eku mu naman balu nung nanung malyari kanaku. Kabang ing kekaming saken pupulayi ya, inisip ku king kanakung sarili, ing metung ku waring gala gagato at tutuki king agus ning danum nitang malalam sapa.

 Miras kami ketang bale Victoria a bandi nitang metung ming kayabe. Akung mangapamulala king kanakung disan uling ing sabla makasadia na ngan king kasal a magawa. Ing secretaryu nitang minisipyu, kayang miyasamas mamakinilyan itang kontrata nitang kekaming kasal. Ding aliwa, atyu la kusina at maglutu lang miyali-aliwa. King kanakung saya, bisang tumulu ing kanakung lua! Ketang penandit kanita, bista man ala lu siping ku detang kanakung matua, ding sabla kikimut la para kanaku, gaganap king mipmung tula para kanaku. Pengari la waring kanaku bidbud ning Apung Guinu, a gagampan ketang sablang kailangan ku. Kalugud na ning Apung Guinu, at Kayang sidya ing dalan kanaku, kanita, ing kanakung malagung tagimpan makapamakiasawa, gana-ganang mipaltutu!

E megluat, dinatang na ya itang alcaldi ning munisipyu. Kaya yang linawe ing kontrata at lepita’na kaming pareyu. Kitangan na kami king kekaming pamikalugud, king kekaming kayadwanan bisang kasal, at pengamanuan ketang malagung pami yabe antimong miyasawa. Kaybat ning seremonya, kaya na lang pekiduang detang kekaming singsing, dapot, meyli kaming agnan-agnan, uling kareti, ala mu mang makasadia. Lubus nang aintindian ing kekaming kabilian, inya, ing itang lagyu na, keya nayang pinirma ketang kontrata ating petsang November 12, 1986. Nganang sinabi kekami: Ngeni miyasawa nakayu! Linawe naku at nganang minutus: Ngening ikayung adua, ikayu nang miyasawa, uman mu naya ing kekang asawa tanda ning lugud mu kaya.  Malugud kung memintu at telanan gamat ing kanakung asawa, at akung kaya mekisabi: Mrs. Sicat, malyari dakang uman. Linawe nakung misnang sala, at kaku yang inuma. Detang pago na kaku lang telanan, linapit ku kaya itang kanakung pangisnawa, at akung digpa labi karetang keya. Iti kaku pang inulit, at kaku yang kinaul. Katula ding manakit, kasaya ding sabla… at ngarang sasambitla detang aliwa: Kasanting ne…ngeni ku pamu menakit king anti kanyang pamiyasawa. E la man lubus mikilala, dapot ing karelang pamikalugud, daig na pa itang mipaglolo lang aduang pulung banua…!

Matula la, masaya la ding sabla kaniting pamikatagun. Masaya la kekaming miyasawa, lalu kanaku, uli ning katuparan nitang panalangin kung makapakyasawa. Pengaul da kami at malugud manalangin king Apung Guinu, itang ikulub na kekami ing Keyang bendisyung mayumu.

Kaybat nitang kapasalamatan, mibali’kami Tarlac ban yatad kaming miyasawa ketang bale ning kanakung asawa. Nung nukarin makatungnang ya, kaniti ala kung kabalu-balu, uling kapilan man, eku pa miras keta karela. Mu naman, eku la balu detang maging katuwangan ku, uling misan man, eku la pa ikit king mabilug a bie ku. Kapilan man, ala pang pamikatagun ing ikit ku la, at ila, makanian mu naman kanaku. Munaman, ala kung balu karing maging bayo ku. Ala kung balu king ugali ra, ala lang kabalu-balu mu naman kanaku. Akung mangutang kening kanakung sarili: nanu kaya ing kanakung kaulyan karing taung salagpian ku? Tanggapan da ku kaya o ikawani king kanakung asawa? Nanu kaya nung era ku buri? Nanu ing gawan ku nung arang itabi daku? Makanian man, panalangin ku king Apung Guinu, ing sana, maging mayan la lub kanaku, ali la salangsang kaniting kekaming pamiyasawa niting kaluguran kung asawa.

 Ding pamilya ning kanakung asawa aku lang akilala. Pablasang i Lolit pangane ya karing kapatad na, alang pepakit malulam lupa karela. Marayil, magtaka lamu nung makananung minuli yang talasawa iting karelang kapatad, uling ala lang kabalu-balu kaniting asawang tikya’na. Akung pagumasdan itang kimut nitang babai kung , nung nanu itang kayang daptan. Akung magumasid ketang balang sasabya’na, nung nanu ing gawa’na. Kanaku yang dimput itang malyap a gamat na, akung siniklaud, at linikluk alang bulad.

 Detang matua kekami mamantabe, ilang ka ya mekisabi. Eya bubulad, mangisnawang atnang kalalam. Maliswas ya ketang lukluka’na, ena balu nung nanu ing dapta’na. Marayil, bisa yang kumyak, bisa yang gulisak. Mekad, buri nakung itabi uling ena ku balu. Siguru, isipa’na, nung nanu ku pangatau, uling balamu, singo kung payung-payungan bigla na mu linto. Marayil, ikukutang na king kayang sarili nung bakit mipakanyan ya sukad ing anak a pakamala’na.  Marayil, masukal ing lub na, mua yang mua uli ning gewa ming adua. Marayil, ing sukal nang lub buri nang ibugnus, dapot, iti ena agawa uling detang matuang makayantabe kekami, kaya ali la aliwa. Deting kekaming kayabe mangatua, ilang kaya minye patutu, king i Lolit, eya misala king kayang pamakyasawa. Deting matua a kilala at balu nang tutu, minye la pang mayap a garantya, king ing asawa ning anak na, maganaka at mayap ya.

 E miglambat, memu’na la detang kekami minantabe. Migpasalamat ku karela at akung pengaul at pengalamanu. Aku namung dili at akung mimiiisip nung nanu ing tutuking malyari. Tunggal-tunggal karela, aku rang kukutnan, keta marayil, abalu da nung nanu ing kanakung pangatau. Makibat kung kalakalale, at akung magpatune, ing aku mayap kung tau, at munaman, maging mayap asawa king kapatad da. Tayimik ya mu ing katuangan kung babai, at king wari ku, ing isip na mamyalungan yang sari-sari. Kanaku yang panintunan itang katuangan kung lalaki, dapot iti ala yu kanita. Kaybat nitang mapilan penandit, sinabi ya itang kanakung katuangan at ikami na kanung magpainawa 

Akung tinuki king kanakung asawa, at kayang tiru itang tudtura’na. Tayimik ing sabla at ali kami bubulad adua. Kanaku yang lepitan, at kanaku yang pekisabyan. Kanaku yang pengutnan kaniting kekaming desisyun. Ala yang pekibat, ali ya man binulad. Mebasa ya mata a ginapang karetang keyang lupa. Kanakung pinulis iti, kanita, mapawi itang lumbe na. Kaku yang inaru, kaku yang sinuyu. Amanu kung mayumu, ilang kayang meging panulu. Pasibayu, akung kaya mengaku: Kaluguran da ka! Pakaluguran da kang sari yumu’t sanke king mabilug kung pangisnawa! 

 Ketang benging ita, biglang dinatang ing lisangan. Uli niti, ing uran mibulus misna king kasikan! Ala kang damdaman nune itang byung detang malabung kawayan. Kasanting pakiramdaman detang karelang mipapaspasan bulong. Kasanting pakiramdaman detang lalangitngit dang impun. King eku balu, ing uran mesikan pang lalu. Merimla itang angin, mipatudtud kung atnang santing. Kalingat ku ditak saglit, akung tinalakad at migumasid. Pagtakan ku at nung bakit inggiang angin marimla na, itang bugsu nitang uran mibulus pang pasibayu. Kalabas nitang uran, milako pasibayu itang singo nitang lisangan. Uli niti, akung mipasno pakiramdam at akung mipatudtud eku balu.  

Kayabak kagising ku, makatando na ya itang aldo. Panintunan ku ya ing abe ku, ita pala ya nang maglutu. Tinipa ku’t lepitan ya ban saupan king gagawa’na. Ginulut yang katuangan ku, a nandin kasabi na pa. Lingu’nang pipia’na alang bulad kukusut na. Sukal nang lub aintindyan ku, inanakit na kakung alalasa. Mengan kaming alang bulad, ing pamangan ku anti waring ating panulu.

Kaibat nitang kekaming almusal, ikaming memun miyasawa ban muli Pampanga. Ikaming muli keta kekami, kanita, kaya na lang akilala detang kanakung partidus balen Kababan. Itang kanakung katuangan, ala ya pa muring bulad, ala yang tangu, ala yang kasaya-saya lupa. Ginaya’kami’t memun kaya, at pasibayu, anti waring ala yang dimdam, anting alang ikit, itang malumbe kung katuangan. Meko kaming alang bulad at ume nang melaus. Ita kanung kalako mi, ing malungkut kung bayung pengari, menangis yang alang nanu. Itang imalan pipiya’na, king gabun penugse na. Ala yang asalese uling itang lub na ala yu ketang gagawa’na.

Menabat kaming saken at melaus na. Kalukluk mi kaniti, kaku yang telanan ing gamat ning abe ku, patune, tutu yang maula kanaku. Kaku yang kinaul ban maluluglug ing sabla nang pikakunuan. Ketang kanakung pago, kaku yang sinandal at mipatudtud king salu ku. Kabang kaku yang aguran, miglakad ya ing kakung diwa at kanakung isipan nung nanu ing kayulian niting kakung aluban. Akung mangutang king kanakung sarili: Nanu kaya ing dasan at sabian detang pengari’t kamagana’ku. Aku mu naming isipan, itang kanakung kabilyan karing painturu kung kapatad ngeni kanaku papagaral.  Nanu kaya ing daptan ku ban kanita king karelang pamagaral  e  mituknang la? Nanu kaya ing karelang kaulyan ngening aku nang talasawa? Nanu kaya ing gawan ku nung sakali, iting kanakung ayasawa, maging maimut ya karing obligasyun a likuan ku karela? akung mangutang kanitang isip kung mamyalungan.

 Balu ku king kapilanman, era ku dininan obligasyun detang kalulu kung matua, ban tambayukan itang karelang responsibilidad karing kapatad ku. Dapot kilub ding pusu ra, balu ku nung nanu ing yawad ra kanaku, lalu itang indu kung babai. Pengaku ku king kanakung sarili, king nanu man ing malyari, eku magpabusta kapilan man karela.  Deti mamyalungan la king kanakung sarili, at akung taimtim menalangin: Nawa iting kanakung ayasawa, keyang tanggapan iting kabilyan kung kalulu. Sana, maganaka ya’t mapanupaya, maragul a pusu, at mapanatindi king sabla…

Kalabas itang metung oras at kapitna, king baryu mi Baba miras kaming manawa. Katipa mi ketang saken, masaya kuyang kakalwan ing abe ku. Balang kekami manakit, ilang mangapatalanga at mangapakamakama. Ding sabla mangapamulala la kanaku, uling sinaguli ku mung mewala, aku nang magdalang asawa era man kakilala at kabalu-balu. Ating metung matuang babai kanakung kakilalang-kakilala ing linapit atnang memiru’t sinabi: Oy Rodrigo, mamulang! nukarin me labuad akalap ing kekang pisitara? Guinu ko! Bakit pekadagul dagul meng anti kanyan? Agiyu meng pamatbat yan at mekad galang ikang penasiwas na kanyan!  Kaku yang kinaul itang matuang babaing kapamiru ku at akung mekibat kaya: Iya ing asawa ku at Lolit ing lagyu na. Ali kami migpusitara uling kinasal na kami Tarlac. Nanu malagu ya ing abe ko? Nanu bage kame? Apagmaragul kya dara? Anang mapamiru pang sinabi: Taksyapu mo! E wari misasabi ka ta pamu kapilan pa at ala naka mang anti kanyan istorya kanako? Bakit kabira-bira aliwa yang abe mu ngeni?  Nanung gewa mung yan, itung? O itang balu ku, makananu ya kanyan? Akung mekibat kaya: Talagang ing suerti anti kanyan. Emu man panintunan, kabud na mu daratang… Kaya, akung minulit pasibayu keya: Nanu malagu yang abe ko? Wa naman! anang matulang mekibat kanaku. 

Itang kaluguran kung matua matula ya kanaku uling ume nakung mekapakyasawa. Ikami nang mumun kaya, at uling pare-pareyu kaming matula, ing kekaming pamaniklaud, kanita mi pamu aganaka. Itang kayang pitalan-talan sigarilyung markang ungut, keya yang sinubung pasibayu, aku nang pinikpik pago at anang memirung pasibayu: Rodrigo, ito, karagul ning arakap mo! Siguradu kang agyu me ing asawang darala mo?  Kaybat ku yang kinaul pago itang kapamiru kung matua, linakad na kami ning abe ku, pauli keta kekami.

 King kekaming pamanuli, balang bale kekaming lalabasan, kekami la pa mung ampitan. Matula la king abe ku, dapot ali da ya man masyadu pang balu. Matula ku karela, uling metung mu ing karelang kukutang kanaku: Rodrigo, ninu yang maragul abe mu? Obat e mi ya kakilala? Migpusitara kayo? Balu nang inang mu yan?  Kalupa nitang pakibat ku karetang aliwa, akung karela magdeklara: Mekyasawa na ku! Kinasal na kaming huez king Tarlac. Pablasang balu dang mapamiru ku, ada pang matulang sasabing paulit-ulit kanaku: Kamulangan mo! Eka mamiro. Makananu kang kinasal nung ika mung dili mu?  Makananung milyari ita. Bakit ali mi ya balu ing asawa mu? Bakit nung e ngeni, emu ya pepabalu kekami? Akung makibat karela: Suwerti ke ing abe ku. Eku la balung pakibatan deng kutang yu. Ala kung balung pakibat uling ala kung balu. At ara pang mangutang e maybug manwala: Ay Diyos ko, atin waring pamakyasawang anti kanyan! Itang metung bigla nang aganaka: Wa pin pala, menga’nako kanyan? Eko danupan? Nanu ing buri yung kanan?  E mi na la buring abalan pa, inya ikaming memun at sinulung na.

Karas mi ketang bale nang apu ku, lalu lang migtaka at mengapamulala. Minuna mi yang lepitan itang apu kung babai, at anang mengutang: Nanung milyari? Memusitara ka kano? Yang milyari balu nang inang mo? Inabut miya ing gamat na at ikaming meniklaud kaya. Kinasal na kami at darakitan da ka yu ban kanita magsulisitud tamu king aldo makadua, akung mekibat kang apu ku. Anang sinabi kanaku: Makanyan pala, bakit kailangan tamu pang magsulisitud, kinasal na kayu pala? Akung migpalino pa: Kanita miras kayu karin at kanita, akilala yu la ding pamilya ning abe ku.

 Itang apu kung lalaki makiramdam ya pala kekami, aku na yang inaus at pepalapitan kaya. Itang gamat na kekami yang kingua at siniklaud ka ya. Uli detang kayang mata lula na la, ali na ne akakit ing kanakung asawa. I Lolit pepalapita’naya kaya, at kayang kipkap ing lupa ning apu nang bayu. Anang sinabi kanaku: O Rodrigo, makananu meng arakap ing asawa mu? King wari ku, karagul na yatang babae! Obat eku balu ing ating ka palang kaburi Tarlac. Pasalamat ka’t aburya’na ka. Kang apu ku, akung sinabi: Apo, eka migkamali. Maragul ya ping tutu. Binie ne kanaku ning Apung Guinu, inggiang eke mipaglolo at masyadung mikabalu… Nanu ya itsura? ana pang sinigunda. Arang agnan-agnan mekibat detang makapadurut kaya: Malagu ya at lupa yang abugada.  Alus kasindagul neng Rodrigo, o mekad siguru, matas ya pang ditak ka ya.

 Ding aliwa minyasat la kabang mipag-istorya kaming masaya. Detang sablang makabalita, karas da, metung mu ing ikukutang da: I Rodrigo mikyasawa ne kano? Tutu ya ping maragul itang keyang ayasawa? Anta yu na la? Potang i Lolit iyang akit da, atna lang katulang katula at alang patugut ing ayli ra. Aba! tutu pin pala. Dagul napin pala ning asawa nang Rodrigo! arang masiglang magsalita.

Marayil, ing mangye dang pamagsalita ding tau, pagtaka’ning abe ku. Karing magale at matarling bosis ding tau, iyang manibayung-manibayu, uling nung e kanita king Lubao miras ya. Nung misan pangutnan da ya dapot mayli yamu uli sigurung detang aliwang salita gagamitan da, ela malino ketang balu na. Maralas mangutang ya pa kanaku, kanita, karing pakibat na eya mitalabu.

 Keta kekami, aku na yang inagkat ing abe ku, ban kanita, ka ya na lang akilala detang pengari nang bayu. Dapot e na kami buring mako pa mu nitang apu kung babai, aku nang ginayak at ume na kaming memun karela. Uling pepanyasat ya karetang kakung dara, ka ya nang penabilin ing eke kanu mamabak, nung e daratang itang pamangang payatad na. 

 Melaus na kami pauli karing kanakung pengari. King dane mi, mabilis mibalita ing mikyasawa naku. Balang kekaming daralanan, anak at matua, masaya la ngan lupa. I Sir mikyasawa na ya! Mikyasawa na ya! arang magsaya’t manabiba. Balang bale labasan mi, papalakpak at pepepe la. Abe ko, mikyasawa na ka pin pala! Tutu pala ing babalita ra at maragul ya pin pala ing arakap mung asawa, arang sasabi deta kekami akakasalubong.

Karas karin king bale mi, ikami rang selubung detang matulang kanakung pengari. Karela nang dimdam itang balita, balu da nang mikyasawa naku. Meniklaud kami karela at kinaul na yang inang ku ing abe kung asawa. Masaya la at ala kung dimdam nanu mang amanu karela. Detang kapatad kung atiyu kanita, kanaku lang pepakilala kaya. Matula da yang tinggap, at masaya lang mipagkuwentu. Tunggal-tunggal lang daratang detang kekaming kamaganak, siping bale ampon kakilala, at ilang sasalubung at magpakilala king kanakung asawa.

Detang likuan ming menese karin bale nang apu ku, ila nang dinatang at daralan itang karelang a lutu. Matula kaming minabak, masaya kaming pare-pareyu. Marakal ing pamangan uling detang kekami pupunta, magdala la mu namang pamangan miyaliwa-liwa.

 Kinabukasan, itang apu kung babai ketang tatang ku, a manuknangan pamu king pangulu, malagua yang dinulung king kekaming baryu, kabud kaya nang abalu, ing atin yang bayung apu. Marayu ya pa, susunga na yang mamaus, susyo kang tatang ku, at kaya nang ikukutang nung ing apu nang Rodrigo mekyasawa na ya kanu. Atna kaming katula kaya uling nanu ya pidala-dala. Meniklaud kami kaya at kayakit na king abe ku, kaya na yang penuma at kang Lolit tala-talanga ya. Katas na pin pala ning asawa nang Rodrigo, anang matulang mamanga. Masasawang ku kaya. Karagul na pin pala ing asagmit ning apu ku! ana pang masayang sasabi. Linual na king bayung itang darala na at pemilit mangan ing kanakung asawa.

Itang pangane kung kapatad manuknangan king Menila, iya mu namang minuli king baryu kayabe itang kayang asawa. Nung makanu itang tula detang aliwa, itang kaya anti mu naman kanita.

Detang aliwa kung disipulus a kanakung meging kaluguran, ilang dinatang mu naman at ilang sisigpo king tula pauli niting kanakung pamakyasawa. Matula ku karela, uling ila anti waring kapatad at wali ku na la.

Itang aldo Dumingu, ikaming sinimba at alang e makalawe king kanakung abe. Kaibat nitang misa, alang e gagalamu kanaku uling aku nang talasawa. Maluat kung tuturu baryu, inya ding tau mayap dakung balu, at king kekaming pisamban aktibu kung aktibu.

Bayu kami minuli keta kekami, patingapun kaming meniklaud karetang kekaming kamaganak aliwa pa. Balang kekaming darasan, atin lang yapag pamangan a labis nang ikakatula niting kakung asawa. Lubus nang isipan ing makayaliwang ugali ding taung kayang darasan, at munaman, ing leparan detang kanakung kamaganak. Pagtaka’na mu naman, at nung bakit balang bale kekaming ampitan, papadalan da yang nanu-nanu. Iti kanakung pepalino kaya, nung bakit ding Kapampangan Kababan anti kanita ing karelang panugali.

Itang benging dungut-dungut kaming mamangan ding pamilya ku, akung sinabi karela ing kekaming pamunta king Tarlac, kanita, itang kekaming kasal king pisamban, iyang kekaming pisabyan. Kekaming pisabi nung ninu ding tuki ampon nanu ing dala mi.

 Kabang mamangan kami, anang aganakang mengutang nitang babai kung wali: Koya, nuya mibait i ating? Nanu mo ing aus mu kaya ngening asawa mu naya? Nanu ing buri-buri nang kakanan? Nanu ing buri nang kule? Ninu reng buri nang magkanta? Nanung kanta ing buri-buri na?Nukarin ya megaral? Nanu ing aldo ning keyang beitan? Nanu la lagyu ding kekang katuangan? Pilan lang mikakapatad, nanung lagyu ra? Nanu ing lugal da Tarlac?

 Kabang mangutang ya itang kanakung wali, akung mimisip malalam nung nanu ing pakibat ku kaya. Aku yang lalawan i Lolit at akung mipapakayli king kanakung sarili. Ikaming adua, pusit-pusit ing kekaming ayli, uling king mipmung kamatutuanan, ala kung balung ipakibat…ala kung kamalayan… at ala kung kabalu-balu karetang ikukutang na nitang kakung wali.

Akung minamin karela:  Eku biyasang manula, inya ikayu nang manupaya. Ikayu na ing bala uling ala kung balu-balu karetang buri yung abalu. Arang agnan-agnan sinabi kanaku: Ay koya, obat makanyan kang mikyasawa, makatula kang tutu, ala ka kabalu-balu king kekang asawa!

 Malakas kaming meyli at karela kung sinabi: Talagang ala kung kabalu-balu, dapot, i ating yung Lolit iyang masanting nang regalu ning Apung Guinu kanaku, malagung regalu kapilan man, eku baren king mabilug bie ku…

 Manibat kanita, aldo-aldo… bengi-bengi… ala kung gewa nune tupad karetang kanakung pengaku king kanakung asawa. Alang penandit ing eke paglolon… susuyuan…luluguran… inya pin yata, king balang banua manganak ya!

Aduang pulung banua na ing milabas, at ing kanakung lugud keya, lalu pang lalam…lalu pang sasakdal…lalu pang babanal…lalu pang maging sagradu.

Nung makananu kung minuling talasawa, iyang kalam maluat kung penalangin king Apung Guinu. Milyari ya iting malagu kung pamakyasawa, pauli ning lugud ku Keya at lugud Na kanaku.











Neng Rodrigo M. Sicat


Mikit la misan aldo ding mikaluguran Tagalug ampon Kapampangan

Ketang lugal atin manyaman pipag-istoryan ausan dang “Eat All You Can”

Uling kasebyan lang alang “H” deting amanuan dang kapampangan

Apalsinta’nang ing kayang kaluguran testingan ne king kayang keynan


Ala yang kamala-malayan ing kaluguran ng Kapampangan keting kayang isipan

Anya, ing buri nang a-testing kening kayang ka-“brother” kaya na yang inumpisan

Makanyan man, bayu ya mengutang ing Tagalug, anang sinabi king keyang sarili

Tingnan ku nga kung papaano ka mag-pronounce  ng “h” sa itatanong ko sa  iyo


Anang megumpisa at ana king pamanagalug na

O bro, ano ba ang bahay sa English sa mga kapampangan?

Aba, balamu mu mo buri na kung pakirakpan, ana ning kukutnan

Ana namang mekibat: anong klaseng bahay ang gusto mo “malaki o maliit?”


Kapag malaki “mansion” at kapag maliit “dwelling o kaya shelter”

Ing mangutang Tagalug mengamus yang buntuk atnang sinabi

Bakit hindi “house” ang sinagot niya, “di ba ‘yon ang  tamang sagot, ana king sarili

Tingnan ku nga ulit kung hindi lilitaw ang pagka-walang “h” nito, ana!


O bro, hindi ba kapag dry season, dinidiligan ang mga halaman

Gamit ang mahabang pandugtong upang maging daluyan ito ng tubig patungo sa mga halaman

Ano ba sa English ang tawag dito ng mga Kapampangan?

Ay, iyon ba? Ang tawag doon ay “plastic tube” o kaya, “water sprinkler”, ana ning kukutnan


Ngek! ana king lub ning mangutang, bakit hindi “hose” ang kanyang kasagutan

Bro, ana na namang ating buring ikutang

“Hindi ba ang tawag sa daan sa baryo ay barangay road, sa probinsya “provincial road”

Ano naman ang tawag sa English sa national road?

E di “Expressway”, anang mekibat mayli ning kitnanan


Ngek! Ana na naman ginamus buntuk ning Tagalug

At anang sasabi king kayang sarili: hindi ba “highway” dapat ang sagot niya,

Magtatanong pa ako ng isa para mahuli ko ang pagka-wala ng “h” niya

O bro, ano ba ang tawag sa English sa paboritong pagkaing karne ng pamilya

Na ang lasa ay manamis namis at tuwing Pasko at New Year ay naka-serve sa mesa?


Ah, masarap iyon di ba, anang mekibat ning Kapampangan

Hindi ba bino-boil pa ‘yon sa pineapple juice at 7 up ne, ana

“Di ba pinapalaman pa ‘yon sa sandwich na pan ne”, ana pa!

Ang tawag doon ay “sweetened pork thigh”, ana kaya!


Ngek! hindi ba “ham” ang tawag doon, anang mipakama ning Tagalug

Ah, old name pa ang binanggit mo, new nomenclature ‘yon, ana ning Kapampangan

Ano naman sa English ang “butas” na pinagtataguan ng mga daga at ahas

E di “burrow” kapag small at “tunnel” kapag big   


Eh, ang inang manok naman, e di “mother chicken”

Eh, ang kabayo naman, e di “stallion” kapag lalaki at “mare” kapag female

Eh, ang bayani, e di “patriot” o kaya kapag sublime “nationalist”

Eh, ang buhok, e di….”wig” o kaya kung gusto mo “toupee”


Ana ning Tagalug king lub na

Bakit angyang makananu, eke atuag a dila ini

Ana na naman ning Kapampangan keng darakap kaya

Bala mu mo siguru ne?

Angyang nanu mu, emu ku agisan perminanti!



Bakit ala lang “H” ding dila tamung Kapampanmgan?



Alang letter “H” keng matuang Sanskrit. Manga-intuliran ing matua neng matua ing salita tamu kawangis ning salitang Ilokano mu naman. Keng isip ku, ing Tagalug indu ne ing Kapampangan at iti menga-ilon yang makapal “h” menibat keng kulturang Intsik.



Migit matua ing kulturang Austronesian a minunang mitanam king kamalayan tamu kesa kareng Intsik mekipangalakal kekatamu. Ing kamalayang Kapampangan misapwak ya king impluwensya ning Austronesial linkages.




A Son’s Reply To His Parent’s Wish

A Son’s Reply to His Parents’ Wish

By Rodrigo M. Sicat 

Dearest mother and father,

I am very glad and thankful 
That your letter reached me with great delight
With my wife and your grandchildren
We preciously opened it with excitement

As we started reading it
Our hearts stilled in tranquility
Our eyes swelled with deep somber
Our minds clouded with either innocence or guilt

Without them going through the whole letter
They were touched and left me alone to read it all personal
I too was stiffed and unmoved, reclined my back to the chair
And began to read it again with empathy and longing

I read and kept reading it several times
After a while, it gently brought back
The affectionate memories of my childhood
That reminded me of your kindness and yearnings

Mother, how can I forget hiding under the bed during summer?
I remember how you excruciatingly ran and restrained my irascibility
And then hauled me off the dark dusty area,
Bath my stinking odor and soily skin which I refused because of my fear of getting fever

As I grew up, I can never forget my enjoyment over the cold rainy days
Ah, the water stepping down the gutter excited me to play and soak in laughter
Peeping through the window, you angrily yelled at me with my brothers for our hardheadedness
And scolded us that we get ill or even rushed by rippling torrents

When I got sick, you are always there to take care of me and stay until I am asleep
When I cried in pain, you are always there to cradle me in your bosom, saying it is okay
In my helplessness, you brooded with your arms to regain my warmth and strength
In my powerlessness, you comforted with your wisdom to restore my vigor and ardor

You sewed my clothes unwearyingly when I was in the elementary school
You washed and ironed out my uniforms uncomplainingly during my high school
I saw you cry and weep in secret when you failed to send me to study in college
I knew the pains of your hearts because you were too sorry over our poverty

Mother, despite that, I saw your sternness in your determination
You consoled my tears to pursue my dream to earn a college degree
You pushed me hard to be shoved the hardest to keep me moving and kicking
We worked together in dreams to reach the impossible dream

You taught me how to strive and survive to muster the best of my nature
You taught me to fly and soar to discover the beauty of the world
You taught me to be agile and flexible to share my gains to others
You taught me to be little and empty to dwell in the city of the Almighty

Father, how can I forget your painstaking efforts to provide my needs?
You did not give us much, but you did your best in your most humble way
I know how you made yourself an occasional worker in many ways:
A farmer, fisherman, carpenter, mason, vendor, an overseas contract worker and more

You helped me appreciate the menial chores that you did dutifully
But never encouraged me to muster them because of their difficulty
Instead, you inspired me to study diligently and sacrificingly
To make my future family live in convenience without intricacy

I seriously took your words with reverence and solemnity
I wholeheartedly cherished them with pledge and gallantry
Which is why, even when tossed into the ground, I stood toughly
In order to vanquish the desolations with infinity

You taught me survival and autonomy
And to chart my destiny independently
I crossed the challenging journeys without honey
And bravely fought the battles with laurels wittingly

Mother, I feel your kindness whenever I see elders around me
Saying “hello” to them is like saying “hello” to you too
Sharing to them my gladness is sharing the same to you
Seeing my wife keeping the house chores is like seeing your youth also

Father, every night as I lay in bed
I am always thinking of you and mother
I understand your worries and wishes
I always keep praying for your peace and safety

How I wish I can do your wishes as frequently so
But the circumstance of time does not allow me too
Remember when we were little kids all seated in the low dining table
Leading us to prayers, each one of you then, patiently attended us with loving care    

I always remember your counsel to entreat my family dutifully
Which is why, I deal your wisdom with great responsibility
I work hard not only for you to be proud of me but also for my family
As you oftentimes said: “We find our success if you succeeded in your family only.”

Father, mother – there is nothing that I do not treasure about your greatness
I loved every moment that you spent for my happiness
There is nothing that were lost about the past memories
Because we share them too to your grandchildren with fondness

God knows the kindness and sublimity of your hearts
He will soothe your wishes and dreams
He will comfort your yearnings and pinings
He will embrace you closer to His loving arms

To God, I shall pray this for you:

Lord, you know all our parents’ sacrifices
That molded us today in Your fold
I thank You for choosing them as our parents
I thank You for making them as good grandparents too

Lord our Father
How can I thank them for what we are today
How can I repay the holiness of their hearts
How can I forget that without them, I won’t be here

Lord my God
It is only You who can reward the race they run for me
Adorn them with Your crown of glory
That they fittingly deserve until eternity

In my constant absence with them, O Lord
Embrace Your caring arms to cradle their fragile bodies
Warm them with Your armor of amour
To be protected from harm and jeopardy

As they taught me to love You dearly Lord
I love them in greater as I love You the Most
This I pray in the sweetest Name of Jesus Christ our Lord and Savior

Compassionately yours,

Me and my siblings

Post Script

I had your letter read by my brothers and sisters via email
They will join us in coming home this Christmas
To spend great vacation with you until New Year
Your grandchildren with their children will come home too
Because they are enormously excited to listen to your great stories also

I love you, mother and father

God bless you always


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